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possible under the old mechanical methods. In woodcutting, as in photo-engraving, every thing that is to appear white in the design is cut away, while the black and gray lines are left in relief. It is not easy to make a comparison in regard to the relative expense of the two methods, because this greatly depends upon the character of the design from which an illustration is to be made. With the photo-plate it is of little consequence how great the detail of the drawing may be so long as this appears in plain black and white lines. In the wood-cut, however, the expense is entirely dependent upon this matter of detail, an intricate design of three inches square costing perhaps more than another of three times the size but of more open character.

Photo-lithographic and Heliotype processes both produce somewhat the effect of a photograph, and for a certain class of illustration their use may be advantageous. The objection to them, however, is that they must be printed separately and not with the text of the book, and the expense of producing them is thus considerable, while the cost of binding is increased by the necessity of pasting in separate sheets of illustrations. The use of these methods can only, as a rule, be recommended for books of limited. editions.

Lithograph. In lithography the illustration is engraved and printed upon stone. For the finer description of medical plates, and for colored designs of fruits, flowers, and foliage, this method is most effective. The printing is, however, very slow and expensive work, as the sheet has to pass through the press separately for each color.

Copper and Steel Plate.-Books illustrated by means of etchings on copper present, if the work be artistically done, the most thoroughly satisfactory method of producing the tone and feeling of the artist's design. In etching the copper

wax.

plate is covered with a coating of thick, prepared varnish or The surface being now smoked, the artist draws his design upon the blackened surface, after which the lines are cut through the varnish with a sharp-pointed instrument. The plate is then covered with acid, which eats away the copper where the lines are drawn through the wax, leaving the rest of the plate intact. Aside from the drawing, much here depends, in the result, upon the good judgment of the artist in the length of time he permits the acid to act; if the action is too long the plate may be entirely ruined.

The cost of making the Steel Plate is much greater than that of the etching, the design in this case being cut upon the steel with great labor and care with a tool called the graver. This is the most expensive method of making a book illustration, and is now rarely used except for portraits.

Both the etching and steel-engraving require much time to print, and are thus expensive for ordinary book-illustrating purposes. Moreover the same objection exists as to their use as with the photo-lithographic engraving—the printing having to be done by a separate process, and not with the text of the book.

Works for Readers and Buyers of Books.

17th 1000.

etc.

THE BEST READING. A CLASSIFIED AND PRICED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR EASY REFERENCE. With Hints on the Selection of Books, the Formation of Libraries, on Courses of Reading, First Series, covering English and American Publications prior to 1877. Seventeenth Edition, entirely rewritten, and brought down to August, 1877, with the addition of priced lists of the best books in French, German, Spanish and Italian Literature. Edited by F. B. PERKINS.

Octavo, paper, $1 00; cloth extra,

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Second Series, covering the Publications of the Five. Years ending December 31, 1881. Edited by LYNDE E. JONES.

Octavo cloth,

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Twelvemo, cloth $1 00; boards,

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'It should be in the hands of every reader in the country. uable."-Boston Transcript.

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A History of American Literature. By MOSES COIT TYLER, Professor of English Literature in the University of Michigan. Volumes I and II, comprising the period, 1607-1765. Large 8vo, about 700 pages, handsomely bound in cloth, extra, gilt top, $6.00; half calf, extra $II 00 The History of American Literature, now offered to the public, is the first attempt ever made to give a systematic and critical account of the literary development of the American people. It is not a mere cyclopædia of literature, or a series of detached biographical sketches accompanied by literary extracts: but an analytic and sustained narrative of our literary history from the earliest English settlement in America down to the present time. The work is the result of original and independent studies prosecuted by the author for the past ten years, and gives an altogether new analysis of American literary forces and results during nearly three cenLuries. The present two volumes-a complete work in themselves-cover the whole field of our history during the colonial time.

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An important national work."—New York TRIBUNE.

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A book more interesting than half the new novels."-THE NATION.

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A book actually fascinating from beginning to end."-Prest. J. B. ANGELL.

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'As the work stands, it may rightfully claim a place on the library table of every cultivated American."-New York Times.

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A unique and valuable work."-Chicago Tribune.

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"But the plan of Professor Tyler's book is so vast and its execution so fearless, that no reader can expect or wish to agree with all its personal judgments. It is a book truly admirable, both in design and in general execution; the learning is great, the treatment wise, the style fresh and vigorous. Here and there occurs a phrase which a severer revision would perhaps exclude, but all such criticisms are trivial in view of so signal a success. Like Parkman, Professor Tyler may almost be said to have created, not merely his volumes, but their theme. Like Parkman, at any rate, he has taken a whole department of human history, rescued it from oblivion, and made it henceforward a matter of deep interest to every thinking mind."-T. W. Higginson, in The Nation.

"The work betrays acute philosophical insight, a rare power of historical research, and a cultivated literary habit, which was perhaps no less essential than the two former conditions, to its successful accomplishment. The style of the author is marked by vigor, originality, comprehensiveness, and a curious instinct in the selection of words. In this latter respect, though not in the moulding of sentences, the reader may perhaps be reminded of the choice and fragrant vocabulary of Washington Irving, whose words alone often leave an exquisite odor like the perfume of sweetbriar and arbutus."-George Ripley, in the Tribune.

"Professor Moses Coit Tyler's History of American Literature,' of which the first two volumes have just been issued, will take rank at once as a book of lasting value, even though the author should advance no further than he has already done in the scheme of his work. We are not unmindful of the eminent historians this country has produced, when we express our opinion that his history is the best study of American historic material that has been written by an American. There has been manifestly no limit to the enthusiasm, conscientiousness and industry with which he has possessed himself of the entire body of the literature of which he treats. and at the same time he has displayed the qualities of a true literary artist in giving form, color and perspective to his work."-David Gray, in the Buffalo Courier.

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