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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial composition of employees at present time [Text Tables 8 to 15 and General Tables 4 and 5].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

This table shows the total persons engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements in 1880, by country of birth:

TABLE 8.-Number of persons engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements, by country of birth, 1880.

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Of the 4,891 employees studied in the above table, 3,255, or 66.5 per cent of the total were born in the United States. Of the foreignborn, 33.6 per cent were born in Germany, 27.3 per cent in Sweden and Norway, and from 6.6 to 13.9 per cent in British America, Great Britain, and Ireland, respectively.

This table shows the total number of persons engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements in 1890, by general nativity and country of birth:

TABLE 9.—Number of persons engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements, by general nativity and country of birth, 1890.

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In the above table 1,509 of the 3,755 employees studied are foreign whites, 1,431 native whites of native parents, and 700 native whites of foreign parents. There are only 115 negroes in the industry.

With 40.2 per cent of the total number foreign-born and 38.1 per cent native-born of native parents, it would seem that the employees have been essentially American in their makeup, but that the foreign element is now supplanting them.

Of the foreign-born employees, 27.3 per cent were born in Sweden and Norway, 26.8 per cent in Germany, 19.6 in Ireland, and from 2.4 to 5.6 per cent were born in Canada (English), Denmark, Canada (French), and Great Britain, respectively. Of the total, 11.6 per cent were born in unspecified countries.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

An insight into the racial movements to the industry is set forth in the series of tabulations next presented, which show the period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households. Length of residence in this country and period of employment in the industry are not necessarily the same, but are sufficiently approximate to indicate the character of recent and past immigration to the plants engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements and vehicles. The table first submitted, which immediately follows, shows, by sex and race, the per cent of foreign-born employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 10.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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TABLE 10.-Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by sex and race-Continued.

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Of 15,894 persons employed in the manufacture of agricultural implements, the largest proportion, or 28.3 per cent, have been in the United States twenty years or over, 19.2 per cent having had a period of residence of from five to nine years, 17.5 per cent of from ten to nineteen years, and 35.1 per cent under five years. Of the 35.1 per cent who have been in the United States under five years, 22.3 per cent have had a period of residence of from two to three years. Over 50 per cent of the French Canadians, English, German, Irish, Norwegian, and Scotch employees have been in the United States twenty years or over, other races ranging from 46.9 per cent of the Swedish to less than 1 per cent of the Greek, Ruthenian, and Servian, while all of the Servians

and over 75 per cent of the Croatians, Greeks, North Italians, South Italians, Lithuanians, Magyars, Russians, Ruthenians, Slovaks, and Slovenians have been in the United States less than ten years. A larger proportion of the female than of the male employees have been in the United States each specified number of years under five, while a larger proportion of the males than the females have been in the United States each other specified number of years.

The following table and accompanying chart are based upon the same data as the one immediately preceding, but are arranged in a different form, all employees with a residence in the United States of less than five years being presented in one group:

TABLE 11.—Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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