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the Dominion required the nursing of such ernment would doubtless be a gainer, inasincidental protection as our moderate reve- much as, notwithstanding their higher tariff, nue tariff affords. We believe it is a fact the people of the United States are per capita that on recent negotiations for the renewal greater importers of British and other foreign of the late Reciprocity Treaty, the propriety goods than are the people of Canada. This of adding certain manufactures to the free system would have the advantage to us of list was discussed and admitted; it is the enlarging our field as carriers. The propoprinciple of free trade as far as now com- sition as it might affect our relation with the monly adopted by Great Britain and her Empire would, of course, require and recolonies, and it is highly probable that the ceive the cousideration of the Imperial Govmajority of our manufacturers would hail in ernment, and we shall presently refer to the the proposed change that extension of mar- course that Government has of late years kets and customers the present want of persistently indicated for our adoption, and which is their greatest want, and it is certain in that light think the difficulty would not that in this number would be found those be found insuperable. conducting the best established and most 3rd. “ The admission of Dominion built successful manufactures, thus giving the ships and vessels to American registry, enbest proof of being congenial to the soil. rolment and license, and to all the privileges
2nd. “Uniform laws to be passed by both of the coasting and foreign trade.” This countries for the imposition of duties on change has been long desired by every vesimports, and for internal taxation ; the sums sel-owner in Canada, and would be an un collected from these sources to be placed in mixed advantage to this important branch of a common treasury, and to be divided be- industry and enterprise. tween the two Governments by a per capita 4th. “The Dominion to enlarge its canals or some other equally fair ratio.” This is a and improve the navigation of the St. Lawcomprehensive proposal, and in the present rence, and to aid in the building of any great disparity between the Canadian tariff great lines of international railroad, and to and that of the United States seems rather place the citizens of the United States in like going backwards, and it seems (if enter the same position as to the use of such tained) likely to conflict with our relations works as enjoyed by the citizens of the to Great Britain. These difficulties should Dominion ; the United States and the sevenot, however, put the proposition out of ral States giving the citizens of the Dominion court if there be any good in its train, or if the same rights and privileges over works of it be firmly held on the other side. The the same character in the United States." Americans state in its favour that they pro- These works would simply be all in our own pose to reduce their tariff, as their debt is interest—the first to enable us to derive the being reduced ; on our side we are unfortu- fullest benefit from our great water-way; the nately in the reverse of their situation in the second, to aid in the fullest development of matter of debt-and possibly this may be
our vocation as carriers between the overthe readiest solution of the question how we peopled Eastern world and the vast fields of are to pay our debt, or the interest now yearly the West, now being so rapidly occupied increasing in alarming proportions. In the and made productive. The chain of lake manner of collecting a great economy would and river navigation united and made one be effected; and the removal of custom by our system of canals is only to be equalhouses from all the long border would remove led in completeness and efficiency by a raila cause of daily annoyance and infinite ill- way system extending in a direct line feeling. In the matter of division our Gov- through the central fields of the Dominion to Sault Ste. Marie and there connecting for the loss of the American market; any with the route of the Northern Pacific Rail- one who has lived in Canada since before way, now in course of construction, and 1854 can tell what a great impetus forward forming the shortest and most favourably situ- was given to its trade and productiveness ated with reference to climatic influence and during the existence of the treaty, and it is the productive character of the country tra- fair to say that impulse has not yet been all versed, of any that has yet been projected; lost ; indeed a glance at the present state of forming the shortest and most practical the country with its increase of manufactures route to our new fields of Manitoba and the and its wealth of banking capital and bank Saskatchewan Valley, and possessing all deposits will shew that the progress has been these advantages for the two nations. This continuous; but, along with some that are proposition reminds us how often it has been permanent, we are happy to say, there are proposed from the Canadian side to offer the temporary causes (that ought to be made enlargement of the canals as an equivalent permanent) patent on the surface to account for reciprocal free trade in natural produc- for much of this continued prosperity during tions; such enlargement would no doubt the last half-dozen years ; chief of these is be of further advantage, as their use in their the state of depletion in labour and in every present condition is a great advantage to product of labour, and in domestic animals the citizens of the United States, but the (of which we have been large exporters) in work is not a fair counter in negotiation, for which the United States were left at the it is a necessity for ourselves and for our own close of the civil war, and to these is to be use, and since the last agitation of the ques- added our very large exportation of lumber, tion in Parliament it is admitted by every for the accomplishment of which it is loudly man in Canada that not a day should be complained by parties most intimately aclost in going on with the improvement. quainted with the matter, that we have been
Having referred briefly to the proposi- adopting the process of killing the goose tions of the National Board of Trade, which that hatched the golden eggs. Again, promay be assumed to be the views of a body gress in negotiation has been retarded by a well advanced in commercial questions, and class of economists on our side, as there are being satisfied that they are at least not out many in the United States, who maintain of the question, let us look at the matter as that the cure for any and every ill that falls one of material equivalents, as it has been upon the economic body is to get well behind treated, and so far defeated, by the Govern- a Chinese wall, and the cry breaks upon us, ments of the two countries—and we may made more shrill by a ring of thoughtless remark it has been treated in rather a huck- applause, from the wheat and barley fields stering spirit, as a question whether certain of Ontario and Quebec, “Canada for the commodities growing on the one side, Canadians” as does from the iron and coal beeves and barley for instance, were more fields of Pennsylvania and Ohio “ America necessary to the party of the other side than for the Americans ;” but we maintain that Yankee notions and agricultural implements we have outgrown these bonds, and can no to the party of the hither side-a form in
more go back than we can re-form ourselves which the controversy might be prolonged into deer-skin moccasins and homespun, and indefinitely. It has been said on our side wooden ploughs and log-huts—we are upon that we have found many new ways of trade another march of improvement, and we since the abrogation of the Reciprocity think the road is firm and broad enough to Treaty, and have so indemnified ourselves carry us forwards. Leaving, then, behind
these mere counters of exchange, let us rise and feel to be our own—whose life flows to the higher level of the question as one with us and within us. involving not merely the material prosperity It is for the men of Ontario, who read and but the good neighbourship of two nations reflect, to take the lead in this development whose concerns and interests lie alongside of national life, and to prove in response to of and interlace each other from the Gulf of the suggestions of British statesmen, and in St. Lawrence to the Pacific Ocean ; and let assertion of their own manhood and worth, us remember that the future of the Domin that they possess capacities for self-governion even more than that of the United ment and social improvement.
The States is dependent upon a fair adjustment, annual meeting of the Dominion Board because it is the weaker body of the two of Trade took place at Ottawa, as inand any disturbing element more nearly timated above Very little, however, OCtouches its heart. This question of com- curred at the meeting to affect the situation mercial relations is vital to the equanimity or to change our view of it. The course of of the two nations because every man along debate on the question of conference with the long line who is concerned with trade or the National Board of Trade with a view to industry (and that is in these countries further consideration of, and forwarding, the nearly everybody) is touched by it. Its set-object proposed by that Board—“freedom tlement upon a fair and permanent basis of trade with the Dominion"—has not proved would of course make easier the much our commercial men to be in the more forneeded establishment upon a permanent ward condition to be expected of pupils of basis of our own system of government, for, the British school of trade. The apparent with perfect freedom of trade, the people on approval of the meeting of such sentiments either side could afford to look complacent- as that "it was the determination of Canada ly and with interest upon the efforts and to live separate and work out its own desprogress of their neighbours in the direction tiny" was hardly redeemed by the added of self-government, and hope may be enter- qualification “ living on friendly terms with tained of new progress in this so difficult the United States," when the subject directly science, where so much remains to be per- in question was simply that of commercial fected, and in which the example and ex- relations; and the statement of another perience of England and of the United speaker that the repeal of the Reciprocity States, confessedly imperfect in their attain- Treaty had been of great advantage "to the ments, shew us something to be avoided as Canadians, because it had made them rely well as much to be imitated.
on themselves to open up roads to the seaThe kindly suggestions that have occa- ports in the east, and push on to the west sionally been made to us of late years by through what would be the finest part of British statesmen, pointing to the entire Canada," seems, if true, in fact as to such control of our own affairs, have, we think, development, which we think is open to foreshadowed the necessity of home treat- question, much like affirming the advantage ment of our relations with our nearest neigh- of losing an eye or an ear in order to stimubours, and have been intended to prove the late the cultivation of the remaining organs. readiness of the Imperial Government to The several quotations of astounding figures, assist us to get on our legs, and to conduct results of experience of individuals or as a the negotiation for ourselves, and, in short, collective quantity to the nation shew how to lift us from the pupilage of colonists to such statements may mislead if adopted as the ambition of patriots, to a national life proof of the separate growth of our trade, every throb of whose pulse we shall feel, 'when they actually result in great measure from the trade drawn from the grain fields ein” it is satisfactory to notice that the of the Western States in spite of separation Board decided to go on with the conference. in a measure, and go to prove only the su
- To conclude : It is evident that we are periority of our great water-way as the high- but in the infancy of progress in the way way of the continent. The “Zollverein" | indicated by the general name of " freedom appeared to be a bête noire, deeply charged, of trade,” opening as it does to our future as many thought, with a venom of disloyalty, a community of interest and feeling wide as and chiefly dangerous as pointing to “an- the world. It is the leading step, as the innexation.” We continue to think, on the tercourse of trade is always foremost, in other hand, that allaying this spirit of trade drawing men and nations together, to stimuwould rid us of the chief disturbing element; late enquiry, to elicit what is good, and reand in this age when reason is claiming and ject what is defective, in every department establishing, as a necessity of truth and of knowledge. Now that the subject is progress, the right to discuss every form and opened, there cannot long remain a doubt shade of opinion in the wide fields of reli- of the advantages to accrue from the widest gion and philosophy, we maintain that our opening of the highway between ourselves national virtue is in no danger from the free and our neighbour who possesses a landiscussion of so simple a subject. Notwith-guage, laws, religion and habits as well as standing, however, the ban upon “ Zollver- industrial pursuits similar to our own.
ET older nations proudly praise the emblems of their fame,
That sounding down thro' ages long have won immortal name;
Old Erin's Shamrock, England's Rose, and Scotia's Thistle green,
But there's another Emblem yet, dearer to us than all,
It breathes no tale of ancient feuds, betrays no barren soil,
Then while we prize, with children's love, the Shamrock and the Rose,
With graceful leaf, the Emblem chief, of Canada the Free.
THE POETRY OF MATTHEW ARNOLD.
BY WILLIAM D. LE SUEUR, B.A.
R. Arnold is more widely known, and as a poet. His thoughts are too remote
probably attracts more interest, as a from those of every-day life, and of the avercritic than as a poet; and yet, I confess, for age of readers, to excite a wide enthusiasm, my own part, to feeling more indebted to or even to be very generally intelligible.. him for his poetry than his criticism. In the Moreover, the form in which he has chosen former, I cannot help thinking, he is more to cast a considerable portion of his poetry original than in the latter. As a critic he repels those readers-and they are manycontinually reminds us of Ste. Beuve, to who resent the employment by a writer whose school he may not unfairly be said to of any garb they do not recognize at belong. As a poet he does not very dis- once as modern, national and familiar. A tinctly remind us of any one, with the ex- writer with whom they cannot at once feel ception of the ancient Greek poets, whom it perfectly at home they turn from with an is no diminishing of any one's originality to angry impatience. He may give them vigimitate. It says something for the strength orous thoughts and beautiful images, but all and independence of Mr. Arnold's poetic is of no avail to win their favour if his acgenius that he should have escaped, as com cent is either archaic or foreign. People of pletely as he has done, the influence—so ir- this kind Mr. Arnold is sure to offend. His resistible to many contemporary writers—of admirers will be, on the one hand, those who Tennyson. Mr. Arnold's first publication in find the forms he has chosen appropriate verse appeared, if I mistake not, in 1849, and pleasing; and, on the other, those whose the year which gave “In Memoriam” to the intellectual sympathy with him is so strong world. Tennyson at that time was the rising that the presence of certain elements they star in the world of poetry, to whom nearly do not quite understand is no bar to their all
younger writers were paying the homage enjoyment of the substance of what he has of more or less conscious imitation. The written. only models, however, which Mr. Arnold ap- In thinking of Mr. Arnold I have often pears to have set before him were, as I have been reminded of a well-known passage in already hinted, those to whom the world Horace's Art of Poetry :has been doing reverence for two thousand years, and whose immortal productions no
“ Natura fieret laudabile carmen, an arte, lapse of time can rob of their charm.
Quaesitum est : ego nec studium sine divite vena, The “New Poems ” published by Mr.
Nec rude quid possit video ingenium ; alterius sic
Altera possit opem res et conjurat amice.” (408–11.); Amold some five or six years ago have taken an altogether higher rank in general estima- The careful elaboration which has been tion than his earlier productions. The latter bestowed upon his poems is evident at a indeed have for some years past been but glance ; but not less evident to the careful little seen or heard of; the “ New Poems," and appreciative reader are the signs of delion the contrary, have been received with a cate poetic sensibility, liveliness of fancy degree of favour which almost amounts to and warmth of moral emotion ; and here we " popularity." Popular, in a wide sense of have the substantial basis of Mr. Arnold's the word, Mr. Arnold never can be, at least, poetical talent, the dives vena, without which