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CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

The Birmingham district...

Industrial history...

Obstacles and inducements to immigration

Households studied ..

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured...

Employees for whom information was secured...

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

Present immigrant population of the Birmingham district ..

History of immigration to the Birmingham district..

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households....

Racial classification of employees at the present time.

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..

General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied.

General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied.

Weekly earnings..

Relation between period of residence and earning ability

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied.

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Annual family income..

Wives at work..

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers.

Sources of family income.

Relative importance of different sources of family income.

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Methods of wage payments.

Regularity of employment

Company houses and industrial communities.

The company-store system..

Relations between employees.

Social association...

Welfare work by the employers.

The immigrant and organized labor.

Labor disputes..

CHAPTER V.- Industrial progress and efficiency:

Industrial progress of the several races.

General efficiency, by races

Order of preference, by races

CHAPTER VI.-General cost and standard of living:

Explanation of study .....

Summary statement relative to representative households.

Representative household expenditures for food and general living pur-

poses ....

Retail prices of food

PART III.—THE IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE WEST.

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PART III.—THE IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN

THE MIDDLE WEST.

GENERAL SURVEY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Territory covered by the investigation-Method of presenting data-Employees for

whom information was secured—[Text Table 555 and General Table 312].

TERRITORY COVERED BY THE INVESTIGATION.

The term "Middle West,” for the purposes of this section of the study of immigrants in the iron and steel industry, is used to designate the territory north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers and south of the Great Lakes, including the States of Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and all of Ohio except the eastern part embraced in the study of the Pittsburg district.

METHOD OF PRESENTING DATA.

Households of immigrant iron and steel workers were studied and are presented along with other detailed material in connection with Community D, a representative iron and steel manufacturing community of the Middle West of recent growth, and in which immigrants from southern and eastern Europe have found employment in large numbers. Detailed information was also secured for more than 12,000 employees of blast furnaces and iron and steel establishments located in all parts of the Middle West, and the present section of the

report sets forth in a summary way the salient facts as regards these iron and steel workers. The number for whom information was received is large enough to be considered representative, and the facts and tendencies exhibited by the succeeding tabulations are thought to be typical of conditions in the Middle West.

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