« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
TABLE 418.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
On the basis of information furnished by 418 families in the Southwest it will be seen that of the total family income the husband contributes 77.1 per cent, children 12.9 per cent, boarders or lodgers 8.2 per cent, and wives 0.1 per cent, while 1.8 per cent is derived from other sources.
The most interesting fact in connection with the above table is that the native-born husbands contribute a larger per cent of the total family income than is contributed by the foreign-born husbands; on the other hand, a larger per cent of the family income of the foreign than native born is made up from the earnings of children and from boarders or lodgers. The negroes show a larger proportion of the family income derived from children and a smaller proportion from boarders or lodgers than do the native whites, while the husbands of the native whites and negroes contribute 86 per cent and 81.7 per cent, respectively.
A comparison of the foreign-born races brings to light two most interesting facts: (1) The small proportion of the total family income contributed by the husbands and the large proportion contributed by the children of the Irish and Welsh, as compared with the per cent contributed by the husbands and children of the other races; and (2) the large proportion of the total family income of the North Italians and Lithuanians derived from payments of boarders or lodgers-the proportion for the North Italians being 20.2 per cent and for the Lithuanians 19.6 per cent. No part of the total family income of the Croatians is derived from payment of boarders or lodgers and less than 2 per cent of the family income of the Irish,
Slovaks, and Welsh is obtained in this manner. The smallest proportion of family income contributed by children is shown by the Poles, while the largest is shown by the Irish. Following the Irish are the Welsh, who show that over one-fourth of the total family income is derived from this source.
The proportions of total family incomes derived from sources not specified are too small to require any consideration, except in the case of the Welsh, who show 5.8 per cent.
Method of securing immigrants-Hours worked per day-Regularity of employment— The wage scale Company houses-The company-store system-The immigrant and organized labor—Mining accidents in their relation to recent immigration-Relations among races employed-[Text Tables 419 to 421 and General Table 168].
METHOD OF SECURING IMMIGRANTS.
The method of securing men, as first practiced by the coal companies in Kansas and Oklahoma, was to send an agent to other coal fields, who obtained as many as were needed. A special car was chartered and the men were transported directly to the coal fields. At a later date this plan was discontinued and men were given transportation to the mines. The railroad fare was collected in instalments from their earnings. In some few instances immigrants returning from Europe were employed to bring over men. They were paid for each miner brought over, the coal company supplying steamship tickets and paying all expenses, such practices being perfectly legal at that time. The cost of transportation was collected in monthly payments from the immigrants thus secured. This method was discontinued by the year 1890 because of contract-labor legislation by the Federal Government. The companies also let it be known among the men employed that anyone wishing to bring in relatives or friends could do so, the company supplying transportation and enough money for expenses, provided two or more men in their employ were willing to stand good for the amount expended. Many immigrants brought over their wives and families by this plan and in most instances they have become permanent residents. The officials of the companies encouraged immigrants to send for their families for the reason that the men could be held more easily and were more contented when accompanied by their wives and children.
It is stated by Germans who were brought into Kansas during the early eighties that they had been working in the coal mines at Westphalia, where conditions were bad. There was little demand for labor, the mines were overcrowded, and wages were low. On account of this, many men were discontented and when the literature giving glowing accounts of the money to be earned in mining in the United States was distributed in the German mines many of them migrated to America. They were met in New York by agents of the operators in the Southwest, who sent them to Pittsburg, Kansas. In this manner many came into the field. The majority of immigrants, however, who were brought into Kansas and Oklahoma by the coal companies were from other coal-mining sections of the United States. This custom of shipping in labor has not been practiced for some time, and now all immigrants come of their own accord, and are employed upon personal application.
HOURS WORKED PER DAY.
As regards hours worked per day in the coal fields of the Southwest, the following is quoted from the contract between the coal operators and miners:
For all classes of labor, eight hours shall constitute a day's work An eight-hour day means eight hours' work at the usual working places, exclusive of noon time, which
shall be one-half hour for all classes of day labor. This shall be exclusive of the time required in reaching such working places in the morning and departure from the same at night.
In discussing the hours worked per day and the number of days worked during the past year, the United States Geological Survey, in its annual report, comments as follows:
Practically all the mines in Oklahoma are operated on the basis of an eight-hour day. During 1908 the average number of working days were one hundred and seventy-two. Part of the time lost was due to the general suspension of operations, which began on April 1 and extended into June. The number of men affected was 6,929, the idle time ranging from forty-eight to seventy-eight days, the average number of days lost by each of the 6,929 men was fifty-seven, and the total number of working days idle was equivalent to about 25 per cent of the total number worked during the year by all men employed.
The coal miners of Kansas are for the greater part well organized, and under the union rules the large majority of them work eight hours a day. In 1908 there were 138 mines, employing 12,973 men out of a total of 13,916, that were operated under an eight-hour day; 283 men employed at 11 mines worked nine hours, and 363 men employed at 7 mines worked ten hours. The average number of days worked was one hundred and eighty-one, part of the time lost being due to the suspension of operations during April and May. The suspension of operations on April 1 affected 11,155 men, or 80 per cent of the total number employed. They were idle for an average of sixty days each, or about 25 per cent of the total time made during the
REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.
The following table showing the months worked during the past year (the twelve months preceding the collection of data) by males sixteen years of age or over in the various households studied in the Southwest, indicates the general regularity of employment and comparative industriousness of the different races employed in the mines of this locality:
TABLE 419.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]