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86.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.


in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States, no deduction is made spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, , is for all foreign-born.]

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above table shows that all of the Bulgarians from whom inforn was received have been in the United States less than ten and 96.7 per cent under five years. On the other hand, only er cent of the Magyars are of a residence less than five years, 5.7 per cent under ten years, 3.3 per cent being in the United between ten and twenty years.


ployers disclaim any special efforts to secure immigrant labor. es of scarcity, one company sometimes resorts to advertising. ommon practice, it is asserted, is for the foremen to secure their led workers from applicants at the gates.

the course of the investigation it was impossible to determine er or not the mercantile houses were conducting employment ies. There was no direct evidence to that effect, and the manof the various establishments vigorously denied that they were ed in this business. At the same time it was evident that they the potent factors in controlling public opinion and in bringing the constant changes in the composition of the labor supply. s also evident that they acted in an advisory capacity, to say ast, in writing and providing the means for aliens to come here. ese services they claimed they were acting in a disinterested way. e same time it was apparent that the existence of a large and or less stable labor supply added greatly to the profits of their ess. Whether, in addition to this, any fee was charged for ing employment for their countrymen was not discovered.


e activity of mercantile houses and saloon keepers in influencing countrymen to come to the community is indicated by a study e addresses given upon the manifests of steamers by incoming grants. An examination of the records at the post-offices in community revealed the following facts as regards the addresses hich a large number of immigrants destined to these two places going:

Box 351, Macedonian saloon, lodging, mercant Boxes 430 and 431. Same as 351.

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Box 37, Macedonian mercantile house.

From this exhibit as to the holders of post-offic ent that in almost every case where a large nur were giving a common destination, the address v keeper or of a mercantile house.

This fact becomes more marked when it is seen of cases where a post-office box number is not g person or firm, these persons or firms are eith mercantile houses or the mercantile house itself. answers to the question "Whom going to join?" with few exceptions the destinations given f those of mercantile houses or saloons.

The real significance of these facts is doubtfu probably is true that the mercantile houses a assisted immigrants to come to the community i an indirect way by getting them work and secur after they had secured work. In many cases th On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that mercantile house was the same as that of the fo immigrants who were living in the rooms which rents. It may be true, therefore, that a large grants having a common destination were simp friends or relatives who had rooms above one houses' storerooms.


This community has under normal conditions, the largest Bulgarian colony in the United S existing depression, it is estimated that there wer in the locality. Almost the entire Bulgarian po men, or married men who have left their families gether, there are not over 40 families and about next largest element of foreign population is prob the Magyars, of whom there is estimated to be n the two cities. There are, under normal conditi 800 and 1,000 Armenians, between 300 and 500 considerable number of Austrian-Servians, Rour ians, Poles, Slovaks, and Austrians. The total immigrants in the two cities is estimated to be 12, there are also a large number of older immigran cipally of Germans and Irish. The total populati nity is estimated to be about 20,000.


In both of the towns proper, the immigrant pop sections apart from the natives. The main con to the location of the immigrant population has be near the place of work. În one city of the com

tric railway, which runs parallel to the car-building and repair Some of the lodging houses are located almost under the of the car shops and along the main line of an important system. The entire section is unhealthy. The atmosphere, unt of the proximity to the car shops and railroad, is filled ust and dirt. The streets even along the electric line are d; here and in the open lots mud and pools of stagnant water On the main streets there are some brick pavements, alks, and cinder paths, but on the side streets there are usually lities for walking.

he American section of the other town or city of the commuere are two sections, where between two and three hundred rs live in cottages, each cottage usually containing two or amilies. Several Armenian boarding houses are also located the town. Moreover, a few of the educated immigrants of arrival live among the Americans, one, an educated Bulgarian, family and lives according to the American standard. The mmigrant races, the Germans and Irish, are indistinguishable ng arrangements and in other respects from the purely native

these few exceptions, the immigrant population of the unity lives in a section of its own, separated by the distance or five city blocks from each of the two regularly constituted This section, as already noted, has been popularly dubbed gary Hollow." It lies along the tracks of the railroad referred ve, and between the plants of the two steel companies and a distance from the car shops and the corn products manufacI establishment. Here the Bulgarians, Magyars, Servians, anians, and Armenians live together, entirely apart from any ican influences.

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condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General ion of women at the present time in the households studied-General occuof males at the present time in the households studied-Comparison of ions of recent immigrants with other occupations-Annual earnings of male f families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the olds studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Annual earnings of 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Relation between the earnhusbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources ly income-Relative importance of different sources of family incomeCables 587 to 607 and General Tables 328 to 337].


following tables show the industrial condition and occupation coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the olds studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of The exhibit is by race of individual:

$7.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born les who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.


includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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588.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.


e includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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