Lapas attēli

In the preceding table 52 per cent of the 1,646 persons studied are females. The proportions of the foreign-born are almost exactly the same, while the difference in the proportions of the males and females of the native-born of foreign father is less marked. But five races, the native-born of German father, Dutch, Germans, North and South Italians, report a majority of males, and in the case of no race is the proportionate difference very great, the most striking differences being noticeable in the case of the Poles, of whom 60 per cent are females, and the South Italians, 59.8 per cent of whom are males.

In the table below the persons for whom detailed information was secured are shown, by sex and general nativity and race of individual. TABLE 218.—Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race of individual.

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Native-born of native father, White.
Native-born of foreign father, by race of

Italian, North.
Italian, South.


Bohemian and Moravian.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.

1 15 55


91 34 59 154

1 162

25 234

1 74

1 30 102

2 234 192

75 106 256

1 381

82 544

1 159



9 3.3

.0 7.4 5.5 2.1 3.6 9.4

.1 9.8 1. 5 14. 2

.1 4. 5



8 2.6

1 6.3 5.7 2.3 2.6 5.7

.0 12. 3

3. 2 17.4

0 4.8 .1


9 30

.1 6.8 5. 6 2. 2 3 1

7. 5 (a)


2. 4

15. 9 (a)

4.6 (a)


57 310


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Of the total number of persons for whom detailed information was secured 63.2 per cent are foreign-born, 33.9 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and 2.9 per cent native-born whites of native father. Of the foreign-born and native-born of native father information was secured for a slightly greater proportion of females than of males. Of the native-born of foreign father information was secured for a slightly greater proportion of males. Information was secured for a considerably larger proportion of Ruthenians and Ma


other race.

gyars than of



History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of members of immi

grant households studied— Estimated population of Community D, in 1909, by race[Text Table 219 and General Table 170].


Immigration to this community, on a large scale, began with the opening of the mills, in the period beginning with 1889 and still continuing. As early as 1847–1850, when a railroad was built, and in 1856, when a canal was constructed, Irish immigrants came to the community, but this immigration was never heavy. During the years which followed, Dutch, English, Irish, and Scotch immigrants arrived from other parts of the country, and from abroad, to work in the few woolen and worsted mills which were established from 1869 to 1889. This immigration was from the north of Europe and was a gradual immigration in no way to be compared with the sudden influx of races from southern and eastern Europe which came with the establishment of various industries.

Beginning, then, with the year 1889 as the initial year of immigration, the history of the immigration of each race is treated below according to the numerical position of that race in the population of the city at the present time. In each case only an approximation of numbers can be given, drawn from estimates made by priests, steamship agents, business men, and old residents. The Poles are the most numerous of the immigrant races in the community. While Poles have been in the city for a least twenty years, their number in 1896 amounted to but 500. That immigration from this source has been steady may be seen from the following figures of Polish population: 1897, 900; 1898, 700; 1899, 1,000; 1900, 1,400. The year of largest immigration, '1901, swelled the total to 2,000. The three years following averaged about 500 persons each, making the total population of this race in 1904 approximately 3,500. The years following saw a diminution in immigration, and up to the beginning of the panic in 1907 only 500 more were added to the population. During the panic (1907–8), as is the custom with all races in times of industrial depression, many returned to their homes, and but few ventured to come to this country. At present the Polish population is about 4,500. The work which these people do is almost entirely unskilled. Both men and women secure employment in the many textile and other manufacturing establishments of the community, the men as laborers or operators of machines and the women in the handkerchief factories and also in the woolen, worsted, and cotton mills. The race which stands second on the

, list of the foreign-born population is the Irish. As with the other English-speaking races, Irish immigration to the community has been relatively light since 1889. This immigration began as early as 1850,


and continued at an increasing rate during the two following decades, reaching its highest numbers in the period from 1870–1880, and from that time falling off until by 1889 there was scarcely any Irish immigration. Up to the present time this condition has remained unchanged, and the Irish population, which now numbers 4,200, shows a tendency to decrease more rapidly than that of any other

The Irish were the first unskilled immigrant laborers to come to the community in numbers. They were the people who laid down the railroads, built the canal, and furnished unskilled labor on the farms and wherever else it was needed. A large number of them found employment in the textile industries and later went into business as grocers, saloon keepers, or butchers and into other occupations. Their places as laborers have been taken by the Italians, and to-day the section of the city formerly inhabited by the Irish and Scotch is now occupied by the races of southern and eastern Europe. The Polish immigration to the community was followed by that of another race of central and eastern Europe the Slovaks. During the period from 1885 to 1889, Slovaks began to come to the city in small numbers, and in the decade from 1889 to 1899 the stream was constant and increasing until in the year

last mentioned they numbered about 2,000. Since that time the immigration of Slovaks, while not as heavy as that of the Poles, has not been far behind, having averaged about one hundred a year. It was especially heavy in 1906, but in the following years of the panic, 1907-8, it became a negligible factor. The present population is estimated to be 4,000. The work performed by Slovaks in this community is that of unskilled and unorganized laborers. Like the Poles, the Slovak men and women find employment in the textile establishments, the handkerchief and rubber mills, and in other industries where work of an unskilled nature is required. The Hebrew immigration resembles that of the other races from eastern and central Europe, and extends over the same period of time 1889– 1909. With persons of this race the motive for coming to the United States have been religious and social, rather than economic. The Russian Jews form three-fourths of the total Jewish population, although Polish, Austrian, and German Jews are present in considerable numbers.

These people are the shopkeepers and property owners of the immigrant district. Many of them have come equipped with trades, which they have been unable to practice abroad. Among their number are carpenters, masons, bricklayers, machinists, and other mechanics. Fewer of the Hebrews than of the members of other races go into the mills of the community. Their desire seems to be to enter trade, and from small beginnings many of these people have built up well established businesses. This immigration has been an almost constant factor in the history of the city. Since 1889 it has been, after the Polish and Slovak immigration, the largest single element in the immigration to this community, and one which seems to increase rather than to diminish. The present Hebrew population numbers about 3,500. The Ruthenians, or, as they call themselves, “Little Russians,” immigrated to community D during years of the Polish and Slovak immigration. They come largely from one province of Austria-Hungary, Galicia, and, like the Jews, they have formed a constant factor of immigration. Before 1889 the Ruthen

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ian immigration was very small, but since that time has been large in every year except that following the panic of 1907–8, when it ceased temporarily. The present Ruthenian population is 3,200. These immigrants, like those of the other races of central Europe now coming to this country, are unskilled workers, and find a place in the manufacturing establishments of the community, where a large amount of unskilled labor is necessary. Like the Poles and Slovaks, the men and women of Ruthenian race work in the textile establishments of the city. The Ruthenian women, together with the Polish, Slovak, and Magyar women, are largely employed in the handkerchief factories. The Magyars or Hungarians constitute another large element in the population of the city. These people were the first of the races of central Europe to settle in the city, one member of the race having come in 1879. Magyar immigration, on a large scale, began in 1889, and followed the same general course as the Polish, Slovak, and Ruthenían immigration, from which it is not easily differentiated. The Magyars, like the Poles, Slovaks, and Rutħenians, are also unskilled laborers and perform the same kind of work. Their women find employment in the handkerchief factories of the city, while the men perform unskilled tasks in the cotton, woolen and worsted, rubber, and dye works of the city. This immigration has been constant, except during the panic years, and has been in no way different from other immigration from central Europe. Of the present population of about 3,000, approximately 2,000 are Roman Catholics. German immigration to the community began with the opening of a large woolen and worsted mill in 1889. The Germans who found employment in this mill came very largely from a single city in the State of Saxony. The capital and management of this mill, which caused this immigration, also came from Germany. In the five years, 1890–1895, the German immigration to the community was very heavy, for all who left Germany were assured of positions in the mill referred to. The immigrants came with trades, not as unskilled laborers, and took up their employment immediately upon arrival. In 1899, officials of the mill opened a second establishment, in which large numbers of Germans found employment.

Since 1900 German immigration has been light. In 1904 a third mill was established and this gave employment to large numbers of Germans already here. The two mills most recently opened, were, while independent of the earlier plant, established by men who had been connected with the original company. With the exception of the few German mechanics almost the entire German population may be found working in these three mills. At present the German population of the community is about 2,500. The earliest immigrants to the community were the Dutch. Farmers of this race were known to reside in this vicinity as early as 1678. These people emigrated from New York and Connecticut, on account of more liberal land laws in effect in New Jersey. The more recent immigration of the Dutch to Community D began as early as 1860, and during the decade from 1870 and 1880 many persons came to obtain employment in a textile mill in an adjoining village. The Dutch immigration, like the immigration of other races of northern and western Europe, had greatly diminished by 1889, and, since that time, has not in point of numbers been comparable with the immigration of the races of

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central Europe. There has been a change also in the character of

a the immigration, for while the immigrants of the period before 1889 were entirely unskilled, nearly all of the few persons now coming have trades. These recent arrivals secure positions as artisans and are not forced to take employment in the mills. In the census of 1900 the Dutch population is given as 1,315, and in the nine years following a gain of about 700 has been made, making a total, at the present time, of about 2,000. The South Italians followed the Germans, Poles, Slavs, and other races to the city, but came in gradually. In 1893 there were few Italian families in the community, and the majority of these had come from a larger neighboring city, where they had formerly worked in the silk mills. Italian immigration was heavy during the years of 1899, 1900, and 1901, and has continued to increase since that time, except in the years 1907–8, when it was very light. The Italian immigrants in this community are a very uncertain quantity, as they exhibit a stronger tendency than do the immigrants of any other race to visit the mother country whenever they have sufficient money to make the journey. In the summer and fall they leave America and journey to Italy, returning the next spring. The members of the South Italian colony, unlike the aliens from central Europe, do not live in the immigrant settlement described, but make their homes in a different part of the city. The Italians in Community D secure employment in the textile mills as laborers for contractors, and a number of them, on account of their proficiency in penmanship, have secured clerkships. Some are engaged in the fruit business and as street venders. Italian women are employed in the mills to a less extent than the women of any other race.

In 1900 the population of both North and South Italians was 783. Since that time Italian immigration has kept pace with that of all other races, and the state census of 1905 shows a total North and South Italian population of 1,723, an increase of about 120 per cent in the five-year period.

The South Italian population was estimated, in 1909, at 1,800. While there were, in 1909, fewer Italians than English in the community, the North Italian immigration may be most conveniently discussed at this point. Like the South Italians, the North Italians occupy a separate quarter of the city. Their labor is of a distinctively higher type than that of the South Italians. The North Italian immigration to the community had its inception in 1888, when a few individuals came to live in the city. Most of the immigration which followed was not direct, although some of the North Italians came directly from the old country to friends already here. To a greater extent than the South Italians members of this race came to the community on account of the industries located there. Large numbers first secured work in the silk mills of a neighboring city, and then found employment in the textile establishments in towns lying close to the community studied. From the statements made by priests, postmasters, and steamship, agents it appears that the North Italian immigration has been large since about 1900. A conservative estimate places the North Italian population of the community in 1909 at 700.

The North Italians in the community are occupied in the industrial establishments, and to a less extent, in small trading and shopkeeping. In the cotton, woolen, and worsted mills, they are as

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