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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States,

Weekly earnings Relation between period of residence and earning ability, [Text Tables 565 to 569 and General Tábles 314 to 316).

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The principal occupations while abroad of the iron and steel workers of foreign bírth employed in the establishments of the Middle West are exhibited in the following table, which shows, by race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States: TABLE 565.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The table shows that only 9.8 per cent of the 6,970 employees reporting were employed in the manufacturing of iron and steel and its products before coming to the United States, and only 2.8 per cent were engaged in other manufacturing. On the other hand, 62.5 per cent were farming or were farm laborers and 10.5 per cent were general laborers. A small proportion, 6.5 per cent, were in hand trades, 1.3 per cent were in trade, and 6.6 per cent were in other occupations.

A large proportion of the Welsh, or 87.5 per cent, were engaged in the manufacture of iron and steel before coming to this country, and 58.7 per cent of the English were also employed in this industry before leaving Europe. The Swedes and Germans show the next largest proportion, but the percentage in each instance is small when compared with the first-mentioned races. The Slovaks and Croatians show slightly over 2 per cent and North Italians only 1.1 per cent who had had any previous experience in their present occupations.

The Germans, Swedes, English, Irish, and Finns show the highest percents having been engaged in other manufacturing; no Servians were formerly thus employed. The Croatians show 86.3 per cent who were farming or were farm laborers before coming to the United States. They are closely followed by the Servians. Then come the Slovaks, Lithuanians, Finns, Magyars, Slovenians, Poles, Russians, and Irish, in the order named. The English show only 5.8 per cent and Welsh 1 per cent who were engaged in this occupation before coming to this country. The North Italians report the highest percentage who were general laborers, and the Croatians and Welsh show but very small proportions thus employed. The North Italians show the highest percentage in hand trades and the Welsh the lowest. The English and Germans report over 3 per cent, and the Lithuanians, Croatians, Irish, Slovaks, Magyars, and Poles less than 1 per cent, who were in trade before coming to the United States. The Swedes show 22.6 per cent and the English 14.2 per cent who were formerly engaged in other occupations, as contrasted with less than 10 per cent of any of the other races who were thus employed. No Servíans were employed in other occupations.

WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees in the Middle West who were 18 years of age or over and who were earning each specified amount weekly: Table 566. —Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

General nativity and

race.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week.
Number Average
reporting earnings
complete per

$12.50
$17.50

$22.50
$7.50 or $10 or

$15 or
$20 or

$25 or data. week.

or
or

or
over. over.

over.
over.

over.
over.
over.

over.

Native-born of native father, White

1, 707

$16.84 99.6 85.8 70.5 57.7 36.3 25.7 17.1 14.1 Native-born of foreign

father, by country of birth of father: England.

17 18. SO 98.9 9.4 77.7 63.7 47.5 .3 24.0 18.4 Germany. 692 16. 44 98.8 90.6 73.0 57.4 35. 1 21.0 12.3

9.0 Ireland.

253
18. 33

99.2 90. 1 77.9 66.8 46.2 27.7 20.2 15.8 Sweden. 87 15.75 96.6 92.0 80.5 58.6

31.0
14.9

8.0 2.3 Foreign-born, by race: Croatian. 520 12.09 97.9 78.8 39.4

12.5 3.7 1.3 .6 .0 English.

279

21. 24 100.0 96.1 88.5 78.9 57.7 41.9 31.2 26,2 Finnish. 148 15.30 100.0 93.2 77.0 62.2 20.9 6.1

.0 German.

972 15. 39 99.6 87.1 65.3 48.3 29.3 14.9 7.9 4.7 Irish.. 253 18. 49 | 100.0

74.7

56.5 43.9 34.4 28. 1 19.8 *This table shows wages and earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

| 92.5

Table 566.Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race-Continued.

Per cent earning each specified amount per week. Number Average General nativity and reporting earnings race. complete per

$12.50

$17.50
$7.50 or $10 or
data.

$15 or

$20 or
$22.50

$25 or week.

or
or

or
over. over.

over.

over. over.

over. over

over.

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Of the male employees 18 years of age or over for whom information was secured almost all earn $7.50 or over per week; 87.8 per cent earn $10 or over; 63.9 per cent $12.50 or over, and 40.3 per cent earn $15 or over. On the other hand, only 14.4 per cent earn $20 or more, 9.7 per cent $22.50 or over, and 7.1 per cent $25 or over each week. The proportion of employees earning $10 or over per week is largest for those native-born of foreign father, second largest for the foreignborn employees, and smallest for those native-born of native father. The proportion of employees earning $17.50 or over each week is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the native-born of native father, and smallest for the foreign-born, while the proportion earning $15 or over, $20 or over, $22.50 or over, and $25 or over per week, respectively, is largest for the native-born of native father, is second in rank for the native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born. In the case of the foreign-born the employees of the races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe have, in general, a larger proportion of individuals earning each of the sums specified than have the employees of the races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe. The distinction between these two groups of employees is particularly noticeable in the columns representing the higher earnings.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age who were earning each specified amount per week.

Table 567.Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the male employees 14 and under 18 years of age for whom information was secured almost all earn $5 or over a week, 76.6 per cent earn $7.50 or over, and 24 per cent $10 or over, while only 5.1 per cent $12.50 or over, and 2.3 per cent $15 or more.

The proportion of employees earning $7.50 or over and $10 or over weekly, respectively, is largest for the native-born employees of native father, second largest for those who were native-born of foreign father, and smallest for the foreign-born. None of the foreign-born, and a considerably smaller proportion of the native-born iron and steel workers of foreign father than of the native-born of native father earn $12.50 or over and $15 or over each week.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The table next presented includes the same data as Table 566, but presents it in a different form. In this table the proportions of each residence period are grouped under the several races in order to render possible a study of the progress of each race without direct comparison with other races.

Table 568.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each

specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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Croatian:

Cader 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over. English:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Gerinan:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Irish:

Under 5.. 5 to 9...

10 or over.. Magyar:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Polish:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Russian:

Under 5. 5 to 9..

10 or over.. Slovak:

Under 5.. 5 to 9..

10 or over. Slovenian:

Under 5.. 5 to 9.

10 or over.. Swedish:

Under 5. 5 to 9. 10 or over.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

It will be noted from the data presented in the preceding table that the increase with length of residence is more uniform with the races of recent immigration included in the table—the Croatians, Magyars, Poles, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians--and with the Germans and Swedes than with the English and Irish. In the case of the English, a larger proportion of individuals who have been in the United States under five years than of the individuals who have been here from five to nine years are reported as earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, and $17.50 or over, per week, respectively.

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