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The Origin of Property shown by an elucidation of the Cause of Value.Moral law shown to be connected with the acquisition of all property. · Property shown to possess a social not an individual character. rights of man in society shown to be relative not absolute. The moral character of the subject noticed by Adam Smith, but insignificantly treated of by him and evaded. The impossibility of establishing the truth of Political Economy without introducing the moral law of the Christian religion.

In the preceding chapter, I commenced a constructive argument by showing the manner in which the beginning or germ of a social compact must necessarily be composed. By the simple exposition there given, the course was exhibited by which mankind acquire possession of those things that are indispensable for supporting existence. I showed, that whilst the earth is assigned to man as the sphere of his present habitation, the varied elements of which it is composed constitute the substance from which he is to extract and to form all those things that may be necessary for him to possess and to enjoy. I showed, moreover, that one great condition is made indispensable on the part of man, which is the due exertion, on this sphere and in connexion with it, of the faculties implanted in him, these being all comprised by the term Labour; so that, in the Two distinct spheres thus adverted to, we discern, on the one hand, the special agency of God the Creator; and on the other hand, the special agency of Man, the permitted and appointed appropriator, or the Creator of that system of elaborated matter, or social system, by which he is to live.

Labour being thus directed, and the reward or fruit of one

man's labour having become larger than is necessary for himself, or his own consumption, a part of it is proffered to another man. The same fact, however, has occurred in the case of this other man. The result is, a voluntary relinquishment on the part of one of an occupation which can be performed for both by the labour of one, and the adoption, in its place, of a second employment, whereby each man directs his labour towards increasing the advantage and enjoyment of himself and the other; thus constituting a social union or compact, the agreement being: "I will labour and produce for you, if you will labour and produce for me,”—an exchange of commodities being the result. A most important element of the indispensable course of action thus described, is required to be especially noticed and remembered. It is, that the interest of A, the one party, is placed in the keeping of B, the other party; and, likewise, that the interest of B is placed in the keeping of A; for the giving up, in part, a reliance upon themselves, was induced not alone by the individual advantage accruing from the transaction, but also by the TRUST that the one reposed in the other. For, as both parties possessed the power of acquiring that aliment or food upon the possession of which the preservation of life depended, neither of them would have relinquished the occupation of labouring for, or acquiring, food, unless he had been assured that in doing so he would continue to hold the power of procuring the necessary food; though not directly by means of his own labour, yet indirectly by means of the labour of another man. The courses of labour here involved, and the exchange of the productions of labour, must, in the very nature of things, have been accomplished through an AGREEMENT between the two parties concerned and connected. A fellowship and partnership must, in fact, have been constituted; the condition being, that due labour should be

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employed by both parties for procuring the commodities required, and a due exchange of the commodities when so acquired observed.

Now, it is apparent, upon the face of this state of things, that there is the utmost necessity for the supervening influence and power of a moral law of action. If the condition of man had been ordained to be, and to continue, merely such as that of the brute creatures, each supplying his own wants, aided only by his instinctive and physical capacity, never entering into a state of mutual assistance and compact, no moral law need supervene; but by the very first step that is made into a social state, there is introduced the fact of dependence, a trust and dependence distinct from, and in addition to, that general dependence which we have upon God as the one bountiful and only provider of all matter.

The dependence, then, which I have shown to exist in a state of social intercourse or compact, namely, that of A depending upon B, and B depending upon A, involves a necessity for the introduction of a moral law, which shall influence or regulate the principle of action — the will or the agency of man- towards a right use or application of the matter which is subject to its control. God having ordained that all things, whether necessary, convenient, or luxurious, shall be procured by the sole instrumentality of labour, aided and improved by the assistance which man may render to man by the divided operation of labour,-it must be allowed, that to such a development, appropriation, and enjoyment of matter, the same all-wise and perfect Being would affix a moral law that should be compatible with the attributes of his own character, that is, a just and comprehensive moral law, founded on the love or the sympathetic affection of creature for creature. To suppose otherwise would be to infer that God has ordained an imperfect or immoral law as

necessary to guide the practice of man, which would be arraigning or depreciating his attribute of goodness, and placing him in alliance with injustice and evil, or declaring him to be the creator and promoter of evil. The course which my argument must hereafter take, will be in connexion with a moral law; showing, in every instance, that good moral action being a cause, good physical state will be the result; bad moral action a cause - bad physical state an effect. It will be evident, to every intelligent reader, that the introduction of a second or parallel law, such as the moral law, into a scientific research, such as that by which the law of the development and appropriation of the material kingdom is to be investigated and explained, must form a useful and most valuable adjunct; for whenever any matter arises which is calculated to perplex or mislead the understanding, a reference to the great adjunctive rule will be a ready test whereby it may be ascertained whether the deduction or conclusion be or be not correctly worked.

I think it is desirable that I should restate here those points of my argument which I have already advanced. They are as follows:- Man, in his original state, an active, intelligent, though destitute, being. His sphere the earth; its matter passive or dormant, though capable of being wrought or moulded into an infinite variety of forms adapted to his use. Labour, the operating or active instrument. Food, the first thing required and procured, and this ordained to precede or be in advance. A superabundant acquisition or supply of the first want, or food, incites to a division, or a distinct application, of labour, whereby a second want, clothing, is supplied, a portion of which being proffered in exchange for a portion of food, the great principle of value, exchange value, springs up, caused by demand. Thus, two parties, A and B, are in union with, or dependent on, one

another. This dependence establishes the necessity for, and brings into operation, a moral law.

Such being the state of my case at present, I will now carry on my argument a little further. I will suppose that observation and practice have improved the knowledge and expertness of both A and B; the consequence is, that they make further advances in their respective employments, and acquire a still larger store. This enables a third division of labour to be effected by means of C, the offspring of A, who labours separately for materials to build a habitation with, and in exchange for his surplus production of rude timber, continues to receive a portion of the food acquired by his parent A, and of the clothing acquired by B. Again, D, the offspring of B, labours for fuel, and in like manner is supported in his undertaking by the conjoined demand made by A, B, and C. Thus, there are four distinct parties, A, B, C, and D, who are working in conjunction; and there are also four distinct commodities, which are produced or brought together for exchange; each party concerned in the labour of acquiring, deriving benefit from the employment of the others as well as from his own employment.

Here, then, is shown to exist, though in an infant state, a community with its stock; the aggregate of persons forming the community, the aggregate of consumable or exchangeable productions forming the stock. Such are the sources of the temporal well-being of mankind; and whether we have to regard them as being two or two millions, four or four millions, eight or eight millions; or, indeed, as any number whatever, I propose to show that the great general principle, that is, the law of development, improvement, or progress, must, of necessity, be and continue the same.

The inference deducible from the matter of fact which I have now advanced, is, that in order to insure the physical well-being of a community, it is necessary that stock should

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