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IMMIGRANTS IN INDUSTRIES.

IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING (IN TWO VOLUMES).

This report, which was prepared under the direction of the Commission by W.
Jett Lauck, superintendent of agents, forms part of the general report of the
Immigration Commission on immigrants in industries.

CONTENTS.

PART 1.- GENERAL SURVEY OF THE IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTUR-

ING INDUSTRY.

CHAPTER 1.-Introduction:

Page.

The recent expansion of the iron and steel industry...

3

Increase in the number of iron and steel workers..

Definition of the iron and steel industry for the purposes of the investiga-

tion.....

6

Geographical areas studied

6

Households studied.....

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

9

Employees for whom information was secured..

13

Comparative scope of investigation..

18

Method of presenting data collected.

19

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration..

21

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households......

23

Racial classification of employees at the present time..

32

CHAPTER III.-Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied. 37

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...

41

General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied. 45

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied. 46

Status of the first and second generations compared......

47

Weekly earnings....

48

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.

54

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied..

58

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied. 63

Annual family income.

67

Wives at work..

70

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied. 73

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers..

Sources of family income

80

Relative importance of different sources of family income.

84

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Regularity of employment...

87

The immigrant and organized labor...

90

CHAPTER V.-Housing and living conditions:

Rent in its relation to standard of living.

95

Boarders and lodgers..

104

Size of apartments occupied.

110

Size of households studied.

113

Congestion.....

115

CHAPTER VI.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy..

131

Conjugal condition..

139

Visits abroad..

152

Age classification of employees and members of their households.

155

CHAPTER VII.-General progress and assimilation:

Ownership of homes..

161

Status of children in the households studied.

164

Citizenship......

167

Ability to speak English.

176

CHAPTER 1.-Introduction:

The territory studied...

Industrial significance of the district..

Households studied.

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

Employees for whom information was secured.....

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

History of immigration to the Pittsburg district.....

History of immigration to representative communities.

History of immigration to representative iron and steel establishments.

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households....

Racial classification of employees at the present time.

Methods employed to secure immigrant labor......

CHAPTER III.- Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States..

General occupation of women at the present time, in the householdsstudied.

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.

Status of the first and second generations compared...

Weekly earnings...

Relation between period of residence and earning ability.

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied.

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied..

Annual family income...

Wives at work....

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers.

Sources of family income..

Relative importance of the different sources of family income.

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours worked per day and per week..

Regularity of work..

The immigrant and organized labor.

Reasons for the employment of immigrants.

277

277

278

279

Page.

COMMUNITY A.

CHAPTER I.-Introduction:

Industrial significance of the community..

Inducements and obstacles to immigration..

Methods of securing immigrant labor..

Reasons for the immigration of the several races to the United States and

to the community...

Households studied..

Members of households for whom detailed information was secured.

Employees for whom information was secured..

CHAPTER II.-Racial displacements:

Industrial history of the community...

History of immigration to the community.

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and

members of their households.....

Racial composition of the present population..

Racial classificationof employees at the present time..

CHAPTER III.-- Economic status:

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied..

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United

States...

General occupation of women at the present time, in the households

studied...

General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied.

Occupations entered by immigrants..

Rates of pay:

Weekly earnings

Range of earnings of steel company No. 1 for the pay period June 1-15,

1907....

Annual earnings of male heads of families studied

Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied.

Annual family income..

Wives at work.

Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households

studied..

Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of

keeping boarders or lodgers.....

Sources of family income...

Relative importance of different sources of family income.

370

372

374

CHAPTER IV.-Working conditions:

Hours worked per day and per

week.

Frequency and methods of wage payments.

Regularity of employment.

Sanitary conditions in the plants..

Liability to accident or disease..

The company-store system....

Welfare work.....

Relation between the different races employed..

Local prejudice...

The immigrant and organized labor..

Reasons for employing immigrants.

CHAPTER V.--Industrial progress and efficiency:

Relation between earning ability of foreign-born employees and period of

residence in the United States..

Relation between earning ability and the time which employees have

worked for a representative steel company...

Opinions of employers as to progress of immigrant employees

Races of immigrant labor preferred by employers...

Employers' statements as to the efficiency of immigrant industrial workers.

CHAPTER VI.-Housing and living conditions:

General housing and living conditions..

Housing conditions as affected by assimilation.

Obedience to municipal regulations relative to housing.

Rent in its relation to standard of living...

Boarders and lodgers.....

Size of apartments and households.

Congestion.

CHAPTER VII.-Salient characteristics:

Literacy.

Conjugal condition.

Visits abroad....

Age classification of employees and members of their households

Criminality..

Charity.

CHAPTER VIII.—The recent immigrant and the public health:

Diseases peculiar to immigrant races..

Vitality of aliens....

Aliens as inmates of hospitals...

Obedience to municipal health regulations..

The native and the foreign death rate..

CHAPTER IX.-Industrial effects of recent immigration:

Industries established by immigrants....

Changes in industrial methods and organization.

Effect of employment of immigrants upon wages...

CHAPTER X.-Immigrant institutions:

Immigrant churches...

Work of native churches and religious organizations among immigrants.

Immigrants in business.

Immigrant employers..

Immigrant banks and steamship agencies.

The immigrant press....

Immigrants in the professions.

Fraternal and other organizations...

CHAPTER XI.-General progress and assimilation:

General progress of recent immigrants...

General tendencies toward assimilation.

Investments...

Money sent abroad.

Ownership of homes.

School attendance..

Citizenship....

Immigrants as citizens.

Ability to speak English

453

455

457

462

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