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peasantry instead of the obrok or fine they, as serfs, would have to pay their baron.

The proprietor of this manufactory is an accomplished and amiable nobleman ; his experiment in this case has been highly successful.

One great evil is the impossibility hitherto experienced of keeping the roots any length of time, which makes it expedient they should be worked as soon as possible after they are taken from the ground.

I have been favoured with a specimen of raw and refined sugar from these works, of which I send you a small sample, and am only sorry the distance does not allow me to send a larger one.

The Russian lb. is equal to 14} oz. Eoglish; a pood 40lbs. Russia 36 lbs. English ; a rouble = 100 copecks; sterling value 10 d. Your constant reader,

J, K. Petersburg, June 25, 1836.

[The samples sent are excellent; the raw sugar not quite so good as that from the cane, but ihe refined equal to the best products of our refineries.--Ed.M.M.]



Nathan Bailey, of Leicester, fraine-smith, for certain improvements in, or aditions to, machinery for manufacturing stocking fabric. August 1; six mentis to specify.

John Thomas Betts, of Smithfield Bars, London, rectifier, for improvements in the process of preparing spirituous liquors in the making of brandy; being a communication from a foreigner residing abroad. August 3; six months.

Webs'er Flockton, of the Spa-road, Bermondsey, turpentine and tar distiller, fur certain im, provements in preserving timber. August 3 ; six months.

John Archibald, of Alva, Stirling, Scotland, manufacturer, for certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for carding wool, and dofting, straight. eping, piecing, roving, and drawing rolls or card. ings of wool. August 4; six months.

Ramsay Richard Reinagle, of Albany-street, Regent's Park, Esq., for improvements in the con: struction of carriages for the conveyance of persons and goods or merchandise. August 6 ; six months.

Thomas Binns, of Mornington-place, Hampsteadroad, cixil engineer, for improvements in railways and in the steam-engines to be used thereon and for other purposes. Argust 6 ; six months,

Thomas John Fuller, of the Coinmercial road, Limehouse, civil engineer, for a new or improved screen for intercepting or st: pping the radiant keat arising or proceeding from the boilers and eylinders of steam-engines. August 9; six inonths.

John Burns Smith, of Salford, Lancaster, spinner, aud John Smith, of Halifax, dyer, for a certain

method or methods of tentering, stretching, or keeping out cloth to its width, made either of cotton, sikk, wool, or any other fibrous substances by mam chinery. August 10:; six months.

Henry Pershouse Parkes, of Dudley, Woroester, iron-merchant, for improvements in flat pit chains. August 11 ; six months,

Joseph Douglass, of Morpeth, Northumberland, rope-maker, for improvements in the manufacture of oakum. August 11 ; two months.

Edward Liglit, of Royal-street, Lambeth, civil engineer, for certain improvements in pr: pelling vessels and other floating bodies, August 11 ; six months.

William Newton, of Chancery.laue, for improvements in the means of producing instantaneous ignition ; being a communication from a foreigner residing abroad. August 11; six months.

Robeit Allen Hurlock, of whaddon, Cambridge, clerk, for improvements in axletrees. August 11; two months.

Joshua Butters Bacon, of Regent's-square, gen. tleman, for improvements in the structure and combination of certain apparatus employed in the generation and use of steam. August 13; six months. '

Thomas Gauntley, of Nottingham, mechanic, for certain inprovements in machinery for making lace and other fabrics, commonly called wash machinery. August 15; six months.

George Leech, of 25, Norfolk-street, Islington, carpenter, for a certain improved method of connecting window-sasbes and shutters, such as are usually hung and balanced by lines and counterweights with the lines by which they are so hung. August 15; six months.

William Fothergill Cooke, of Bellapse College, Durham, Esq., for improvements in winding ap springs to produce continuous motion, applicable to various purposes. August 17 ; six months.

Joseph Ha'l, of Margaret-street, Cavendishisquare, plumber, for improvements in the manufacture of salt. August 17; two months.

Francois de Tanscb, of Percy-street, Bedford. square, military engineer to the King of Bavaria, for improvements in apparatus or machinery for propelling of vessels for raising water, and for various other purposes. August 25; six anonths.


William Wainwright Potts, and William Machin, china and earthenware manufacturers, and William Bourne, manager, all of Burslem, Stafford, for an improved method or process, whereby impressions or patterns in one or more colours or metallie preparations are produced and transterred to surfaces of metal, wood, cloth, paper, papier-machée, bone, slate, marble, and other suitable substances, prepared or otherwise not being used or known as earthenware, porcelain, Clvina, glass, or older similar substances. Seale<l July 29.

Walter Hancock, of Stratford, Esses, engineer, for an invention of an improvement or improve. ments upon steam-engines. July 29.

John M ́Dowall, of Johnstone, Renfrew, Scotland, engineer, fop certain improvements in machinery for sawing and cuuing, and likewise in the mode of applying motive power therelo. August 2.

Henry Walker Wood, of No, 29, Austin-friars, London, mercbant, for certain improvements in certain locomotive-apparatus. August 4.

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Johu Barns Smith, of Salford, spinner, and Joba turn out a profitable one, not only for family pnr. Smith, of Halifax, dyer, for a certain inethod or poses, but as an article for sale. The importance methods of lentering, stretchivg, or keeping out of flax crops in Ireland may be judged from the cloil to its widih, made either of cotton, silk, wool, fact, that there has lately been brought into the or any oiber fibrous substances by machinery. market in Derry as much as 200 tons per week, August 11.

averaging in value from 401. to 801, per ton; and

there has been imported this season, at Belfast Henry Gore, of Manchester, macbine-maker, for certain improvements in the machinery or appara”.

alone, above 9000 hogsheads of flax-seed, Riga,

America, and Dutch.- Aberdeen Paper. tus for spinning or twisting cotton and otber fibrous substances. August 11.

Embossing on Wood.--A new and ingenious me. Samuel Hall, of Basford, Nottingham, gentle

thod of embossing on wood has been invented by

Mr. J. Straker. man, for improvements in propelling vessels, also

It may be used either by itself, or

in aid of carving, and depends on the fact, that if a improvements in sleam-engines, and in the method or inethods of working some parts thereof ; some

depression be made by a blunt instrument on the

surface of wood, such depressed part will again of which improvements are applicable to other use

rise to its original level by subsequent immersion Sul purposes. August 15.

in water. The wood to be ornamented baviog Thomas, Earl of Dundonald, of Regent's Park,' first been worked to its proposed shape, is in a state Middlesex, for improvements in machinery or ap- to receive the drawing of the pattern; this being paratus applicable to purposes of locomotion. put in, a blunt steel tool, or burnisher, or die, is to August 15.

be applied successively to all those parts of the Joshua Bates, of Bishopsgate street, London,

pattern intended to be in relief, and at the same

time is to be driven very cantiously, without break. merchant, in consequence of a communication by

ing the grain of the wood, till the depth of the dea foreigner residing abroad, for certain improve. ments in machinery for cleaning and preparing

pression is equal to the subsequent prominence of wool. August 19.

ihe figures. The ground is then to be reduced by planing or filing to the level of the depressed part;

after which the piece of wood being placed in NOTES AND NOTICES.

water, either hot or cold, the parts previously de:

pressed will rise to their former height, and will The New Steam-Boat Novelty. The recent suc.

thus form an embossed pattern, which may be cessful experiment of driving this boat, of the

finished by the usual operation of carving. largest class, with anthracite coal, against the tide and a strong current from heavy rains, at the rate Maise Sugar.-Dr. Ballas having sent two speof 16 miles in the hour, has caused much remark cimens of the maise sugar to the French Academy in our city, as an astonishing fact of great import

of Sciences, M. Biot has submitted them to certain ance on the subject of fuel, which may lead to re- effects of polarisation in order to ascertain their volutions in steam navigation. Dr. Knott, the precise nature. The deviation of the polarised dis'inguished President of Union College, is the rays to the right of the place of polarisation in an well-known proprietor of the Novelty, which he aqueous solution of this sugar alter filtration, and constructed, we believe, with machinery modelled the proportion of its inversion to the left by the after his own ingenious invention, so as to adapt it .. addition of liquid sulphuric acid, have been found ultimately to the same economical principles of by. M. Biot to agree with the pure sngar derived combustion which bave given such deserved cele- from the cave.-Atheneum. brity to his patented stove. The fact of the prac.

Beneficial Effects of Railways.-Some ilea of ticability of lising antlıracite being now ascertained :

the enıployment which railways will find for the 80 as to produce as great a degree of speed as pine.

Tabouring classes may be formed from the fact, that wood, will no longer compel steam-boat proprietors

at this moment between 10,000 and 11,000 men are to import their wood at exorbitant prices from the

employed on the London and Birmingham Raila remote forests of Maine and the shores of the

way only.-Spectator. Taking this muinber as Chesapeake. Nearer by, and almost at our own

data, the average of accidents which occur in the doors, we have the anthracite coal-mines of Penn

prosecution of the works, is certainly under that sylvania, of every possible variety, in exhaustlegg

which happens to an equal number of workmen quantities. In the trips to Albany for one season

engaged in the ordinary occupations of bricklayers, the difference in cost between wood and anthracite

inasons, carpenters, labourers, and so forth. for the Novelty, it is ascertainer, would be 19,000 dollars in favour of coal. The successful navigation -Time and Temperature Measurer in One.-M. of the Atlantic from America to Europe is made Arago announced at the last sitting of the French certain. Among the other great advantages would Academy of Sciences, that a Danish watchmaker be the vast saving of human life, as it is believed has invented a watch which at the end of the day the steady, intense, radiated heat of anthracite, will indicates the mean temperature of twenty-four be in some degree a security against those sudden

hours. accumulations which arise from the inflammable blaze of pine-wood. There is also an entire free.. dom from the annoyance of smoke, and the danger

British and Foreign Patents taken out with of fire from showers of sparks. Wood is now sell. economy and despatch ; Specitications, Dis. ing at the Hudson at five or six dollars a cord. The claimers, and Amendments, prepared or revised ; cost, in fact, of pine-wood is about double that of Caveats entered ; and generally every Branch of anthracite. Tbe passage and freight, therefore, Patent Business promptly transacted. must soon be reduced to half the present rates. . The Novelty is remarkable for the ease with which she glides through the water, the motion being

LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at without any jarring.–New York Evening Star,

the Mechanics' Magazine Office, No. 6, Peterbo. Home-Grown Flax.--We understand the agri.

rough-court, between 135 and 186, Fleet-street. culture practice of sowing flax in this part of the

Agent for the American Edition, Mr. O. Rico, country, for domestic purposes, is becoming much

12, Red Lion-square. Sold by G. W. M. RRYIriore general than it was formerly. The returns

NOLDS, Proprie:or of the French, English, and from Řiga and American seed have, in many in.

Alnerican Library, 55, Rue Neuve, Saint stances, been very great. The Dutch seed has also been found to answer well; and there "is every

Angustin, Paris. reason to think, if farmers would direct their atten. CUNNINGHAM and SALMON, Printers, tion more to the cultivation of this crop, it would


Mechanics' Magazine,

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Sir,- In the month of November, 1835, the London and Birmingham and Great Western Railway Company put forth a proposal inviting engineers, and others, to a professional competition in designs for first-class carriages, ubich was liberally backed by the promised premiuins of 100 and 2001.

As one (and probably one of the humblest) of the competitors, I essayed my skill, and designed what I considered to be a carriage meeting the views of the Company ; I was, however, one of the unsuccessful candidates. Thinking, nevertheless, that some of the arrangements may not be altogether deficient in originality or utility, I solicit its insertion in your widely-circulated work. The following is a copy of the directions given to the competitors: –

" London and Birmingham and Great

Western Railways. « First-Class Carriage. “ To be capable of accommodating at least twelve passengers.

A convenient arrangement for a greater number is very desirable, and will be preserred if it should not involve other objections.

May be placed on four or more wheels; if on six, the interval between the most distant axles, not to exceed ten feet.

“ To rest on springs.

• Particular attention to be directed to the elastic mode of connecting one carriage with another; as also the various expedients which are already employed to prevent the jerking action of the carriage when the train is put in movement, and to the shocks which are generally experienced when the velocity of a train is lessened, or when it is brought to a state of rest.

“ It is considered desirable to reduce, as far as practicable, the height of the body of the carriage from the ground, so that it be not less than twelve or fourteen inches above the level of the rail.

" The extreme width of any portion of the body of the carriage not to exceed seven feet.

“ In furnishing the above particulars, the Directors are to be understood as simply stating what appears to them to be desirable with reference to the present state of railway experience in the construction of carriages for passengers. Plans, therefore, which may not be in strict accordance with these data will receive the most mature consideration, according to the advantages they may severally appear tu possess.”

The following are the few observations I addressed to the Directors :

mitting for your approval a de.

sign for a first-class carriage, I have adhered as nearly as possible to the printed instructions, and beg to offer a few observations by way of explanation.

« The body is in three divisions, one double and two single. The double division is intended to carry eight persons, and each of the single ones four, which, with the two conductors' seats, allows room for eighteen passengers. The depth of and (in the former) the space between the seats is considerably more than those afforded by ordinary stage-coach conveyances, and the consequent ease and comfort of the passengers are thereby insured.

The carriage having both ends alike, will not require turning on the rails; and may be drawn or propelled without altering the position of the passengers. The extreme length of it is fourteen feet; the width, six feet six inches; the height from the rail to door is two feet two inches; and the whole height is seven feet.

" It will be observed, that the springs at. tached to the connecting rods at each end of the carriage are different, and must be a mat. ter of choice or experience. That marked A acting upon cranks will throw the pressure of the springs outwards, and will consequently prevent, or considerably lessen, the concussion and jerking action upon the train being put in motion or stopped.

• The one marked B acting with slidingrods, drawing from a long spring, and buffing against a .double nut-cracker, will hare a similar effect.

“ From the axles cranks are attached to the springs, and pressing outwards will allow the wheels to rise in the slots, and surmount any obstruction of five or six inches without throwing the body out of its equilibrium.

“ I presume that a tender will be attached to the train for the conveyance of luggage; but if it is deemed indispensable, an imperial, and rods may be attached to the top, for the carrying of the same. There is room for stowage under each of the seats. " I remain, Gentlemen, with respect, " Your most obedient servant,

" EUGENIUS BIRCH. “ Feb 1, 1836."


Sir,- I have read with much interest the various articles upun the “ Electrical Theory of the Universe," and I am glad to find, from Kinclaven's last letter on the subject, that no great danger is to be apprehended of this earth or any of the other planets being " whirled into the body of ile sun." But, Mr. Editor, there is another new system of geology wbich is nuw


371 making some noise, the following ac. M'GAULEY'S LOCOMOTION BY GALVANISM. count of which I copy from the catalogue The announcement by the Rev. Mr. for the present year of the Society for the

M'Gauley at the meeting of the British Illustration and Encouragement of Prac

Association at Dublin last year, that he tical Science, Adelaide-street:

had invented a method of applying gal. “ No. 10, p. 46.-A Geological Globe, vanism as a motive-power, has excited presented by Sir John Byerley.

considerable interest in the mechanical " This globe, the invention of which is world. The whole scheme has, liowever, due to M. Guesney, of Constance, in Nor

come to nothing, as will be seen by the mandy, is intended to show the changes on

following statement of the proceedings the earth's surface, produced by the precession of the equinoxes, whereby the pole of

upon the subject, which we extract from the equator revolves round that of the eclip

the Athenæum's report of the second day's tie in 25,920 years (Delambre),

(Tuesday, August 23rd) proceedings of “ The fixed circle is the ecliptic, or that

the Association at Bristol :line to which the sun would be vertical in The Rev, J. W. M'Gauley read “ A series the course of a tropical year, were there no of Experiments in Electro-Magnetism, with diurnal motion. The moveable circle repre- reference to its application as a Moving sents the equator, preserving the same angle Power." with the ecliptic ky cutting it in different Previously to the detail of the experiments points at every succeeding equinux; by on this subject, he thought it might be inwhich means the pole of the earth passes teresting to the Section to relate wha: he through 46° 56' of latitude in about 13,000 had done since the last meeting of the Assoyears; by this means the Qural mountains ciation, in the application of electro-magnet. become in the latitude of Mexico and Kam- ism to machinery. He had intended, originschaiką within the tropics. The pole will ally, to have exhibited the improvements, pass over France and Germany; and then but should content himself, for the present, Edinburgh will be due south of London. with the detail, rather than the exhibition. The author thus accounts for the variation He was obliged to confess, that he was the of the magnetic needle, the discovery of tro- less anxious prematurely to publish results, pical fussils in the polar regions, the advance since he found that the working model of and retreat of the sea, the relative height of last year, given to the Section, undoubtedly mountains, earthquakes, volcanoes, &c." with the intention of its future improvement, According to Mr. Mackintosh's theory,

or the pursuance of experiments by other all the inhabitants of this earth on some

memhers, had led, on several occasions, to luckless day are to be roasted alive; but

the production of papers, and the exhibi ion

of models, l:y those from whom it might not according to the above theory, all the inhabitants of Europe, at least, are to be

be expected—with a pretension to originality,

but with no change in the principle, and frozen to death unless they remove their almost none in the details. quarters. Edinburgh is to be due south

The working model exhibited to the Secof London in the space of 13,000 years! tions at the last Meeting of the Association When this takes place, England will not must be acknowledged as a proof, to some be troubled with inany Scotchmen-hey extent, at least, of the applicability and the may then blow up the bridge of Berwick, manageableness of electro-magnetism as a for “ Sandy” will still direct his course

moring power ; but the question then remainto the south (a favourite Scotch point of

ing was, whether or not it was likely to be the compass), and will arrive at what is

applied to useful purposes; for this, several

things remained undone. now the polar regions, but which will

Powerful magnets were to be constructed. then be a most delightful climate. But,

The ordinary formation of electro-magnets Mr. Editor, on this subject I should like furnishes us, at best, with an apparatus to have the opinions of some of your clumsy in the extreme, and, as we shall see, scientific correspondents; my present opi. of very limited power. This arises from the nion of the maiter is, that it is all non- very nature of an electro-magnet; for the sense.

lifting power may be very great, although the

attracting power at a small distance may be I am, Mr. Editor,

very trifling. There must be a limit, also, Yours with respect,

to the size of these magnets, for. if the mass

of iron be too great for the helix, it is not AN OLD CORRESPONDENT. saturated with magnetism, and the helix Aug. 20, 1838.

capnot be unlimited, as, beyond a certain

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