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Many a little makes a mickle ;'1 and farther, ' Beware of little expenses ; a small leak will sinko a great ship;' and again, Who dainties love shall beggars prove;" and, moreover, ‘Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them.'4

" Here you are all got together at this sale of fineries and nicknacks. You call them goods; but if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. pect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may for less than they cost ;5 but if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you. Remember what poor Richard says, Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries.?? And again,' At a great pennyworth, pause a while.'He means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only; or the bargain, by straitening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, “ Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.'10 Again, as poor Richard says, “It is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repentance ;' and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of minding the Almanac.

Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly,11 and half starved their families : * Silks and satins, scarlet and velvets, (as poor Richard says) put out the kitchen fire.' These are not 12 the necessaries of life; they can scarcely be called the conveniences ; 13 and yet, only because they look pretty, how many want to


1. Les petits ruisseaux font les du bon marché. grandes rivières' (PROVERB).

9 or that the purchase, by the 2 Turn, 'It only requires (use strait which it brings.' falloir) a small leak (fente),' &c. 10 Les bons marchés ont ruiné

3 Les gens friands seront men- nombre (page 129, note 10) de gens. diants.

The Proverbis, “Les bons 4 'Les fous font les fêtes, les marchés ruinent," "Good bargains sages en ont le plaisir' (PROVERB). are ruinous' -or, 'empty the

5 et peut-être seront-ils en effet purse,' or, 'A good bargain is a vendus au-dessous du prix codtant pick-purse.' (cost price ’),—or, prix courant 11 ont fait jedner leur ventre.( current price').

Many a one,' Bien des gens ; or, n'en avez que faire.

simply, in the interrogative form, 7'Qui achète ce qu'il ne peut, Combien. vend après ce qu'il ne veut' (PRO- 12 “Far from being.' VERB).

13 Supply the ellipsis. 8 Kéfléchis bien avant de profiter



Richard says.

; 11 then, as poor



. 14

have them ?1 By these and other extravagances, the genteel 2 are reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing ;3 in which case, it appears plainly,4 that. A ploughman on his legs is higher5 than a gentleman on his knees,' as poor

6 Perhaps they have had a small estate left them, which they knew not the getting of ; 8 they think, • It is day, and will never be night ;' that a little to be spent out of so much is not worth minding. 10 But 'always taking out of the meal-tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bottom ;'


• When the well is dry, theyl2 know the worth of water. But this they might have known before, if they had taken 13 his advice : * If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some ; for he that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing; and, indeed, so does he that lends to such people,15 when he goes to get it again.'16 Poor Dick farther advises, and says,

• Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse :

Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse.' 17 And again, ‘Pride is as loud a beggar 18 as Want, and a

a great deal more saucy.' When you have bought one

i brillent à la vue, combien de thing in it, we find the bottom gens s'en font un besoon!

of it.' 2 les gens du bel air. This ex- as says poor Dick; and it is pression is always used in a bad then, it is when the well is dry sense,-ironically.

(à sec, here) that they (on).' 3 Simply,


13 ( followed.' themselves by industry and fru- Argent emprunté porte trisgality.

tesse' (PROVERB). 4 ' in which case,' &c. ; turn, et, de fait, non seulement à simply, by which (page 7, note l'emprunteur, mais au prêteur 17) proves that.

même, lorsqu'il a affaire (page 248, sur ses pieds est plus grand. note 11) à certaines (page 89, note 10) 6 gentilhomme, here. 7 'had.' gens.-'when; turn, and when

8 * without knowing how this (page 17, note).' fortune had been acquired.'

16 il veut rentrer dans ses fonds. 9 'It is day, they thought ;' 17 “L'amour de la parure, abosee page 145, note 12.

minable vice, 10* • what does so paltry an ex

Nous vole notre bourse en pense make on such a sum ?'

flattant un caprice." 11 Turn, ‘But by dint (a force) 18 'a beggar that cries as loud.' of taking out of (puiser à) the 19 and with a great deal more meal-tub, without putting any- sauciness.'






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fine thing, you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece ;1 but poor Dick says, ' It is easier to suppress2 the first desire, than to satisfy all that follow it.' And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as for the frog to swell, in order to equal the ox.3

Vegsels large may venture more,

But little boats should keep near shore.'4 'Tis, however, a folly soon punished; for · Pride that dines

vanity, sups on contempt,' as poor Richard says. And, in another place, · Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, and supped with Infamy.' And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance," for which so much is risked, so much is suffered ? It cannot promote health, or ease pain, it makes no increase of merit in the person ; it creates envy ;8 it hastens misfortune.

“ But what madness must it he to run in debt? for these superfluities ! We are offered by the terms of this sale six months' credit; and that perhaps has induced some of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine without it.10 But, ah ! think what you do when you run in debt. You give to another power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, 11 you will be ashamed to see your creditor : you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, 12 and by degrees come 13 to lose your veracity, and



pour que vos anciennes et vos

any money to lay out (débourser), nouvelles acquisitions ne jurent pas we hope to dress (nous parer, in entre elles.

this sense, not nous habiller) gra2 réprimer.

tuitously.' 3 Add, 'in size.'-See the LA au ierme fixé. FONTAINE, Fable iii., page 5. 12 Simply, vous inventerez de 4 “ Le grand vaisseau peut ris- pitoyables excuses. quer davantage ;

13" See page 56, note 3,


page Mais toi, petit bateau, tiens- 23, note 5. See also page 59, note toi près du rivage.'

6; but, whereas we cannot dis5 de.

pense with en, here, if we use venir 6 Put this verb and the next two (as venir à means 'to happen to' in the present.

---page 15, note 16), en is not, after i envie de paraitre.

all, strictly necessary with arri8 éveille la jalousie.

ver, which we may very well use, s'endetter.

instead of venir, in the sense of the 10 Turn, because, not having text.



have got


sink into base downright lying ;1 for, as poor Richard says, *The second vice is lying ;? the first is running in debt.' And again, to the same purpose, ‘ Lying rides upon debt’s back ;'3 whereas a freeborn Englishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to speak to any man living. But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit4 and virtue : “It is hard for an empty bag to stand upright,' as poor Richard truly says. What would you think of tható prince, or that government, who would issue an edict, forbidding you to dress like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude ? Would you not say,

that you

were 7 free, have a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict would be a breach of 8 your privileges, and such a government 9 tyrannical ? And yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny when you run in debt for such dress ! 10 Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you 11 of your liberty, by confining you in gaol for life, or by selling you for a servant,12 if you should not be 13 able to pay him. When you

your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment; but ‘Creditors (poor Richard tells us) have better memories 15 than debtors : ' and in another place he says, ' Creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days 16 and times.'

i dans les mensonges les plus tor- upon the back,' &c.). tueux et les plus vils.

courage, here. 2 Turn, 'Lying is but the second 'a;' and likewise, just after. vice ;' but leave the construction SOUS ; followed by no article. of the rest of the sentence as it is.

8 est un attentat formel à; leave 3 ' Debt carries lying upon its out' and,' after 'please.' back, says he again on (a) this 9 and that such .

&c., is.' subject. We must obviously use pour briller. a different turn from the English, Il Turn, “is authorised to (d) as 'to ride' is monter à cheval (or, deprive you, at his pleasure (selon à anc, &c.), or, elliptically, monter, son bon plaisir).' when the rest is well understood : 12 for a slave' (see p. 128, n. 6). the former expression, of course, .---This custom now is (whether or could not do, and the latter would not unfortunately in some cases) decidedly be ambiguous and ob- out of fashion. scure (monte la dette would cer- 13 “if you are not.' tainly be understood to mean, 14 have made.' though it would make no sense 15 Use the singular, and without with what precedes, 'raises-in- any article. creases the debt,' and monte sur le forment une secte superstitieuse, dos, &c., to signify merely, 'gets obsercatrice des jours.


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The day? comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it. Or if you bear your debt in mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will, as 2 it lessens, appear extremely short :

2 Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders, • Those have a short Lent (saith poor Richard) who owe money to be paid at Easter."

“ At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can4 bear a little extravagance without injury ; but

· For age and want save while you may,

No morning sun lasts a whole day,' 5
says. Gain
may be temporary

and uncertain ; but ever, while you live, expense is constant and certain : and it is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel,' 6 as poor Richard says. So, Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debt.'?

Get what you can, and what you get hold,

'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold,' 8 as poor Richard says. And when you have got the philosopher's stone,' sure you will no longer complain of bad times, or the difficulty of paying taxes. 10

“ This doctrine, my friends, is 11 reason and wisdom : 1 Le jour de l'échéance.

Gardez pour la soif une 2 d mesure que, in this sense,

poire, indicating a progress, succession, or Si vous voulez reboire : proportion ; see p. 150, n. 4, and p. Le soleil du matin n'est pas 235, n. 6.

pour tout le jour.” dette payable à

This idiomatic expression, garder Pâques, et tu trouveras le carême court' (PROVERB).

une poire pour la soif, corresponds 4 and able to.' The English

to to lay something by for a construction is not allowed in

rainy day. French, on account of the want of

6 *than to keep one warm.'

7. Il vaut mieux se coucher sans symmetry it exhibits in those two parts of the attribute which are

souper que de se lever avec des

dettes' (PROVERB). separated by 'and.' Š “Gardez pour vos besoins,

8 “Gagne autant que tu peux, pour l'âge de retour:

du gain fais un trésor : Le soleil du matin n'est pas

C'est la pierre qui change


3'' Fais une

argent et cuivre en or.” pour tout le jour.”

9 cette pierre philosophale. Or, in four lines :

'have ; see page 52, note 2. “Gardez pour les besoins et l'âge de retour,

11 is that of.

10 l'impôt.

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