Lapas attēli

This transverse section of the Thames, with a longitudinal | tions from one archway to the other; the proportion of the work section of the Tunnel beneath it, shows the progress of the work remaining to be executed, so as to complete the communication to the extent of 600 feet from the shaft at Rotherhithe towards with Wapping, may also be here observed. Wapping, with the openings provided to afford free communica

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07 The following is only one of maayent that the seeds were not purchased at northern termination. In this age of imcases we heard, of farmers purchasing seeds the Agricultural Ware House of Mr. Har. when the venders know nothing about what low: But unless some satisfactory expla: public and private, are so much for the

provement, when capital and enterprize, they were selling:

readers againsi purehasing seed at the country, we rejoice that Old MONTGOME

establishment where these were obtained.-Ry is in a fair way to participate largely of We have heard that for a year or two Bangor Farmer.

the benefits of contemplated as well as past, some of our farming friends have

existing works. been horridly imposed upon in their seed. Cabbage and English Turnip seed having

CANAJOHARIE AND CATSKILL RAILbeen sold them for Ruta Baga. One of our ROAD.—We understand that there is a de- The " Medina & Darien Rail Road,friends will this year lose from two to three termination to crowd this important work say: the Herald is completed as far as hundred dollars in his crop, as he intended to a speedy completion. This road aside Akron, Erie County, a distance of 16 to have three acres of Ruta Baga, but they from its general advantage, will be of es- miles, and several cars running on it. The have proved to be English Turnips ! Men sential benefit to the section of country road will shortly be completed to Richville, who deal in seeds should be held responsible, especially when they purchase their through which passes, and when finished Genesee County, in all twenty miles, seeds of Tom, Dick and Harry and then must add greatly to the prosperity of our where it intersects the Batavia and Buffalo sell them as genuine. We only say at pres neighboring village of Canajoharie-its road.


imperfectly, to have commenced our agri-, blind Cyclops, imperfectly and uselessly, AGRICULTURE, &c.

cultural history; though it may be some- until Art, a gift from Heaven, which should From the Southern Agriculturist.

what mortifying to us to discover that we be protected, if not worshipped by man,

have not greatly improved upon the cur-comes to his aid, and direcis his efforts, In one of our past numbers of this jour

rent plans of that period, in planting, even and makes him equally important to agrinal, we intimated our intention of preparing

to this very day. Nature has continued culture, to mechanics, and to commerce.a series of essays on the subject of Agri

to be abundant, and we have been content Through him they all triurnpn, without cultural Education. Though long de

to receive her gifts, very much as the sav-him not one of them could succeed. layed, the pledge has not escaped our mem- age did then, without requiting her for them. We have labour-has art duly prompted ory, and we have been anxious, on more

She has spared us one necessity in disarm- and directed his industry ? This is the than one occasion before, to undertake and ling or providing for all the rest--that of ta- question. Surely, these are truths-undefulfil it. Our journal, however, has been king care of ourselves.

niable truths—which we have been utlerwell occupied with other matter, and what

Such have been her gifts, and such al. ing. Have our people learned them-do ever may have been our desire upon this ways has been the prolific abundance of they believe them—have they adopted; and point, we have not had, until now, the ne

our soil and State. Our prosperity has do they toil in obedience to the precepts cessary opportunity for the execution of been derived entirely from our agriculture, which they teach? How far has South our task. The time has come, however, imperfect as it has ever been; and without Carolina recognized, and how closely has when we may make our promise good, and any visible improvement in our arts of she practised upon them ? Let us ask the we proceed accordingly to a consideration management, labour, or experiment, we question. Let us look into the truth. of the subject, under the four following productive soil and atmosphere, the appear made no such inquiries--we have been too have presented, through the agency of a

It is humiliating to know that we have heads :1. The present and defective character ance of a people which has always contin.

regardless of these truths. of Agricultural Education in South Caro- ued to improve. All our interests

, whether | ly content with the bounty of providence lina.

they affect our gain, our society, our poli- io forbear complaint, we have yet been too 2. The causes to which its defects are

tics, local or foreign, take their complexion well satisfied with what she has given us, attributable.

from our agricultural pursuits, and are to have laboured at improvement. We 3. The probable remedies for such de- prompted by them. All professions in our have left undone a thousand things which fects, and

country are moved by those of the planter. I should have been done, and we need not 4. By whom such defects are remediable. In his success

, they succeed-in his losses, wonder, if there should come a time, when Our views on these topics must neces

they suffer. In his fate, the fortunes of the wholesome truth comes home to us, sarily be discursive. They present too

merchant and mechanic, lawyer and doc. and the stern rebuke of heaven places our large a surface for very ready and effective tor, freeman and slave, have their govern present diminution of the goods of fortune concentration, and if we glimpse at them ing principle, and his importance is to be to our own account; charging us with a only, as they severally come up

before our

estimated by their dependence upon him, | neglect of our proper duties of self-instrucminds; it is quite as much as in reason, we not less than by his own individual charac- tion and self-devotion to our own and the may be expected to do.

ter and influence in the commnnily. His general interest of the country. Look South Carolina, from its first settlement successes determining, in great measu e, back at our agricultural history and enteras a French, and subsequently, as an En- theirs, does it not follow that in proportion prise

, and how gross are its defects. What glish province, has be essentially and all as he is weak or enlightened, they will fal- | have we learnt ? What

we know ? most entirely agricultural. The laws of ter or succeed. In proportion as he is in- Where are we now? Are we a solitary nature imperatively made her so.

The telligent and industrious, will be their hopes 'year in advance of the first sett.ers in the spontaneous and liberal productions of the of fortune, and their capacity for enter. matter of Agricultural Education. We soil, designated to the most ignorant mind prise.. In proportion as he is skilful and fear not. What are our improvements; and the purposes for which she seemed to have reflective, will be their skill, their reflec- what is the estimate which we are accue. been intended; and the Indian, when our

tion, their readiness for adventure, their el-tomed even now to put upon agricultural ancesters first discovered the banks of May levation of pursuit and character—their knowledge ? Is it not regarded as the River and Port Royal, was accustomed to virtue and their patriotism. The inti- merest matter of common place industry plant his two grains of maize in one spot, mate connexion and close dependance of and effort, which calls for an overseer, not a precisely as our planters do at the present all pursuits upon those of agriculture, are guide-a spy rather than a teacher ; which moment.* Her resources

, from the first

, happily coroprised by Lord Bacon in a sim- needs no art to prune, no precaution to proseemed to be entirely those of agriculture ple and brief sentence, in which he sums vide against the vicissitudes of the season, and the chase. In all the usual objects of up the whole history of national prosperi- | no reflection to devise new improvements, Spanish and French adventure, she seemed ty: There are three things," says he or convert into proper channels, the well utterly wanting. Gold and silver seldom

which one nation selleth to another--the known and the old ? Is not such the estirewarded the greedy European who sought comm dity as it is yielded by nature, the mate commonly put upon agriculture—ibe it on her borders ; and the only gifts of the manufacture, and the vecture or carriage : very first of the arts-mingling the necessavages to their strange visiters, were their so," says he, “ if the three wheels go, wealthsary with the useful, the useful with the baskets of grain, and the free bounty of will flow in as a spring tide.” He places grateful, the grateful with the elegant, the fruits and flowers. Laudonniere, the French the three things in their proper order.— elegant with all others? There are very explorer, was not unmindful of these things. The planter first, the manufacturer next, few persons who consider it a profession, Instead of doing as the Spanish would the shipper third ; and the sentence might requiring any intellectual exercise whatev: have done, and as they were in the con- very well be stuck over the door of every er, and, compared with its sister arts, we stant habit of doing with the Indians, cotton and counting house in the country.* may venture to affirm, that, although the inarching upon and burning their towns,

But there is yet a greater than planter, very highest in importance, it is yet the and murdering the simple people for their manufacturer and shipper, whom Bacon very lowest in point of rank. True, we scorched pearls and Aattened breastplate: |has not classified with the rest. He must honor the planter as one who is a good of gold, he planied his little colony along. be set before them all. He is Labour—a citizen-who has wealth and the influside of the:n, and set his men to labour in a huge, heavy-handed giant, striking like a ence which wealth produces—who is frank like pursuit.f He may be said, however

in his intercourse with men—who is hos* 'The words of Bacon have been rhymod as fol- ||pitable to the stranger, and who gives to See Laudonniere's Voyages.

our society a character and temper, which 1 The narrative is quit an interesting one which “Let the earth have cultivation, descrlbes the mutiny of his men, who desired to ex

we would not willingly see exchanged for

Let its products have creation, plore the neighboring places for gold, preferring piracy Bid ihe seas give circulation,

any other. But there is little more. When and robbery to the wholesome cultivation of the fields. And you build the mighty nation." They stole his bonts and made away with them, but

we have said this, and said in addition-he

, were punished in 'he end. The ringleaders were they would be knocking out one another's bruins cultivates so many acres, owns sy many caught afterwards, and hung by him. with their own working implements.

slaves, hunts as fearlessly as Nimrod,

lows :

drinks of the best wines that the Cham- The exertion must come from the plan- our Agricultural Education—if that can be pagnes of France produce, as deeply aster and the planter only. The movement styled education which fits our people for Mynheer Van Dunk, and with as perfect of other craftsmen will never move himn.-- || any thing but what they are to becomes impunity-ihat he entertains his friends He must move himself. With us, he is and any pursuit but the one which most with a grace that even gives a charm to the man who gives the tone to public sen-directly lies before them. his entertainment-lives up to his income, timent. Why? He is the great proprietor

What is the education of our young yet keeps out of debt; travels like a prince, known to the country. The capital of our planter-or rather, what is the education and never challenges the bill when State exists in the soil, and the serfs who of himn who is to become a planter ? Is it we have said all this, we have said work it. They are his. He wields that ever adapied to the end in view is it ever all. His virtues and vices, his toils and capital, and that capital makes our feel. calculated for his pursuit ? Is it not radi. his pleasures are, alike, set down, and the ings, our opinions, ous character. To plant cally defective, as it lacks all connexion Agricultural Society may foot them up is to engage in the highest craft known to with the pursuits of his future life

, and as at pleasure. To him it matters not much our people. It is the object of ambition it is rather apt to lead his thoughts away what is the precise character of the soil with all. It would not be so if the influ- from a consideraiton of it into far and foreign which he cultivates-he asks not the his-ence of the planter were an iota less in bu-channels. tory, he observes not the constitution of the siness and society.

Let us take an example. There is a plant from which comes all his revenue.- How does he employ this influence ? || planter whose resources are such as will It is not his concern upon what principle Let him ask himself ihe question. Could enable him 10 give his children, what is of mechanics his workmen, his horses, he make it greater--could he employ it inis styled, by a frank republican courtesy, a mules and oxen, apply their labor; nor making a better population among our in liberal education. The boy, as soon as he does he deem it his part to know by what ferior classes, and what should be the aim is old cnough, is bundled off to school. particular tenure he holds his lands-or of the moral man in his direction of the vast The neighboring city receives him, and upon what great principle, his rights, as a moral power which he certainly may from the hands of indulgent but watchful citizen, are maintained. He is too apt to wield over our society, and through it over parents, he is transferred to the always unavoid all trouble and concern on these to- our institutions ? There are oiher ques. certain care, and the doubtful management pics. Public opinion expects from him notions which it may serve him beneficially of strangers. He goes to be schooled knowledge on any of them, and he may honestly to analyze, and justly to resolve not with reference to his pursuit as a future live in total ignorance of the whole history | upon. Why is his influence less now, agriculturist, but simply with reference to of his own country, past and present, yer, than what, under a proper direction of his his importance as the son of a wealthy in no wise offend the judgment of those who energies and thoughts, it might become? planter. The distinction is wonderful bemove around him. Let him but pay his The evil and the error is with him.

Hetween the education which a poor and a laxes, he may vote-let him but speak civ-has Limself to blame--none other. The rich boy receives in the world, at school and illy, ke is a good citizen-let him but showman who places a low estimate upon his out of it, when the difference of their condia whholesome warmth on the subject of own pursuits, cannot surely complain that tion is known to those about them. It is his public relations, he is quite as pure a others receive him at his own valuation. frequently ruinous to the one--it is often a patriot as any in the republic.

He has suffered the mechanic to regard his blessing to the other; but the vanity of a Nor, in public and national respects craft with more respect, and to direct more parent would be apt to insist that his son only, may he live in utter ignorance, and of heart and mind to the promotion of it, should be treated with a reference to his live without offending popular opinion.-- until he learns to love the coil which gives own importance, and this vanity blinds him Contract the sphere of your observation, him strength and power. You may see usually to the true interests of the boy.“ and see him at home. He may be totally the mechanic with his badges of plane or

The son, himself, very soon learns to exact uninformed of those matter which morehammer upon his apron—you will never rigorously the defference commanded by his immediately pertain to his own plantation see the plough drawn upon the panel of a

father's income; and under circumstances and its government-sometimes, indeed, planter's coach. He boasts of his negroes such as these, his education, that course he may be even found to despise them, as|and his hands. Does he take up the hɔe of preparation which is to bring his native unbecoming in him to notice, or unworthy and plant himself--does he regard them, mind into activity, inforın it with all necesof his esteem. And this course of conduci, as such old and long tried friends mighi | sary and existing knowledge, and counsel though in such exceeding bad taste, would well be regarded, with respectful venera- it for the labor which in future life it is to call for no rebuke from the general feeling, tion? We fear not. He will avoid the lake, and the patterns and purposes which and would, indeed, rather accord with, than subject

, and is sometimes apt to disparage his pursuits will require him to adopt-revolt, the public opinion. We are some-| it. He has not availed himself of that

under these circumstances, which prompt how strangely given to regard all labours beneficial and blessing Providence, which self-conceit

, stubbornness, and a total want which employ time, and compel exertion, has given him a mind able to direct the sin. lof all method-his education is begun.* as inconsistent with a proper gentility.- ews of labour--he has suffered it to lie He goes to the city, and, in most cases, is Noble blood will not trade in merchandize waste and fallow, until, through neglect, it suffered to choose his own lodging house, can it be expected that noble blood will has grown as bald and barren as the soil

his guardian, and his associates. His sow and reap, and devise moles and means which he has impoverished by the opposite caprices take the place of the experience by which the arts of sowing and reaping extreme of too much use. Had he used

of others, and his first lessons of obedienco shall be strengthened and improved? There the soil less, and the inind more, and used are fully begun by his having his own way must be a revolution in our thoughts, in our both of them differently, they had, both at the beginning. He attends a regular, habits of thinking, before we can hope for of them, been more valuable at this mo- or, not unfrequen:ly, an irregular teacher, improvement. Our planter, himself, mustinent. It is truly melancholly to think that and is himself a most irregular pupil.-make a change-he must not wait for the these are truths which we are writing 1 He goes through his recitations or not, spirit of enlightenment—he must go forth is sad that the planter--he who own and as his parent does not often examine, and seek it. Public opinion must keep three-fourths of the State's wealth, and all he is not often dissatisfied with the reports pace, and go with him in such a pursuit, of its political power—who pays more than of son and tutor. The teacher does not for, whatever may be the achievements of one-half of its revenue-should be at the often inquire what shall be the pursuit and the individual, he will inevitably fall back same time of so little real public impor-profession of the youth. Indeel, he is not into old lethargies, unless stimulated by the tance. Why will he not consider these Jofien perunitted to do so. Nothing can be belief that the world around goes with him things. Why permit the subject to remain more arbitrary or so liile adap:ed to the -that all are stirring in the same fields, uninvestigated. Why not provide a noble; wants or capacity of the boy, as the course and that if he does not push forward in answer, in a new design of a proper and of instructton which he pit pon. He is flexibly, fearlessly, thoughtfully, he will be masculine exertion ?

required to conjugate Greek and Latin left behind in the grand march of enter- We shall now seek to show that this verbs, and a passing glimpse at Greek roois, prize, alone-stagnating and stiffening--degrading condition of things has arisen where he stands.

*Refer to Gillie's Greece for an excellent suinmary necessarily from the defective character of Lor the Laconian inethods of education.

is all that is ever taught of roots at all to|| It was the very last subject, indeed, which || truths scme men who have excelled in the future agriculturist. He manages, by | he was likely to hear of at school.' If his knowledge in the arts and sciences, have dint of driving, drilling, and possibly occa- own mind from previous bias and associa- || labored almost in vain. Neither their oral sional dressing, (all of these italicizedtion, exhibited any tendancy towards the or written addresses contain what, in a menwords to be used in the technical, school, | subject, he would in all probability find tal point of view, is well represented by the and not in a plantation, sense) to make his himself discouraged from any investigation electric fluid in the world of matter—a liv. way after a lapse of years into and through of its principles, and among his city males, ing energy-a vitality of thought and feel, the easier authors of antiquity. Without his chance would be great, if he showed ing, which sets all the elements of the mind appreciating any of their beauties, and in any large disposition that way, of being|| in motion. But to apply this subject to half the number of cases without compre- laughed at, for what they woull be apt to agricultural papers and writers, let no one hending their meaning, he proposes to be, call his inflexible rusticity. When he suppose me to mean, that it is necessary and is, by the courtesy of Professors, ready assumes the robes of manhood and begins every correspondent of the Maine Farmer for admission into college. College ! That to look about him-confident as he has should be possessed of this exquisite feelmysterious institution which is to convert been before about the universality of his ing—this fire of the soul—this How of pathe block into the classcal shapes of ancient genius he now begins to have misgivings.thos and sensibility. This is not necessary. models, and imbue the tough and insensate He is a planter and he is called upon to People love variety. The appetite of the clay with the creative fires of Prometheus. apply his education to his business. What By this time his moral faculties have alla discovery is that which shows him, not dishes. The fact is, people love variety,

greatest epicure is palled by his seasoned become admirably fitted for his admission merely the utterly unprofitable character and variety they will have. And one thing into walls so sacred. He is free to licen- of his education hitherto, but shows him we must remember-Man is a bad animal tiousness. Rudeness is manliness-obtru-that he is to begin anew—that now, for the to drive. I frequently think of what a very siveness, proper spirit, and violence the only first time, he is really to commence his respectable Quaker once said to me, “Jogenuine show of high mindedness and a schooling. What connection had his col-seph, don't thee know hogs are the most like glorious southern fervour. With no paren- lege education with agriculture--how did other folks of any animals in the world. tal eye to watch over, to guard his educa it expound its laws—how, explain its prin. Gratify their appetites and they will follow tion_his morals and his manners are alike||ciples--how, illustrate its practices and

almost any where.” the creatures of his sudden and forward untold its history? He is now to commence impulses. He has no masters but these with the elements of his education, when || ly engaged in the pursuit of any calling, he

But when a man's feelings are once deeplasi-he has no motive but the indulgence he is engaged in the more serious business is then prepared to listen to the relation of of his long unbridled passions. From col- of his life. Its doubts and difficulties are facts and reasonings on the subject; and lege, if not expelled for turbulence and bru- all before hiin, yet he is now to prepare what would be insufferably tedious to unin. tality, he passes on to graduation. His himself for that field of enterprize, in which terested feelings, is delighttul and pleasant education is complete, and he may now the self taught adventurer is alrcady reap-|| to his more ardent ones. And these views choose from all the professions which sur-ling wealth, and establishing character. round and invite him. Nobody can doubt But we must give way to other matter, the Farmer. Do not think because you

afford a lesson to all the correspondents of that he will succeed adınirably as a Divine, |and leave our disquisition over to another cannot write with that fire of thought and a Doctor, or a Lawyer-fewer still are day. there who will venture to deny that he will

feeling which almost makes the ink smoke make a first rate Agriculıurist. He, him

as it flows from the pen, that your commuself, has no doubt upon the subject.

nications are devoid of interest. I do not He

A DISH OF “SCRAPS, ODDS AND ENDS." can chop logic with his master, discuss all

recollect a single communication in the Far..

MR. Holmes :-Brother Carolus thinks | mer, relating to the theory and practice of manner of subjects, quote an occasional passage in the Greek and Latin, blun- we must “convince” farmers “ that the agriculture, which has been uninteresting der over Euclid, and moderately fracture course pursued by our fathers and grand-to me, and which I have not read more

And to those who the head of Priscian. He is prepared for fathers in relation to husbandry, is not the than twenty times over. life and all its purposes. He is ready to best course”—and he then enumerates a have the talent of pleasing, cither by a encounter its vicissitude:-his ambition,

number of particulars, of the truth of which polished, or the happy application of a which is boundless, gives him daring it is necessary to convince them of. That more common every day style, it calls upon enough to engage in any vocation, and he

is true, brother Carolus—but how shall we you, in the most emphatical manner, to begins the worki, perfectly well educated go to work? You say, and say truly, “it awake from your slumbers. Oh, Ichabod, after the fashion of the tiine, and destined would seem that many believe the exercise awake! 10 add ano: her to the long generations of the mental and physical powers have no before him, which have lived and died, and connection in the business of husbandry, Carolus says, we “must convince farleft no sign at their departure. He can do that our fathers and grand-fathers thought mers that three good cows are better than nothing for the craft which he adopts-all that was necessary for mankind to think half a dozen poor ones; and so of all othmust degenerale in his hands. He canno: on the subject, and that nothing remains forer stock.” I once was acquainted with a raise his caste-he may impair and possil us but to work, work, work, without even fact, which illustrates the truth of this senlily degrade it. His country derives no thinking we have the power to think.timent. In the town of Fairhaven and State' good from his patriotism--an education like

Now, if I understand the subject aright, of Massachusetts, something like twenty his makes an erorist only. Society suffers so far as writing and reading are concerned years ago, there lived an old gentleman, a in his cunn.c.ion, for he subjects it to his it is in vain for us to think of getting peo- neighbor of mine, who was remarkable for caprices.

ple to think closely on any subject, unless raising good pork. One year in particular I The cause of this is obvious enough, if we can get their attention closely fixed upon remember he bought two pigs in the spring we would be see. His education, fully in it. We must interest their feelings. How is|(for I never knew him to winter any swine) all respects, is entirely and doubly so, as it this to be done? I answer, by addressing and killed them the same autumn or begintors had no mammer of reference io his pos. | them in such a way as to touch the masterning of winter. I cannot tell exactly their xible pursuit in life. Froin ihe beginning springs of human actions. These, though age when killed, but my reccollection is he has been toiling in the dark. Through there is a general likeness in human nature, very clear, that they were not much over The whole course of his tuition, though hi-are infinitely diversified. One person likes ten months if any,

One of them weighed !\or his probably never forgoten ihai hra short pithy story; and indeed, in this par-three hundred and eighty pounds or somewas the son of a planer, he has probab!viticular there is much uniformity—another is thing over, and the other fell short a few ever kepthe fact in inind hat The boy pleased with the solution of some obscure pounds, say five or six, of the weight of was to become a planter also. Agricul problem, or a long chain of reasoning and his mate.

These were barrows. Some ture, its condition, its elemenis, its instin-argumentation on some favorite topic-an-two or three years after, his son after his inents, its uses, and connexion with all other has a relish for poetry, music or pain- decease, killed a sow, about the same age, other iopics, has never been insisted upon ting, &c. For want of attending to these that weighed 320 lbs. She was a small

From the Maine Farmer.



boned hog, but I thought quite as fat asmode more particularly enables the own. || barrel, in size proportioned to the extent of those killed by the old gentleman. er of the dairy to separate the good milk he dairy, open at one end, with a lid exact

I can say but little how they managed trom the bad. Wihout such attention thely fitted to close it. Close to the bottom, with their swine, but can state one fact whole of his dairy products may be great should be placed a cock, for drawing off, which, perhaps may enlighten the reader as 1) deprecsaied by the milk of one bad from time to time, any thin serous part of much as the whole story, could he hear it. | cow. Toe quantity of butter must dr-lhe milk, that may have generated, which, I saw the son one day feed his, and as helpend on the quality of the milk, as well lif aliowed to remain, acts on the cream, then had leisure he gave his sow a little at as the management of it ; it is therefore and greaily dininishes the richness in the a time, as long as she would eat, and left a important to separate the interior quality quality of the butter. The inside of the little, which he scraped out clean and put ot milk in the first instance, as it se- opening should be covered with a bit of back in his pail. The food at that time cures the best quality of butter : and the close fine wire, to keep the cream back was a very nice pudding made of boiled po- inferior may be converted into the use while the serous is allowed to pass; the tatoes, mashed and minced with meal. My|hat is found most profitable. There is top of the barrel should be inclined a little inference from this fact is, it was his prin-| not only a difference of milk in different forward. ciple to cook the food, and then give them cows, but a differance in the same cow.

ON THE TIME OF KEEPING CREAM BEas much as they would eat and no more. For a more perfect view of this subject,

FORE CHURNING.-Epping butter is in The gentleman sold one half of one the reader referred to the Maine arm

high repute for its superior quality, and of his hogs for 12 1-2 cents a pound with-| er for 1st July.

" the cream is seldom kept above 3, or at out salting. Assuming this price as the The following is the opinion of Dr. the furthest 4 days, but always till there is value of each pork in that market, at that Anderson, a contributor to the Bath Pa- a certain degree ofacidity in the cream either time, and allowing his two hogs or pigs to pers on agriculture. “ The writer is sa- | natural or artificial, as without it they weigh 750, the two were worth when killed tisfied from experience and attentive ob- cannot ensure a good churning of butter; $93 37 1-2. Now had these two swine servation, that if in general, about the sonne keep a little old cream for this use, weighed only 200 each at the age these first drawn half of the milk is separated, otherwise a little rennet :"were killed, they must have been good at each milking, and the remainder only In Suffolk in a large dairy, with a bigb meat, but we could not allow them to have set for producing cream, ard if that milk character for making butter of a superior been worth at that time, in that market, is allowed to stand to throwing, the whole quality and where the butter was to be more than ten cents a pound. This would of its cream, even till it begins sensibly to | sent directly to market, the cream was only have made them worth $40, and the taste sourish, and if that cream is after-schurned the second or third day, but when excess gained by extra care in feeding, &c. wards caresully managed, the butter thus it was to be salied, it was kept a day or $53 37 1-2.

obtained will be of a quality greatly su- two longer, or till it had acquired a certain perior to what can be usually obtained at degree of acidiiy. The reason assigned

Iparket, and its quantity not considerably was, “that butter from the freshest cream From the Maine Farmer.

less, than if the whole of the milk had was better and pleasanter to the taste; but

been treated alike. This therefore is the that which was kept longer would take the .! The first and very important measure is

practice that is thought most likely to salı better." to provide a sufficiently large and con: suit the frugal farmer, as his butter, though venient dairy house, whether the object of a superior quality, could be afforded at

From the result of the experience in be butter or cheese. It should be propor- a price that would always insure it a rapid in this country, it is well ascertained, that

England, and experience and observation tioned to the number of cows, and be suf.

sale." ficient for performing all the necessary

acidity in the cream is absolutely necessary operations without embarrassment. THE

before butter can be produced. It is for this “Much attention must be paid to cleanli. | RAISE THE MOST CREAM.—The precise reason that it is difficult to produee good butness in every thing that relates to it, such heat has not been fixed by experiment, ter in winter. Heating the cream with warm as the shelves, floors, and different imple. but “from the trials that have been made water is a common practice, and it is a ments which are made use of, by daily on this subject, it is believed, that when long while before the butter is produced, scalding, scrubbing, rinsing, and drying, the heat, is from 50 to 55 degrees in Fah. and is usually white, hard, and bitter, with in order to prevent any sort of acidity renheit's Thermometer, the paration of very litile taste. The writer has in times taking place ; for without due regard incream from milk proceeds with the great-|| past inised, in winter and spring, used as these respects, it is impossible that the est regularity, and in the most favorable small quantity of vinegar which has never produce can be of superior quality, or manner. When the heat exceeds 600 failed to produce of a good effect. But such as will keep sweet and good for any || the operation becomes difficult and dan/the Epping practice of using rennet is relength of time. Cleanliness is the least gerous ; and when it falls below 40° the commended. If acidity in the cream is indispensable part of good management." operation can scareely be carried for necessary, and this is acquired by standing, “ A Farmer may have the most valuable ward with any degree of economy or pro- the churning of new and old cream at the

the following course is suggested to prevent breed of cows, and they be fed on the priety." richest pastures, but unless cleanliness

same time.

ON THE PROPER TIME FOR SKIMMING! prevail in the dairy, his butter or cheese

If the dairy is large and cream is churned will never stand high in general estima- MILK:- It is the opinion of some of the three times in the week four vessels to tion."

English writers, "ihat for very fine butter i hold cream should be provided and two This building should be placed over a the milk ought not to stand more than 6 day's cream put into one, say Monday's cool spring, and trees planted round it for or 8 hours; for, ordinary good butter 12 and Tuesday's, and churned after the acidshade. Where there are no springs, the hours or more."

ity has taken place, and the amount of the house should be built near the dwelling SKIMMING.–This requires a dexterity An extract from Dr. Anderson will close

acidity must be regulated by, and an ice house close to it. Ail the utensils connected with the dairy, it must be well done, for if any part of

that can be acquired only by practice, this head. “The separation of butter from must be kept perfectly clean. The milk the cream is left, the quantity of the but.// cream, only takes place after the cream has pans may be of any convenient width,

attained a certain degree of acidity. If it ter will be diminished, and if part of the is agitated before the acidity has begun to but not to exceed four inches in depth.

milk is taken, the quality will be the take place, no butter can be obtained, and w The milk should be strained into the

worse for it. pans as soon as possible after it is taken

the agitation must be continued until the from the cow, and with as little agitation The MODE


sourness is produced, after which the but. as possible, and where the dairy is large When the cream is separated from the milk, ter begins to form. In summer, while the a pail full, as soon as milked, should be it ought to be put immediately into a vessel weather is warın, the beating may be constrained into the pans. Great loss is sus-/|by itself. No vessel can be better adapted inued until the acidity is produced, so that tained by agitation and cooling, and this) for this purpose than a neat made wooden butter may be gol; but in this case the






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