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deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than $2,000, or both; and any person who shall use any deadly or dangerous weapon in resisting any immigration and naturalization official or employee in the performance of his duty shall be deemed guilty of a felony and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not more than ten years. Every alien who may not appear to the examining immigrant inspector at the port of arrival to be clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to land shall be detained for examination in relation thereto by a board of special inquiry. In the event of rejection by the board of special inquiry, in all cases where an appeal to the Attorney General is permitted by this Act, the alien shall be so informed and shall have the right to be represented by counsel or other adviser on such appeal. The decision of an immigrant inspector, if favorable to the admission of any alien, shall be subject to challenge by any other immigrant inspector, and such challenge shall operate to take the alien whose right to land is so challenged before a board of special inquiry for its investigation. (39 Stat. 885-887; 8 U. S. C. 152.)

BOARDS OF SPECIAL INQUIRY; APPOINTMENT; AUTHORITY; HEARINGS; RECORDS; APPEALS

SEC. 17. That boards of special inquiry shall be appointed by the commissioner of immigration and naturalization or inspector in charge at the various ports of arrival as may be necessary for the prompt determination of all cases of immigrants detained at such ports under the provisions of the law. Each board shall consist of three members, who shall be selected from such of the immigrant and naturalization officials in the service as the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, with the approval of the Attorney General, shall from time to time designate as qualified to serve on such boards. When in the opinion of the Attorney General the maintenance of a permanent board of special inquiry for service at any sea or land border port is not warranted, regularly. ..constituted boards may be detailed from other stations for temporary service at such port, or, if that be impracticable, the Attorney General shall authorize the creation of boards of special inquiry by the immigration and naturalization officials in charge at such ports, and shall determine what Government officials or other persons shall be eligible for service on such boards. Such boards shall have authority to determine whether an alien who has been duly held shall be allowed to land or shall be deported. All hearings before such boards shall be separate and apart from the public, but the immigrant may have one friend or relative present under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Attorney General. Such boards shall keep a complete permanent record of their proceedings and of all such testimony as may be produced before them; and the decisions of any two members of the board shall prevail, but either the alien or any dissenting member of the said board may appeal through the commissioner of immigration and

* The Act of May 18, 1934 (48 Stat. 780; 18 U. S. C. 253), p. 101, as amended by the Act of June 13, 1940 (54 Stat. 391; 18 U. S. C. 253), p. 107 supplemented in part sec. 16, Act of February 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 885-886; 8 U. S. C. 152).

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naturalization at the port of arrival and the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization to the Attorney General, and the taking of such appeal shall operate to stay any action in regard to the final disposal of any alien whose case is so appealed until the receipt by the commissioner of immigration and naturalization at the port of arrival of such decision which shall be rendered solely upon the evidence adduced before the board of special inquiry. In every case where an alien is excluded from admission into the United States, under any law or treaty now existing or hereafter made, the decision of a board of special inquiry adverse to the admission of such alien shall be final, unless reversed on appeal to the Attorney General: Provided, That the decision of a board of special inquiry shall be based upon the certificate of the examining medical officer and, except as provided in section twenty-one hereof, shall be final as to the rejection of aliens affected with tuberculosis in any form or with a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease, or with any mental or physical disability which would bring such aliens within any of the classes excluded from admission to the United States under section three of this Act. (39 Stat. 887; 8 U. S. C. 153.)

IMMEDIATE DEPORTATION OF ALIENS BROUGHT TO UNITED STATES IN VIOLATION OF LAW; COST OF MAINTENANCE AND RETURN; PENALTIES; SUSPENSION OF DEPORTATION; LANDING FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT

SEC. 18. That all aliens brought to this country in violation of law shall be immediately sent back, in accommodations of the same class in which they arrived, to the country whence they respectively came, on the vessels bringing them, unless in the opinion of the Attorney General immediate deportation is not practicable or proper. The cost of their maintenance while on land, as well as the expense of the return of such aliens, shall be borne by the owner or owners of the vessels on which they respectively came. That it shall be unlawful for any master, purser, person in charge, agent, owner, or consignee of any such vessel to refuse to receive back on board thereof, or on board of any other vessel owned or operated by the same interests, such aliens; or to fail to detain them thereon; or to refuse or fail to return them in the manner aforesaid to the foreign port from which they came; or to fail to pay the cost of their maintenance while on land; or to make any charge for the return of any such alien, or to take any security for the payment of such charge; or to take any consideration to be returned in case the alien is landed; or knowingly to bring to the United States any alien excluded or arrested and deported under any provision of law until such time as such alien may be lawfully entitled to reapply for admission to the United States, and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the Attorney General that such master, purser, person in charge, agent, owner, or consignee has violated any of the foregoing provisions, or any of the provisions of section fifteen hereof, such master, purser, person in charge,

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33 Section 1 (e), Act of March 4, 1929 (45 Stat. 1551; 8 U. S. C. 154). Prior thereto, sec. 18, Act of February 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 888), read in part as follows: "consideration to be returned in case the alien is landed; or knowingly to bring to the United States at any time within one year from the date of deportation any alien rejected or arrested and deported under any provision of this Act, unless prior to reembarkation the Secretary of Labor has consented that such alien shall reapply for admission, as required by section three hereof;".

agent, owner, or consignee shall pay to the collector of customs of the district in which the port of arrival is located, or in which any vessel of the line may be found, the sum of $300 for each and every violation of any provision of said sections; and no vessel shall have clearance from any port of the United States while any such fine is unpaid, nor shall such fine be remitted or refunded: Provided, That clearance may be granted prior to the determination of such question upon the deposit with the collector of customs of a sum sufficient to cover such fine. If the vessel by which any alien ordered deported came has left the United States and it is impracticable for any reason to deport the alien within a reasonable time by another vessel owned by the same interests, the cost of deportation may be paid by the Government and recovered by civil suit from any agent, owner, or consignee of the vessel: Provided further, That the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, with the approval of the Attorney General, may suspend upon conditions to be prescribed by the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, the deportation of any aliens found to have come in violation of any provision of this Act if, in his judgment, the testimony of such alien is necessary on behalf of the United States Government in the prosecution of offenders against any provision of this Act or other laws of the United States; and the cost of maintenance of any person so detained resulting from such suspension of deportation, and a witness fee in the sum of $1 per day for each day such person is so detained, may be paid from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, or such alien may be released under bond, in the penalty of not less than $500, with security approved by the Attorney General, conditioned that such alien shall be produced when required as a witness and for deportation. No alien certified, as provided in section sixteen of this Act, to be suffering from tuberculosis in any form, or from a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease other than one of quarantinable nature, shall be permitted to land for medical treatment thereof in any hospital in the United States, unless the Attorney General is satisfied that to refuse treatment would be inhumane or cause unusual hardship or suffering, in which case the alien shall be treated in the hospital under the supervision of the immigration officials at the expense of the vessel transporting him: Provided further, That upon the certificate of an examining medical officer to the effect that the health or safety of an insane alien would be unduly imperiled by immediate deportation, such alien may, at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, be held for treatment until such time as such alien may, in the opinion of such medical officer, be safely deported: Provided further, That upon the certificate of an examining medical officer to the effect that a rejected alien is helpless from sickness, mental or physical disability, or infancy, if such alien is accompanied by another alien whose protection or guardianship is required by such rejected alien, such accompanying alien may also be excluded, and the master, agent, owner, or consignee of the vessel in which such alien and accompanying alien are brought shall be required to return said alien and accompanying alien in the same manner as vessels are required to return other rejected aliens. (39 Stat. 887-889; 45 Stat. 1551; 8 U. S. C. 154.)

DEPORTATION WITHIN CERTAIN TIME LIMITS OF ALIENS ENTERING OR FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES IN VIOLATION OF LAW; FINALITY OF DECISION; DISCRETION OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL

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SEC. 19. (a) That at any time within five years after entry, any alien who at the time of entry was a member of one or more of the classes excluded by law; any alien who shall have entered or who shall be found in the United States in violation of this Act, or in violation of any other law of the United States; any alien who at any time after entry shall be found advocating or teaching the unlawful destruction of property, or advocating or teaching anarchy, or the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law or the assassination of public officials; any alien who within five years after entry becomes a public charge from causes not affirmatively shown to have arisen subsequent to landing; except as hereinafter provided, any alien who is hereafter sentenced to imprisonment for a term of one year or more because of conviction in this country of a crime involving moral turpitude, committed within five years after the entry of the alien to the United States, or who is hereafter sentenced more than once to such a term of imprisonment because of conviction in this country of any crime involving moral turpitude, committed at any time after entry; any alien who shall be found an inmate of or connected with the management of a house of prostitution or practicing prostitution after such alien shall have entered the United States, or who shall receive, share in, or derive benefit from any part of the earnings of any prostitute; any alien who manages or is employed by, in, or in connection with any house of prostitution or music or dance hall or other place of amusement or resort habitually frequented by prostitutes, or where prostitutes gather, or who in any way assists any prostitute or protects or promises to protect from arrest any prostitute; any alien who shall import or attempt to import any person for the purpose of prostitution or for any other immoral purpose; any alien who, after being excluded and deported or arrested and deported as a prostitute, or as a procurer, or as having been connected with the business of prostitution or importation for prostitution or other immoral purposes in any of the ways hereinbefore specified, shall return to and enter the United States; any alien convicted and imprisoned for a violation of any of the provisions of section four hereof; any alien who was convicted, or who admits the commission, prior to entry, of a felony or other crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude; at any time within three years after entry, any alien who shall have entered the United States by water at any time or place

34 For other provisions covering imitation on deportation of aliens, see sec. 318 (b), Act of October 14, 1940 (54 Stat. 1147; 8 U. S. C. 718 (b)), p. 118. For deportation of internees; violators of neutrality acts, etc., see Act of May 10, 1920 (41 Stat. 593594; U. S. C. 157), p. 80.

35 The Alien Registration Act of 1940, Title 2, approved June 28, 1940 (54 Stat. 671673; 8 U. S. C. 155), amends sec. 19, Act of February 5, 1917 (39 Stat. 889; 8 U. S. C. 155), by inserting after "SEC. 19.", the letter "(a)", and by adding at the end of such section, subsections (b) to (d), inclusive, pp. 110-112. No alien shall be deportable by reason of subdivision (b) of section 19, Act of February 5, 1917 (54 Stat. 671; 8 U. S. C. 155), on account of any act committed prior to June 28, 1940. See section 22, Act of June 28, 1940 (54 Stat. 673), p. 113, for authority for last sentence.

For additional provisions relative to deportation of anarchists and similar classes see Act of October 16, 1918 (40 Stat. 1012; 8 U. S. C. 137 (g)), as amended by the Acts of June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. 1008), p. 77, and June 28, 1940 (54 Stat. 673), p. 109.

other than as designated by immigration officials, or by land at any place other than one designated as a port of entry for aliens by the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, or at any time not designated by immigration and naturalization officials, or who enters without inspection, shall, upon the warrant of the Attorney General, be taken into custody and deported: Provided, That the marriage to an American citizen of a female of the sexually immoral classes the exclusion or deportation of which is prescribed by this Act shall not invest such female with United States citizenship if the marriage of such alien female shall be solemnized after her arrest or after the commission of acts which make her liable to deportation under this Act: Provided further, That the provision of this section respecting the deportation of aliens convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude shall not apply to one who has been pardoned, nor shall such deportation be made or directed if the court, or judge thereof, sentencing such alien for such crime. shall, at the time of imposing judgment or passing sentence or within thirty days thereafter, due notice having first been given to representatives of the State, make a recommendation to the Attorney General that such alien shall not be deported in pursuance of this Act; nor shall any alien convicted as aforesaid be deported until after the termination of his imprisonment: Provided further, That the provisions of this section, with the exceptions hereinbefore noted, shall be applicable to the classes of aliens therein mentioned irrespective of the time of their entry into the United States: Provided further, That the provisions of this section shall also apply to the cases of aliens who come to the mainland of the United States from the insular possessions thereof: Provided further, That any person who shall be arrested under the provisions of this section, on the ground that he has entered or been found in the United States in violation of any other law thereof which imposes on such person the burden of proving his right to enter or remain, and who shall fail to establish the existence of the right claimed, shall be deported to the place specified in such other law. In every case where any person is ordered deported from the United States under the provisions of this Act, or of any law" or treaty, the decision of the Attorney General shall be final.88

(b) Any alien of any of the classes specified in this subsection, in addition to aliens who are deportable under other provisions of law shall, upon warrant of the Attorney General, be taken into custody and deported:

(1) Any alien who, at any time within five years after entry, shall have, knowingly and for gain, encouraged, induced, assisted, abetted, or aided any other alien to enter or to try to enter the United States in violation of law.

(2) Any alien who, at any time after entry, shall have on more than one occasion, knowingly and for gain, encouraged,

"For repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Acts see Act of Dec. 17, 1943 (57 Stat. 600), p. 125. Sec. 17, Act of Jan. 19, 1929 (45 Stat. 1089; 21 U. S. C. 237), p. 92, provides time of deportation for certain narcotic addicts. See 3, Act of Mar. 4, 1929 (45 Stat. 1552; 8 U. S. C. 180 b), p. 94, provides for deportation of deportable aliens at termination of imprisonment.

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