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$30,000. The lower floor is occupied by a sal stores. The rental from its rooms above the f pays over 10 per cent on the money invested in th in other words, the income from the tenants p ordinary rate of return on the cost of the buildin rent the saloon and store rooms, which are the m the building for rental purposes.

From these illustrations, it seems clear that immigrant's per capita outgo for rent is small b crowded condition, yet the rent he pays by grou cessive, and yields an unusually large rate of ret


The following summarized facts will give a mo tion of the cost, manner, and standard of living, tion of the community, classified according to ra methods, as well as the cost of living are brought



This group consists of sixteen men of Bulgaria small frame one-story cottage, valued originally The rooms are 10 by 12, 8 by 6, and 8 by 5 feet. sists of 5 double and 2 single beds, a stove wor couple of tables and benches made out of some a few plain chairs. The total value would be ab no separate kitchen or dining-room, and the cool largest bedroom. The men live 4 to each room. house is $16. Their living, exclusive of the rent, average about $8 each per month. They do thei housekeeping, taking turns in doing it. They b wood and pick up some along the railroad tracks. unskilled laborers and receive from $1.50 to $1. steel works. Twelve of the 16 are married, with the majority are going back to Bulgaria. One spea have taken any steps toward naturalization.


This is a group of 16 Bulgarians living in a s rooms. The rooms are the usual size, 1 large on feet, and 2 small ones about 5 by 8 and 6 by 8 f has a small unfenced yard. The rent is $14, and between $7 and $8 each per month for food. The of 8 cots and iron beds, small stove, several chair tables and benches, lamp, lantern, and simple The total value is about $60. None of the rooms ar house was in a condition of squalor, and very crowd a room. The men have been in the United States of and have had no work since their arrival. They h $30 each when they came, but have now spent all are supported by a local mercantile house. Non

of the 16 are married and have wives and families in The majority state that they intend, if possible, to stay ted States. They take turns cooking and housekeeping, eir own washing.


group of seventeen Bulgarians living in a one-story cottage Two of the rooms are about 8 by 10 feet and two are The cottage has a small yard with dilapidated fence, and are very crowded and dirty. The rent is $12 per month. of living is from $7 to $8 per month in addition to rent. ake turns cooking and housekeeping. They have been in 1 States eight months. All of them are unskilled and have work since their arrival. Fifteen of the seventeen are marave families in Bulgaria. None speak English. The furnists of seventeen cots, small stove and cooking utensils, and amps. The total value is about $60. There is no separate m or kitchen. These men had $15 to $30 each when they the community. All this has been spent, and they are by occasional work and credit at mercantile houses.

Group 4.-ALBANIAN (HUNGAry Hollow).

oup of fourteen men from Albania, the only group of this untered, lives in a small one-story frame cottage of five our bedrooms and a small kitchen. They pay $14 per month h includes a large lot (about 50 by 50 feet) which they have I into a garden and have under cultivation. Their food costs ut $8 to $9 per month per man. The garden at the time of tigation was just beginning to yield and they expected to all their vegetables from it. The furniture consists of iron cots, two small stoves and one large one, worth together $15, of lamps, a home-made table, and cooking utensils. There ographs and lithographs on the walls. The total value of the is about $150. The men live four to each room. The rooms ottage are larger than the average, and two of the bedrooms windows each. The men are cleanly in their housekeepey have been in the United States seven or eight months, - speak English except a 14-year-old boy. All are unskilled e had little work. The boy, who came to this country alone money," has worked in the steel works at $1.35 per day. the men are married and have families in Albania, to which they expect to return.


group, of man, wife, and sister-in-law, lives in a three-room ottage of one story. The man is naturalized and runs an an coffee house in Hungary Hollow. His wife is an Ameriman. They pay $12.50 per month rent, and their food costs Dout $10 per week. They value their furniture at $150.

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This is an Armenian boarding house in Hungar thirty-five men. There are two men in each roo two cots or beds, a table and a chair. There a men pay $3.50 per week for rooms, light, heat, without rooms are $3 per week.


This group consists of man and wife, and five living in two rooms in a Macedonian tenement bu and grocery store. The rent of the rooms is $5 a m speaks a little English and is naturalized. He is a bartender in a Macedonian saloon. The woman has been four months in the United States. All t one room. They pay $11 per month for room ar niture is valued at $150, and includes beds, stov and plain chairs and tables; no carpets. Each ro used for cooking (an inside room), has two windo hallways are very dirty.


This family consists of man and wife, with neithe dren. The man is 30 years old, has been in the Un months, and speaks no English. He expects to be remain in the United States. The woman is 28 yea married in Bulgaria twelve years ago. At the ti tion they were living in one room in a Macedon because the man was out of work. The rent was $4 formerly had two rooms in the same house and p cook, eat, sleep, and do laundry work in the one ro consists of bed, stove, homemade table, and som which the total valuation is about $35. Exclusiv and his wife, when work was regular and condit $35 per month for food, clothes, and incidentals about $25 per month, and the other $10 was spe miscellaneous items. During the industrial depre their outlay for food $5 per month. The kind of daily under normal conditions was about as follow Breakfast: Tea, cream, cheese, bread. Dinner: of meat or stew. Supper: Bread, meat, meat st

The man began work in this country as a commo per day, and afterwards became a chipper in the st between $2 and $3 per day. During the thirte which he worked regularly the husband had saved $200.


This group consists of six men (recently eight) li in a Macedonian rooming house. The rent for the t month. They use one to sleep in and the other as a

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The other articles of furniture are a plain table, chairs, ve, and cooking utensils, the whole valued at about $30. do their own cooking, and their food costs from $7 to $18 h for each member of the group. Under normal conditions e a Servian or Polish woman to keep house for them. She unders, keeps house, and buys the food, for which services id $20 per month. One man speaks a little English, and n out his first naturalization papers. The others expect to Bulgaria.


roup consists of man and wife and three children. They occupy as in a large rooming house, on the first floor, behind a saloon. ve no boarders. The rent is $5 per month. It costs the or rent and food from $25 to $30 per month. The furniture is t $150. It consists of cook stove, three iron beds, bureau, d, wardrobe, chairs, and table. The floors have no carpets. ms are well kept and clean. The man is 34 years old, has e seven years, speaks English, and is naturalized. The woman ars old, and has been in this country two years. They were before coming to the United States. The children are girls, ad 1 year old. The two oldest speak English and attend the schools. The man is a skilled blacksmith, and belongs to a



group of five Bulgarians pays $7 per month rent for two na Bulgarian rooming house. All sleep in one room upstairs ve a small room downstairs in which they cook. All are d, none speak English, and all have been in this country only months. They have worked irregularly at $1.50 per day. o their own cooking and housework and pay about $8 per each for food. The furniture consists of one bed, 3 cots, able, and chairs, valued at about $30. There is no carpet, e rooms are badly kept and very dirty.


Bulgarians, cooking, eating, and sleeping in one room, constiis group. They have been ten months in the United States ave worked two and one-half months in a glucose factory, at or thirteen hours' work at night. None of them speak Engat they expect to remain in this country. They pay $8 rent, eir food costs them from $8 to $10 per month per man. They rns at keeping house and cooking, and have their washing -y a Servian woman. The furniture consists of one bed, two tove, small table (homemade), and chairs, all valued at $40.


s group consists of eleven Bulgarians living in two rooms in a rian rooming house. The rooms have two small windows. roup does its own cooking and housekeeping. Some of the


cooks for the day, and vice versa. They are all wo labor at a wage ranging from $1.50 to $1.75 pe $12 per month rent, and their food costs each s month. They value their furniture, which consists cots, stove, chairs, and benches, at $50. None English, and all have been in the United Sta months and a year.


These five Bulgarians, living, eating, cooking, ar room in a large Bulgarian rooming house do their housekeeping and pay from $7 to $8 per mon They value their furniture at $30. It consists of t several chairs, and a homemade cupboard and tal have been in the United States about one year, in the steel mills and on railroad construction w day. None speak English, and all expect to retur

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