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Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups, and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:
1. Native-born of native father.
Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.
2. Native-born of foreign father.
Persons under this group are classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration is followed.
Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.
In the study of households information is presented—
1. By general nativity and race of the "individual" in all tables. which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.
2. By general nativity and race of "head of family" in tables concerned with family matters-for example, family income.
3. By general nativity and race of "head of household" in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family" and "household" is dependent upon the use of the term "apartment."
An "apartment" is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living-namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping—are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a storeroom partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.
The "household" includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families with or without
In addition to the general tables relating to the general survey of the industry and to the industry in New York City, Baltimore, and Chicago, general tables (102-117) giving data for New York State are presented for comparative purposes.
boarders or lodgers; or it may consist of a group of persons living together, no family included; or it may consist of various combinations of families, "groups," and boarders or lodgers.
The term "family" as used throughout these tables refers in general to the immediate family composed of husband, wife, and children. Groups of persons among whom none of these relations exist are not considered families. Households in which complicated relationships exist have been resolved into the component immediate families. Remnants of families maintaining a home are considered families when either husband or wife is present.
The general tables show results of two practically independent studies, as follows:
STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.
All tables headed "Study of households" are based on information from the schedule which was filled out for certain selected households in each of the several communities. Names and addresses were secured of employees in a given industry who were heads of households; and for each such household a schedule was filled out by an agent of this Commission who visited the apartment and secured detailed information, so far as possible, for every occupant, as well as data in regard to family and household organization and status at
the time of the visit.
STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.
The general tables headed "Study of employees" present data from the schedule relating only to the individual employee. This schedule was filled out by the employee himself or by some one detailed by the employer to the task, to whom the employee furnished data. The general tables of this series, therefore, concern only the history and present status of the employee, while the other series, as has been stated, presents data not only for certain of the employees, but also for members of their households. All data included under the "Study of employees" are tabulated by sex and by the general nativity and race of the individual. For the native-born of foreign father the classification is by country of birth of father and not by race of father.
DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.
Total number of households and persons studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 1.-This table enumerates the households studied of each race, the aggregate of the members of the households of each race, and the persons, male and female, for whom detailed information was secured. All members of households appear in this table under the general nativity and race of head of household.
Number of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 2. This table is a second enumeration of the persons, male and female, who are included in the detailed study of members of households. In this enumeration each individual appears under his own general nativity and race.
Total number of employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 3, 54, 70, 86, and 102.-These tables enumerate the employees for whom data were secured for the "Study of employees." The enumeration is by general nativity and race of employee, and, in industries where both male and female employees report, by sex.
Number of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race: Study of employees. Tables 4, 55, 71, 87, and 103.-All foreign-born employees who report the number of years since their first arrival in the United States are here classified as in the United States under one year, one year, two years, three years, four years, five to nine years, ten to fourteen years, fifteen to nineteen years, or twenty years or over. In all industries where employees of both sexes report, the tabulation is by sex.
Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race of individual: Study of households. Table 5.-This table, which is concerned with members of households, is similar to Table 4, relating to employees.
Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: Study of households. Table 6.-Males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of their first arrival in the United States are here classified according to whether, before coming to the United States, they worked for profit, for wages, or without wages, and are further classified according to the kind of employment pursued. Payments in kind as well as in money are here considered wages. Persons who worked without wages were usually at work with fathers or other near relatives.
Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: Study of households. Table 7.-This table is similar to Table 6, relating to males.
Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United States, by race: Study of employees. Tables 8, 56, 72, 88, and 104.In these tables are shown the number of foreign-born employees who just prior to coming to the United States were in the same industry in which they were employed at the time of the investigation, in farming or farm labor, in general labor, etc. Persons who report their occupation as "none,' 'at home," or "at school," are excluded: from these tables.
Occupation of foreign-born female employees before coming to the United States, by race: Study of employees. Tables 9, 57, 73, 89, and 105.-These tables are similar to Tables 8, 56, 72, 88, and 104, relating to males.
Number of males 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 10. This table shows the number of male members of households 16 years of age or over who are at home and at school, and classifies those who have had employment within the current year ending with the taking of the schedule according to the industry in which they have been employed. The main headings used in this table follow the classification of the United States Census with the following modifications. General labor is here separated from domestic and
personal service; fishing, mining, and quarrying are separated from manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; trade and transportation are distinct from each other. The headings as here used are:
1. Agricultural pursuits.
2. Domestic and personal service.
3. Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.
4. Mining (including quarrying).
5. General labor.
6. Professional service.
The term "Domestic and personal service" includes besides domestic servants certain classes of persons not professional who serve the general public, such as policemen, city firemen, and employees at places of amusement.
Number of females 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 11. This table is similar to Table 10, relating to males.
Number of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 12, 58, 74, 90, and 106.-Employees are here classified according to the amount of their earnings. In some industries earnings are reported by the week, and in others by the day. Where employment is on the time basis the data are for "rate of pay;" where employment is on the piece basis the data are for "earnings."
Number of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 13, 59, 75, 91, and 107.-These tables are similar to Tables 12, 58, 74, 90, and 106, relating to earnings of males 18 years age or over.
Number of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 14, 60, 76, 92, and 108.-These tables are similar to Tables 12, 58, 74, 90, and 106, relating to earnings of males 18 years of age or over. In practically all industries the number of employees under 14 was too small for tabulation.
Number of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 15, 61, 77, 93, and 109.-These tables are similar to Tables 14, 60, 76, 92, and 108, relating to earnings of males 14 and under 18 years of age.
Number of male heads of families earning each specified amount per year, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 16. This table forms a part of the study of family incomes. The information relative to income was secured for the year ending at the time of the agent's visit.
In the "selection of families" for the compilation of data concerning family income, the following classes were omitted:
1. Families established less than one year.
2. Families living two or more per household under complicated financial arrangements, so that exact income from boarders or other sources within the household is uncertain.
3. Families with earnings or contributions representing entire earnings of members who are profit earners or whose net earnings are for any other reason uncertain. That part of the income in this study represented by earnings is net.