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The effect upon living arrangements by the congestion within the households is shown in the table next presented. It shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of

rooms.

TABLE 698.-Number and per cent of households regularly sleeping in all except each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Not including 1 household not reporting number of rooms.

As shown by this table, the average number of rooms per household is 2.74, and the average number of sleeping rooms for each household is 1.72. The percentage of households using all rooms except one to sleep in is very large, while 22.4 per cent use all rooms and only 17.4 per cent reserve two rooms for living purposes. The foreign-born show an average of 2.74 rooms per household, while the native-born negroes of native father report 2.67, and the native-born whites of native father a much higher average of 3.91 rooms per household. The foreign-born exhibit a very high percentage of households sleeping in all rooms, while the native-born negroes of native father show a low proportion.

A comparison of the different races of foreign birth shows the Scotch and English households to have a rather high average number of rooms per household, while the Greeks report the lowest average. The foreign-born Scotch, English, and North Italians, and the nativeborn whites of native father, exhibit larger average numbers of sleeping rooms per household than do the other races, while the South Italians exhibit the lowest. The percentage of households using all rooms for sleeping is very large among the Greeks and Bulgarians. A large proportion of households of Slovaks, South Italians, and French and native-born negroes have only one room in addition to sleeping rooms. A very small percentage of the Scotch households sleep in all rooms, and they present the largest percentage sleeping in all except two rooms.

CHAPTER VIII.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees and members of their households-Criminality-[Text Tables 699 to 710 and General Tables 406 to 415].

LITERACY.

The immigrant iron and steel workers in the Birmingham district exhibit characteristics which are significant from the standpoint of industrial progress and efficiency, and which are also important in considering the general bearing of immigration upon American life and institutions. One of the facts of interest in connection with the population of recent immigrants is the high degree of illiteracy which prevails. The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male iron and steel workers who are able to read and the per cent who are able to both read and write:

TABLE 699.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This able includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 5,424 male employees in this locality included in the preceding table, 80 per cent read and 78.8 per cent read and write. The native-born whites show 98.6 per cent of their number who read, as compared with 98.2 per cent of the native-born of foreign father,

74.5 per cent of the foreign-born, and 67.4 per cent of the nativeborn negroes. Each nativity group, except the native-born of foreign father, has a smaller proportion able both to read and write than to read. The Bulgarian, Scotch, and Swedish employees are the only foreign races showing that the entire number with ability to read also have ability to write.

The table next presented shows, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual, the literacy of persons 10 years of age or over in the households studied:

TABLE 700.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table brings out the degrees of literacy prevailing among 2,287 individuals in the households studied who are 10 years of age or over. Of this number 65 per cent can read and 63.7 per cent can read and write, the proportions for males being considerably higher than those for females. Foreign-born persons fall below these averages for the total and for both sexes, while the native-born of foreign father, the second generation of immigrants, rise notably above the average, and also show a greater degree of literacy among the females than among the males. Among the foreign-born, the Scotch, Bulgarians, and French exhibit the highest percentages both of the entirely literate and those partially so. The lowest in the scale are the South Italians, their percentages forming a striking contrast to those of the North Italians. The figures on the whole indicate that a considerable degree of illiteracy prevails in this locality.

The relation between literacy and period of residence is set forth in the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who read and write:

TABLE 701.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The persons reporting show that ability to read and write is most general among those who have been in the United States ten years or over. However, the proportion who are literate among those who have been here from five to nine years is smaller than the proportion among those who have been here under five years. Among the specified races there is apparently little connection between length of residence and ability to read and write. For example, the largest proportion of French who are literate are in the under-five groups, but the largest proportion of the South Italians who are literate are those who have been in the United States ten years or over. The largest proportion of North Italians who are literate are in the five to nine year groups. The North Italians are exceptional in that a relatively small proportion of their number are able to read and write among those who have been in the United States ten years or over, and that a relatively high proportion of those in the other periods of residence are so able.

The greater adaptability and progress manifested by the younger as compared with the older immigrants is exhibited in the table next presented, which shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years to age or over who read, and the per cent who read and write.

TABLE 702.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read, and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

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Of the persons represented in the above table who came to the United States when under 14 years of age, 73.7 per cent can read and 73.2 per cent can both read and write at the present time, while of those who came here when 14 or over, 59.6 per cent can read and 58.6 per cent can both read and write. The percentage of individuals who came to the United States under 14 years of age who are able to read, as well as the percentage who are able to both read and write, is largest among the Scotch, French, and Slovak, in the order mentioned, and smallest among the South Italians. The proportion of individuals who came to this country when 14 or over who can read ranges from 98.2 per cent for the Scotch, 89.3 per cent for the Bulgarians, and 83.1 per cent for the French, to 62.3 per cent for the Poles, and only 34 per cent for the South Italians. The proportion of individuals who can both read and write is, for each race, the same as, or but slightly smaller than, the proportion who It will be noted that the proportion of literates is generally much higher in the case of the persons who came to the United States when under 14 years of age than in the case of those who came here when 14 or over. The races of old immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe, so far as represented, have a higher percentage of literates than have the races of recent immigration.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition.

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