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the first contained an ante-room, a dining-room, and a small chamber formed in one of the two turrets which flanked the building : this small chamber contained the library of the keeper of the archives of the order of Malta. The second story was similarly arranged: one of the apartments was the bed-room of Marie-Antoinette and the dauphin ; the other, which was very small, was occupied by Madame Elisabeth and the queen's daughter. The king slept 1 in a room on the third story, and he had a small sitting-room 2 in the turret. The fourth story was closed.
Louis rose at six 3 in the morning, and shaved himself.4 Cléry, his only servant, after he had been deprived of Chamilly and Hüe, assisted him to dress. The king then went into his small room to pray, but the door was left open, in order that the municipal guard, who was always there, might not lose sight of him. Till nine o'clock he employed himself in reading, and Cléry went down to assist 8 the queen and the dauphin, Madame Elisabeth and the young princesses ; for since the 20th of August, all the attendants of the royal family had been sent away. At nine the royal family breakfasted in the king's rooms, and at ten the queen, with Madame Elisabeth, and the princesses, left the king alone with his son, to whom he gave lessons in o geography, a subject 10 with which Louis was well acquainted, in history, and the 11 elements of Latin. Marie-Antoinette occupied herself 12 with the education of her daughter, and the princesses passed the rest of the day in sowing, knitting, and working at 13
I slept,' i. e., had his bed there ; impérial, an imperial guard (a use coucher (neuter), in this sense. man of that body). -As to the word dauphin,' higher See
page 136, note 1. up, see page 5, note 6.
'occupied.' un petit salon, 3 See page 197, note 9; 'in the,' 10 See page 27, note 2. du.
11 et enseignait l'histoire et les. * See page 38, note 11.
The English construction would be 5 garde is feminine when it re- inelegant in French, after renderfers to a body, but masculine ing in the first instance, as must when it refers to a man: la garde be done, 'in' by de. impériale, 'the imperial guard 12 s'occupait de son côté. (body of guards), and un garde 13 et à des ouvrages de.
tapestry. When the weather was fine, the royal family walked in the garden in the middle of the day, accompanied by four municipal officers, and a commander of a legion of the National guard ;2 but the space allowed for the exercise of the royal family along the alley of trees, was purposely contracted 3 by building some walls and other obstructions. The dauphin amused himself with running about and playing at 4 ball or quoits, and his father often played with him. From the upper windows of the houses which commanded a view of 6 the garden, anxious looks were darted towards the royal prisoners from faithful friends and adherents, some slight' consolation for the coarse and vulgar behaviour which they often experienced from their guard.8 Santerre, with two aide-decamps, daily inspected the tower, and regularly made his report to the Commune. Sometimes the king would speak 10 to Santerre ; the queen never spoke to him. At two the royal family dined; the king alone drank wine, and very
the rest drank only water. After dinner the king and queen would play at picquet or some other game ; and the king would take a short nap, during which the ladies worked in silence at their needles, 11 while Cléry exercised the young prince in another room at such games as were 12 suitable to his age. The rest of the time till supper was occupied by reading aloud : 13 the king or Madame Elisabeth read. 14 At eight the dauphin supped,
i See page 52, note 4, and page French grammar, when a com41, note7
pound substantive is formed of two 2 See preceding page, note 5. substantives joined by a preposi.
3 Turn, “but they (on) had pur- tion, the first alone takes the mark posely contracted the space,' &c. of the plural : as, des chefs-d'oeuvre 4 at the.'
(John Bull invariably writes chef5 See page 20, note 11.
d'ouvres), des arcs-en-ciel (rain6 Simply, commandait; or, do- bows), &c. But aide-de-camp can minait sur.
hardly be called a compound sub7 'some slight;' simply, légère, stantive, for it is generally spelt in or faible. 8 See page 45, note 9, three distinct words, without hy
ģ deux aides de camp. This is phens, as I have written it above. one of the many French words 10 See page 45, note 4 which, as soon as they are adopted worked at their needles,' into the English language, are travaillaient à l'aiguille. subjected to the rules of English 12 Simply, à des jeux. grammar and orthography. See 13 une lecture à haute voix. page 132, note 19. According to 14 • made by the king,' &c.
and Louis used to amuse the children with riddles from a collection called the Mercure de France. Cléry put the boy to bed, after he had said his prayers to his mother.
At such moments as he could steal, in the evening, when the dauphin was going to bed, and when the royal family was supping, Cléry told them such news as he was able to learn. He had contrived to hire a crier, who came every evening, and posting bimself under the windows of the Temple, called out the chief events of the day as loud as he could, under the pretence of selling the journals. Cléry stationed himself in the little room in the turret of the third floor,4 and listened to the crier's report of 5 what was going on 6 in the Convention, in the Commune, and the news of the armies. After supper the king parted from his family and went up to his little room, where he read till midnight. He read Montesquieu, Buffon, Hume's history in English, the Latin and Italian classics, and the Imitation of Jesus Christ, in Latin. It is said that when he left the Temple he had got through ? a great number of volumes of different works.—(GEORGE Long, France, and its Revolutions.)
In those who were destined for the church, we would undoubtedly encourage classical learning, more than in any other body 10 of men; but if we had to do with 11 a young man going out into 12 public life, we would exhort him 1 used to amuse;' use simply
9 à l'état d'ecclésiastique. the imperfect indicative of amuser (page 1, note 3, and page 55, notes). 11 avions affaire d (some write
2 to put to bed,' coucher (active). à faire, but it is wrong),
3 to go to bed,' aller se coucher ; °12 qui eût fait choix de ; or, qui ---se coucher is more particularly dat embrasser. The subjunctive 'to get into bed.'
must be used here, not the indica4 % of the third floor of the tive, as 'if, which precedes, imturret.'
plies a kind of doubt about the 5 'the report of the crier on.' positive existence, or rather im6 'to be going on,' in this sense, plies the absence of our positive
knowledge, of any particular young to get through,' parcourir. man of that class, to whom we 8 Use the conditional, and the could point. reflective voice.
to contemn, or at least not to affect the reputation of a great scholar, but to educate himself for the offices of civil life. He should learn what the constitution of his country really was—2 how it had 3 grown into its present statethe perils that had threatened it—the malignity that had attacked it—the courage that had fought for it, and the wisdom that had made 4 it great. We would bring strongly before his mind the characters of those Englishmen who have been the steady friends of the public happiness; and, by their examples, would breathe into him a pure public taste, which should keep him untainted in all the vicissitudes of political fortune. We would teach him to burst through the well paid, and the pernicious cant of indiscriminate loyalty ; and to know his Sovereign only as 7 he discharged those duties, and displayed those qualities, for which the blood and the treasure 8 of his people are confided to his hands. We should deem it 9 of the utmost importance, that attention was 10 directed to the true principles of legislation—what effects laws produce upon opinions, and opinions upon laws—what subjects are fit for legislative interference, and when men may be left to 11 the management of their own interests. The mischief occasioned by bad laws, and the perplexity which arises from numerous laws-the causes of national wealth_12 lations of foreign trade— 13 the encouragement of manufactures and agriculture—the fictitious wealth occasioned by paper credit_14 the laws of population—the management of poverty and mendicity—the use and abuse of monopoly—the theory of taxation—15 the consequences of
1 d'érudit consommé.
9 Do not translate 'it,' in such 2
ce qu'est réellement la constitue phrases. tion .. &c.
10 Use the subjunctive, here, 3 ‘has ;' use likewise the pre- after the adjective important, sent in the following similar cases. followed by that,' on which ad4 See page 35, note 1.
jective 'was directly depends ; 5'a pure taste of the public and see page 148, end of note 10. weal.'
11 when one may (use pouvoir) 6 s'affranchir de.
leave to men.' ? as,' here, en tant que ; fol- 12 wealth of nations.' lowed by the conditional, or by the 13 commerce extérieur. present indicative.
papier-monnaie. 8 les biens, or, la fortune.
the public debt. These are some of the subjects, and some of the branches of civil examination, to which we would turn the minds of future judges, future senators, and future noblemen. After the first period of life had been given up ? to the cultivation of the classics, and 3 the reasoning powers 4 were now beginning to evolve themselves, these are some of the propensities in study which we would endeavour to inspire. Great knowledge at such a period of life, we could not convey ; 5 but we might fix a decided 6 taste for its acquisition, and a strong disposition to respect it in others. The formation of some great scholars we should certainly prevent, and hinder many from learning what, in a few years, they would necessarily forget ; but this loss would be well repaid—if we could show the future rulers of the country that thought and labour which it requires to make a nation happy—or if we could inspire them with ? that love of public virtue, which, after religion, we most solemnly believe to be the brightest ornament of the mind of man.—(SYDNEY SMITH.)
ONE of the greatest pleasures of life is 9 tion ;—and the pleasures of conversation are of course enhanced by every increase of knowledge : not that we should meet together to talk of alkalis and angles, or to add to our stock of history and philology—though a little of these things is no bad ingredient in conversation ; but let the subject be what it may, 11 there is always a pro
examen pour les emplois civils. page 145, note 8. 2 'to give up,' here, consacrer, 9 See page 50, note 8. - had been ;' use the compound 10 The plural is used, in French, of the conditional.
when the word is taken in its
general sense ; but we should say 4 les facultés intellectuelles. la connaissance d'une langue, 'the 5 Invert.
knowledge of a language,' i. e., of prononcé.
some particular thing. 7 inspire to them.'
11 whatever the subject may 8 Education des femmes. See be (pres. subj. of être).'
3 et que