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CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-The immigrant and organized labor-[Text Tables 43 to 45 and General Table 22].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

The regularity of work offered and the relative industriousness of the several races is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over who were employed away from home:

TABLE 43.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The greater proportion of the total number of males 16 years of age or over employed away from home worked at least nine months during the past year; 38.3 per cent worked twelve months. Similarly the greater proportion of foreign-born persons worked nine months or over and 36.3 per cent worked twelve months. The native-born of native father worked twelve months in 73.9 per cent of the cases and nine months or over in 87 per cent. There is considerable variation in the length of time worked by the specified races. The Armenians and Syrians most commonly worked the maximum period. The Hebrews and North Italians worked at least nine

months in the greater proportion of cases. On the other hand, less than half of the South Italians and Poles worked as much as nine months.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over in the households studied, who were employed away from home:

TABLE 44.-Months worked during the past year by females 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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From the above table it will be seen that of the 67 females in this industry for whom information was obtained, only 20.9 per cent worked the full twelve months during the past year, 52.2 per cent worked nine months or over, 86.6 per cent six months or over, while 3 per cent worked less than three months. It will be seen from the above table that the proportion of foreign-born working the full twelve months and nine months or over is slightly lower, and the proportion working six months or over and three months or over is slightly higher than the proportion shown in the total. As regards the foreign-born North Italians it will be seen that the proportion working each specified number of months is slightly below that shown for the total foreign-born.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

The extent to which the operatives are identified with labor organizations is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over in the households studied, who were working for wages:

TABLE 45.—Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working for wages, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Based on information secured from 340 males in this industry, only 4.1 per cent are affiliated with trade unions, the foreign-born reporting 3.1 so affiliated, as compared with 19 per cent of the nativeborn of native father. Among the foreign-born the Armenians and Syrians have manifested no active interest whatever in trade unions, while the Hebrews, with 8.1 per cent affiliated with these organizations, show a larger proportion than do the North Italians, Poles, or South Italians.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupied-Size of households studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 46 to 58 and General Tables 23 to 34].

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING,

The rent payments of the households the heads of which were employed in the silk industry are chiefly significant in their bearing upon standards of living because of congestion within the households arising from the practice, especially among households the heads of which were of recent immigration, to crowd their apartments in order to reduce the per capita outlay for rent. The first table submitted in this connection shows the average monthly rent payment per apartment, per room, and per person, according to general nativity and race of head of household."

TABLE 46.-Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household. (STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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This table shows that the average monthly rent paid by 247 households connected with the silk industry was $9.30 per apartment, $2.34 per room, and $2.03 per person. The races which show the most variations from these averages are the Armenians and Hebrews, who pay more than the average per apartment, and the South Italians and Poles, who pay somewhat less than the average.

The range of monthly rents for apartments is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of

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