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as on the other two. In fact, these races have been coming to the Marquette Range only about five years. A very indefinite meaning is conveyed by the term Austrian. It embraces several distinct races, and when one employer speaks of an Austrian he is quite likely to refer to an entirely different race from that referred to as Austrian by another employer in the same locality. Generally speaking, the races referred to as Austrian which are most prevalent on these ranges are the Croatian, Slovenian, Slovak, and Magyar. These people have been employed largely within recent years, that is, since 1900, and only a very small proportion are employed at other occupations than common labor. Certain characteristics are common to all these races. As a rule they are not so intelligent as the Finns and North Italians, nor are they so apt and effective. The proportion of men to families is very high. The "boarding-boss" system prevails among these races wherever found, and almost every family has a houseful of boarders. The houses are generally ill kept, and sanitary conditions are bad. The Austrians are generally clannish, and members of the different races live together. They do not take any interest in civic affairs, and but few of them have made any attempt at naturalization.
Belgian. The greater part of the Belgians employed in the iron mines in northern Michigan are on the Menominee Range. While they are employed in small numbers at many of the mines on this and other ranges of the Northern Peninsula, the largest number to be found in any locality are at Norway and Vulcan on this range. One company employs more than 100, while another company in this vicinity employs probably 50. They are clannish, and have not shown any disposition to scatter like the other recent immigrant races employed. They are not so regular nor so industrious as the Italians, but are usually very tractable and are fairly apt in learning the work. They learn English more quickly than do the Italians or Poles. They are not so thrifty as these races, and, like them, drink considerable beer.
PART IV. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE INDUSTRY IN ALABAMA.
Scope of the study-Employees for whom information was secured-[Text Table 164 and General Table 113].
SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
The presentation of data for the iron-ore mines of Alabama has been restricted to a general survey of the operating force for the reason that the great body of employees are negroes and native whites and only a very small proportion are of foreign birth. The employees for whom detailed information was received were obviously working in the Birmingham district."
EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.
An intensive study was made of households the heads of which were employed in the Alabama iron-ore mines, and the returns for these households are included in the tabulations for the industry as a whole. A total of iron-ore miners was also studied and the data thus secured, as already pointed out, are used as the basis for the present report.
The following table shows the number of male employees of each race for whom information was secured:
TABLE 164.—Male employees of each race for whom information was secured.
For a distribution of the labor forces in the Birmingham district, see Vol. II of Iron and Steel Manufacturing. Reports of the Immigration Commission, vols. 8 and 9. (S. Doc. No. 633, pt. 2, 61st Cong.