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By Senator EDMUNDS: Q. Are the American hooks made from imported steel?—A. Not so much now as they used to be; the duty is so high.
Q. Is there any difficulty in manufacturing American steel that is good for fishhooks?-A. They do not seem to prove so good as a general thing. No hook that we can get is equal to the imported Scotch hook.
That is on account of the Scotch wire, I suppose?—A. On account of the Scotch wire.
By Senator SAULSBURY: Q. What articles are there entering into the construction and equipment of one of your fishing vessels which have to pay duty, besides cordage, iron, etc.?-A. I have spoken, of course, of the anchors and chains; then there is wire rope, on which there is a duty of something like 45 to 78
Q. Do you use much of that?—A. We are using more and more for the standing rigging of the vessel, and we are trying it as an experiment for cables.
Q. And there is a duty on the raw material that enters into your cordage?-A. Yes, sir.
Q. Now, if those duties were taken off of the manila and other things, ought you not to be able to buy those things cheaper in this market than now?-A. Yes; I should say of course there would be a great saving.
DUTIES ON ARTICLES OF CONSTRUCTION AND OUTFIT.
Q. Can you form an estimate of the amount of duties paid upon a vessel, say of 100 tons, upon the material entering into her construction and outfit?-A. I should say, to the best of my judgment, it would be 30 to 35 per cent.
By Senator EDMUNDS: Q. That is, if the whole duty is charged to the person who puts it on the ship?A. Yes, sir.
Q. And whether it is or not is the question?-A. That is it.
RATIO OF MARRIED TO UNMARRIED FISHERMEN.
By Senator SAULSBURY: Q. Some inquiry has been made about the number of fishermen. I would like to ascertain, as a matter of information, about the number of men engaged in fishing, as to whether they are men usually of families, or whether a large proportion are single men?-A. A large proportion of them are single men, young men, on account of the hazardous character of the business. A younger class of men go in the fresh-fish business than in other kinds of fishing, as a general thing. They are obliged to go over the rail and get into a boat and go out, and after a man gets to be over 35 he wants to remain aboard and fish from the vessel. So, as a general thing, where they have to leave the vessel to pursue the fish, whether mackerel or trawling, they generally have younger men.
Q. What proportion of your fishermen do you suppose are over 40 years of age?— A. I should think about one-third. If you noticed the vessels we passed this morning you saw what young-looking men they were, from 18 to 22, I should think. The best class of men that we have for fishing, I think, as a whole, are employed in our mackerel catchers, and the next grade I should say would be in the fresh-halibut business, or in the fresh-fish business anyway. It is a quicker business.
FISHERMEN GOOD MATERIAL FOR SOLDIERS AND SAILORS.
By Senator FryE: Q. On the whole, what kind of sailors are they?-A. I don't think the world can produce better.
Q. During the last war did they take any part in the conflict?-A. Yes, sir; by the hundreds. I don't think there was a naval vessel afloat in those times in which the fishermen of New England were not represented. We sent a regiment of soldiers from Gloucester. That has been a characteristic in our wars, especially during the war of 1812, where we responded at Marblehead, and braver men and more daring I don't think ever existed.
Q. How do you find the Canadians who come here and learn the trade of fishing, as you all agree about thinking they do? How do you find them after they become naturalized citizens? Are they of American sentiment?
The Witness. You refer more to the men from Nova Scotia, I presume?
A. Yes, sir; you had a fair sample yesterday, on the stand, of one of our naturalized citizens. Quite a number of these men are now men of property, and some of them are our best citizens, and as true and loyal Americans as I am myself, or any other man in Gloucester. I think their whole interest is with us.
TESTIMONY OF DAVID S. PRESSON.
GLOUCESTER, Mass., October 5, 1886. DAVID S. PRESSON sworn and examined.
By Senator EDMUNDS:
FISHERIES OF GLOUCESTER SINCE JANUARY 1, 1885.
By Senator Frye: Q. Have you responded to the letter directed to you by the subcommittee?-A. Yes, sir; I have the statements here.
Q. You may give us, then, first, the whole number of vessels licensed at this port since January 1, 1885, in the fishing business.-A. Above 20 tons there were 384 vessels, amounting to 26,499 tons; under 20 tons there were 54 vessels, amounting to 609 tons; in all, 438 vessels, 47,058 tonnage.
Q. Were any of them propelled by steam?-A. None of them propelled by steam; all propelled by sail.
NUMBER OF VESSELS CLEARED FROM GLOUCESTER FOR BRITISH NORTH AMERICAN PORTS.
Q. Now you may may state the whole number of vessels cleared for any of the ports of the British North American Provinces during the same time?-A.:
Number of vessels cleared for ports in Nova Scotia, etc.
Q. Do you know what proportion of these were fishing vessels? A. None of them were fishing vessels.
PAPERS TAKEN BY FISHING VESSELS.
Q. As to those fishing vessels, what papers did they take out?-A. They took out an enrollment and license, and in a majority of the cases this year they have taken out a permit to touch and trade.
Q. Have you a form for one of these permits to touch and trade?--A. I have. This is the form:
Cat. No. 488.
PERMIT TO TOUCH AND TRADI
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
188. Permission is hereby granted to master of the named the of burden which was licensed for carrying on the fishery, by collector for the district of in the State of
-, on the
day of to wuch and trade at any foreign port or place during her voyage presently to be made. Given under hand and seal, the day and year above mentioned.
Collector. Naval Officer.
Q. Do you know whether those permits to trade have been recognized by the British authorities?-A. In all cases that have been reported to the office they have not been.
Senator FRYE. You may make that permit to touch and trade a part of your evidence.
The WITNESS. You will see by the blank form that it is good for only one voyage. Two hundred and fifty-four fishing vessels have taken permits to touch and trade, issued under section 4364, Revised Statutes, and no fishing vessel has taken regular clearance. Three hundred and fifty-nine permits were granted.
IMPORTATIONS OF FRESH FISH AND DUTIES COLLECTED. Q. Now you may state the total number of pounds of fish imported during the year.-A. The total number of pounds of fresh fish imported during the year was 1,186,700, and the duties collected on 28,464 pounds amounted to $142.22.
Q. How did you happen to collect the duties on any?-A. Those were the halibut that were not fit for the market and went to the cutters; on that my predecessor, Captain Babson, was allowed to collect the duties. He made the point with the Treasury Department that all should pay, but the Department decided that only those that were used for smoking or curing should pay the duty.
Q. The reason why Captain Babson was able to get at the proportion of that cargo of halibut that was cured was because they were cured here in Gloucester, was it not?-A. Yes, sir; 224,000 pounds of those fresh fish were halibut, and 962,700 pounds were fresh herring.
Q. Suppose, instead of being cured here, they had been sent to New York, would the collector have known anything about it?—A. Nothing at all, and none of the duties would have been collected.
Q. Is there any difficulty about bringing cargoes in here, entering them here, and shipping them to any port of the country?-A. No, sir; they can be boxed in ice and entered "for immediate consumption.'
Q. And the fact that the collector did succeed in getting the duty on 28,464 pounds was because they were cured here right under your eyes?-A. Yes, sir; we could see them. We had a person attend to the delivery of the cargo, and on all that were not shipped off we collected duties.
IMPORTATIONS OF SALT FISH AND DUTIES COLLECTED,
Q. Please give the number of pounds of salt fish imported.-A. Number of pounds of salt fish imported: Codfish, etc...
pounds.. 2,961, 420 Mackerel
-pounds.. 180,000 .barrels..
206, 200 Oil....
1, 725 Amount of duty collected.
$10, 174.35 By Senator EDMUNDS: Q. Was that whale oil?-A. No; it was fish oil, probably imported from Newfoundland-imported before I became collector.
By Senator FRYE: Q. Do you know anything about the importations for the year before?-A. No, sir; I haven't got those figures.
STATEMENT OF NOVA SCOTIA VESSELS ENTERING AND CLEARING AT PORT OF GLOUCESTER.
Q. Have you any other statement that you have prepared?--A. I have a statement here in relation to the Nova Scotia vessels entering and clearing at this port for the purpose of fitting out this last spring, when our vessels in the Canadian ports were refused that privilege.
Q. Please give us that statement.-A. It is as follows: Statement of Nova Scotia vessels entering and clearing at port of Gloucester, having visited
said port for purpose of fitting.
The schooner Circassian, of Argyle, was fitted with bait, stores, and provisions for cod fishing. The schooners Maria, of Argyle, and Roseneath and Byron, of Pubnico, were cod fishermen. The other three were mackerel fishermen.
Q. These were English vessels?-A. All English vessels.
AMERICAN PORT PRIVILEGES AND CHARGES.
Q. Is there anything to prevent a Canadian vessel from coming here and lying at this port as long as she pleases?-A. They are obliged to report within twenty-four hours to the boarding officer, and are obliged to enter within forty-eight hours, unless detained here by stress of weather.
Q. What is the charge for entry?-A. Three cents a ton for tonnage dues; the entering and clearance fees would be 5.67 cents, I think.
Q. Is there anything in the custom-house rules or regulations to prevent their men from landing and going where they please?-A. No, sir.
Q. In other words, the Canadian vessel has the same privilege that an American vessel has?-A. Yes, sir.
Q. To buy bait or anything else?—A. Yes, sir.
THE CASES OF THE SCHOONERS RATTLER, CRITTENDEN, AND MOLLIE ADAMS.
The WITNESS. I was inquired of yesterday in regard to the schooners Rattler, Crittenden, and Mollie Adams.
By Senator EDMUNDS:
Senator EDMUNDS. You may make those a part of your testimony.
Affidavit of Augustus F. Cunningham as to the Rattler. I, Augustus F. Cunningham, master of schooner Rattler of Gloucester, being duly sworn, do depose and say:
That on Thursday, July 8, 1886, we sailed from Gloucester on a mackerel cruise. On Tuesday, August 3, having secured a fare of mackerel and while on our passage home, at 7 p. m., the wind blowing hard, the sea being rough, and our vessel being deeply loaded; with two large seine boats on deck, we put into the harbor of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, for shelter.
Just inside of the harbor we were hove to by a gun fired from the Canadian cruiser Terror, Captain Quigley, and came to anchor. Immediately a boat from the Terror came alongside, and its commander, Lieutenant Bennett, asked why we were in the harbor. My reply was, “For shelter.” Taking then the name of our vessel, names of owner and captain, where from, where bound, and how many fish we had, an l fusbidding any of the crew to go on shore, he returned to the Terror for further instructions. Boarding us again after a lapse or perhaps forty-tive minutes, be put two ariel men on board of us, asked for our crew list, and said if I remained until morning I must enter at the custom-house, but if I could sail in the night, to tell his men to fire a revolver and a boat would be sent to take them off. At 12 o'clock that night, pre ferring to risk the dangers of the sea to the danger of seizure, I ordered the anchor hove short, the mainsail hoisted preparatory to sailing, and told one of the Terror's men to fire a revolver, which he did. Receiving no reply and seeing no signs of life on board the Terror, I ordered the revolver to be tired again. This brought a boat from the Terror, commanded by Lieutenant Bennett, who boarded my schooner, gale each of his two men on board an extra revolver, and told me the orders of Captain Quigley were that I should not leave the port untii I had reported to the customs officer at Shelburne. Upon receipt of these orders I paid out the chain and lowered the mainsail. The boat went back to the Terror and immediately returned with Captain Quigley on board. He denied the permission given me by his first officer to sail in the night and ordered me to go to Shelburne and enter and clear at the customhouse there. I asked him how I should go, as we were 8 miles distant from the customhouse. His reply was, “I don't care, sir, how you go, but you must go there, and on your return show your clearance to ine or suffer the consequences.”
He told me my vessel was in charge of his two men, and to thein he gave these orders: “Gunner, you will allow the captain to proceed to Shelburne with the vessel, come to anchor, take his dory and two men, no more, and go on shore to enter; allow them to bring nothing off in their dory, and if a man puts his hand on the wheel to go to sea, chop his arm off or shoot him, as the case may require." I asked him if the law was not very strict that did not allow a vessel arriving at night after office hours to proceed before daylight, and why the law was thus enforced. He replied, “ To prove that Canadian harbors were a benefit to American fishermen."
At daylight we got under way and started for Shelburne, and Lieutenant Bennett and four more armed men came on board. We arrived at Shelburne about 4.30 o'clock
I went on shore with Lieutenant Bennett and his boat's crew, and woke up Collector Attwood, who, after inquiring of the lieutenant if there were any charges against me, entered and cleared the vessel. On my return to the vessel the lieuten. ant requested me to exhibit my clearance, which I did, and we were then allowed to depart.
I would state that when we first entered the harbor of Shelburne a Canadian vessel entered just ahead of us, and she was unmolested, sailing at her pleasure during the night, which showed plainly that an American vessel was not accorded the same treatment in Canadian ports as are Canadian vessels, although, as the collector at Halifax informed me in June last, the same laws apply to Canadian vessels as to American vessels.
During the whole difficulty my language was respectful, and I quietly submitted to the detention, to the sarcastic language and overbearing conduct of Captain Quigley; but I deem my treatment and detention severe and unjust, and an outrage upon the international courtesy that should exist between two friendly nations.
Signed by Capt. A. F. Cunningham, and also by Lawson C. Rich, of Canton, N. Y., a passenger.
Affidavit of Joseph E. Graham as to the case of the Crittenden. I, Joseph E. Graham, master of schooner A. R. Crittenden, of Gloucester, being duly sworn, do depose and say:
That in the month of July last, I think on the 21st day, I was in the Straits of Canso on my passage home from a fishing trip. Thinking I had a right to fill water under the treaty of 1818, I stopped at Steep (teek for that purpose. The customs officer at that place informed me that if I filled any water, my vessel would be seized, and upon receiving this information I immediately sailed without water, and in consequence we were on short rations of water during the passage home. In my passage through the straits two of my men went on shore. I was then continuing my passage through the straits, as I made no stop after leaving Steep Creek.
Returning through the straits on my second voyage, say on August 4, I stopped at Port Mulgrave, and duly entered and cleared, and one of the men who had gone on shore the previous trip came on board. On my passage home from the second rip, say August 27, while coming through the Straits of Canso, a lack of wind disenabled us to stem the strong tide, and to prevent going on shore we came to anchor at Port