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balance of even strictly scientific evidence and explicitly excludes the notion of exis decidedly opposed to it. We have not pediency or of personal benefit. space here to enter into a discussion of the 5. The actions of brutes, even when good arguments which may be brought forward to as regards their effect on the community, are prove man's possession of a moral sense, unaccompanied by mental acts of condifferent in kind from anything possessed by scious will directed towards the fulfilment of any brute. It will suffice here to give in a duty;" and are, therefore, only materially summary form some of the leading objec moral, but not formally so. tions urged against the Darwinian view of 6. It is wholly unnecessary to assume this question by Mr. St. George Mivart that man is endowed with any innate perThis able writer rejects the view that man's ception of what particular acts are right. moral sense is merely a developed form of a It is quite enough to believe that he has an perception of what is useful, upon the fol- innate perception of there being a “higher" lowing grounds :

lower." 1. The utmost degree of morality which We may, in conclusion, add that man's could be produced upon the strictest Dar- possession of a moral sense carries with it vinian principles by "natural selection," ex- the melancholy pre-eminence that to man tends only to what is useful to the species alone is it given to do wrong. Man alone or individual. The first perceptions, how- of all created beings can offend against the ever, as to the propriety of many acts admit- laws of his organism, and on him alone of tedly right would either have been useless all animals is thrown the responsibility of to the species, or at any rate so slightly use- choosing whether he will live according to ful that they could never have been pre- the “higher” or the “ lower” impulses of his served and perpetuated by natural selection. nature. Other animals may offend against In other words, “natural selection might | laws which we have laid down ; but their possibly give rise to beneficial habits,” but offences are committed in obedience to the could never generate any genuine sense of laws of their own organism. Other animals right

fulfil the laws of their being completely and 2. There is no possibility of accounting “instinctively," having no power of departfor the beginnings of perceptions which might ing from these laws. Man alone is enabled ultimately be evolved into a moral sense. to determine when he ought not to act in

3. Many actions admittedly right are cer- obedience to the impulses of his appetites tainly not useful to the community, at any and passions. Man alone has free will, and rate in a savage condition (e.g., the preserva- man alone is conscious of its possession and tion of the aged and the infirm).

of the duties which thereby devolve upon 4. The present sense of right actually him.


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'HE years succeeding great wars have | time devoted to duty was occupied in learn

always been marked by an increased ing and continually repeating and practising impetus given to military science and litera- complicated maneuvres conducted upon ture. The success of the victors and the the most rigid rules. This was all right as causes which produced it, as well as the les far as it went, but instruction should not sons taught by the failure of the vanquished, have ceased there, as it practically did. The point out with equal force to those nations, system was bad in its results. The faculty which have occupied the position of by- of thought was never exercised, the power standers, the faults to avoid and the reforms of reasoning never brought into play. On to adopt.

the contrary, they were distinctly and posiThe victories of Frederick the Great tively ignored and their use forbidden. Stolid caused his army to become the model for obedience to orders, and a rigid adherence Europe, and revolutionized the tactical and to routine and red tape were considered the to a certain extent the strategical science highest type of military discipline and the of war.

His plummet line and pace-stick best evidence of efficiency. The phrase "a are still retained in modern armies, although, soldier has no right to think” became a at the present day, we do not attain the pre- maxim the importance of which, it was supcision of drill which gave to Frederick's posed, could not be overrated. army a power of tactical manœuvring which The effect of this upon the intellect has no other has ever acquired; although the never been properly appreciated. Officers system which arose out of it, and which living all their lives in an atmosphere where required it, is a thing of the past. Napoleon the repetition of apparently unmeaning dualso imprinted upon the warfare of his ties forms the every-day occupation, where times the impetuous and dashing spirit of rule and line have laid down in advance the his military genius; while, in the Autumn manner of performing every minute detail, Manceuvres just completed in England, we cannot acquire that decisive, vigorous prompsee the effect of the late war between France titude of judgment and fertility of resource and Germany.

so necessary in the ever-changing conditions The English Government are taking a les of active operations. The greatest natural son from Prussia, and are imitating the field talents must certainly feel the depressing maneuvres by which the Prussians obtained and rusting effect of want of exercise. that skill in the real practical work of cam

It is a common remark that old army paigning which contributed so much to their officers or men rarely succeed in business success. The system hitherto adopted undertakings in civil life ; and it is as frein our army has been simply ridiculous. quently said that life in the army, in time of Officers and men were taught with great peace, unfits men for ordinary employments care the routine of interior economy, ele. butside of mere routine.

How can it be mentary drill, field movements, &c., on rules otherwise with men carefully trained never laid down with mathematical precision. The I to think ?






Nothing could be more ill-judged than success upon the plains of Bohemia and the present system. One might as well France. teach a child his alphabet, teach hiin every We regret to find that almost all the Engletter and its pronunciation, make him go lish papers make the same complaint, that over it day after day and year after year, the manoeuvres in Hampshire were not free and then on examination expect him to read enough-that even generals commanding

1 without ever having tauzht him to speil, as were tied down to a great extent to certain to make officers repeat manteuvres year fixed conditions. There seems to have been after year and expect them by inspiration to too much constraint-too little freedom and know how to apply them practically, in the , dash. It is nevertheless a matter of conever-varying contingencies and trying straits gratulation that a step has been taken in the of actual war. Sir Henry Lawrence well right direction. says, “No; it is not elementary knowledge The lesson conveyed to England on this "such as barrack life or regimental parades point, applies with equal force to us in Can“that can give that which is most essential ada. We have a well drilled volunteer “to a commander-it is good sense, energy, force, thoroughly equipped and armed and " though'fulness and familiarity with inde composed of active and intelligent young pendent action.

men ; but our staff officers are almost all “ It is not by three times a day seeing imported from the regular service, and the “ soldiers eat their rations, or by marching whole English system, with its rules, regula“ round barrack squares, that officers learn tions, manæuvres, uniforms and pipe-clay, “ to be soldiers, much less generals.”

has been adopted by us as closely as it can

be imitated. One of the general officers in the late

In the Camp at Niagara last June, there autumn campaign, speaking of the advan

were assembled nearly 5,000 men, consisttage of it to a correspondent of the “Times,” ing of one regiment of cavalry, 3 field bat

3 said, “It teaches us to think,”—a remark

teries and ii battalions of infantry. The almost pathetic in its honest simplicity.

force was in excellent condition, and the The Prussians found out the secret of this regimental and company officers deserve the weakness, and seem to have been the only greatest credit for the strength, efficiency nation to have seriously set themselves to and general good appearance of their corps. remedy the evil. They invented a method The management of the camp, however, of exercising their armies as near as possible and the method of drilling adopted, formed approaching the real operations of war, by a brilliant illustration of the old-fashioned opposing two forces against each other, and principles of routine and red tape. The by employing a staff of umpires to decide whole sixteen days were occupied in contindisputed points and to settle which side was ually repeating parade and field moveentitled to the credit of the victory. There ments. It was professed that everything was a continual struggle of wits between the was done “as if it were in actual war,” yet officers and men of the opposing forces, and there was no chain of outposts covering consequently they were obliged to think, the camp as would be absolutely necessary and to decide promptly and clearly their before an enemy; there were no videttes course of action in difficult and continually posted, no patrols sent out, no reconnoitring changing circumstances and conditions. or scouting duty explained or taught. There Their practice-campaigns were in fact grand seemed to be no attempt made to instruct dress rehearsals of the part they afterwards the force in those duties of covering a camp, played in earnest, and with such marvellous a bivouac or a line of march, on the proper

performance of which their safety would ments of Pappenheim's cavalry, who were depend during nineteen days out of every completely cased in armour, with his own, twenty of active hostilities.

who were for the most part destitute of such Our authorities should take advantage of protection. The result proved that these the experience of the late war in this particu-iron-clad warriors were more formidable in lar, and give our volunteers an opportunity appearance than in reality. of learning, by field campaigning with um- Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, pires, those practical duties, the knowledge of gave cuirasses to his cavalry, but it was as a which is so necessary to the safety of an protection against the Spanish lancers. We army in the field.

find also that the cavalry of Frederick the The war seems also to have settled con- Great comprised 13 regiments of cuirassiers, clusively the hitherto vexed question as to 12 of dragoons and 10 of hussars. But the inutility of cavalry of the line in modern Seidlitz, his great cavalry general, does not apwarfare. Heavy cavalry has been continu- pear to have had much confidence in his cuirally decreasing in value in the same ratio as assiers. General Warnery, his bosom friend the weapons for the projection of missiles and compeer, in his "Remarques sur la

· have been improved. Before the invention

Before the invention Cavalerie,” published in 1781, says, “Seidof gunpowder, the cavalry then (under the “litz, whose regiment ought for the useful feudal system) composed of knights and“ (pour le solide) to serve as a model to all

' men-at-arms, formed the main portion of “the cavalry of the universe, Seidlitz, I say, armies, and infantry were practically power- “admitted that, in a march of moderate

“ less to oppose them.

“length, he could not with his regiment reThe invention of gunpowder gave the in- “sist 600 good hussars." fantry a projectile weapon of far greater The Emperor Napoleon revived the heavy

About the middle of the cuirassier at the commencement of the Em16th century, the Spanish musquet was in- pire, by giving cuirasses to several of his vented. It was a large unwieldy weapon, cavalry regiments, and by decree of the 24th fired from a rest with a cushion or pad to re- December, 1809, he also gave them to the lieve the force of the recoil. Its bullets regiments of carabineers. pierced the best coats of mail. The Duke of Great as is Napoleon's authority on all Alva introduced it into the war in Flan- military questions, his opinion on this point ders about the year 1550, and, soon after- is now entirely out of date. From the first wards, opinion so completely changed that use of gunpowder, for some three hundred defensive armour was for a time looked upon years, the infantry musket had not attained with contempt. Cavalry were consequently any great perfection of precision, rapidity much lightened in their equipment, in order or range. The flint-lock muskets of Nato increase their mobility and enable them poleon's era, were much the same as they to diminish the effect of the bullets as much had been since their invention, which took as possible, by shortening by increased speed place so far back as 1630, and were not the interval between their arriving within much more deadly than the matchlock which range of fire and the moment of contact in preceded them. It is only of late years the charge.

that rifles have been brought into use, which Cuirasses were afterwards re-introduced, seem to have arrived at perfection of aim, and have been often used since that date. range and rapidity of fire. These rifles It is stated that Gustavus Adolphus, at the render it almost impossible for cavalry to battle of Leipsig, could not conceal his un-charge over the space which intervenes beeasiness when he compared the accoutre- tween a line of infantry and the extreme


and power.

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