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without further proceedings then become the decision of the agency. On appeal from or review of the initial decisions of such officers the agency shall, except as it may limit the issues upon notice or by rule, have all the powers which it would have in making the initial decision. Whenever the agency makes the initial decision without having presided at the reception of the evidence, such officers shall first recommend a decision except that in rule making or determining applications for initial licenses (1) in lieu thereof the agency may issue a tentative decision or any of its responsible officers may recommend a decision or (2) any such procedure may be omitted in any case in which the agency finds upon the record that due and timely execution of its functions imperatively and unavoidably so requires.

(b) Prior to each recommended, initial, or tentative decision, or decision upon agency review of the decision of subordinate officers the parties shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to submit for the consideration of the officers participating in such decisions (1) proposed findings and conclusions, or (2) exceptions to the decisions or recommended decisions of subordinate officers or to tentative agency decisions, and (3) supporting reasons for such exceptions or proposed findings or conclusions. The record shall show the

. ruling upon each such finding, conclusion, or exception presented. All decisions (including initial, recommended, or tentative decisions) shall become a part of the record and include a statement of (1) findings and conclusions, as well as the reasons or basis therefor, upon all the material issues of fact, law, or discretion presented on the record; and (2) the appropriate rule, order, sanction, relief, or denial thereof. Imposition of sanctions 5 U.S.C. 1008

In the exercise of any power or authority

(a) No sanction shall be imposed or substantive rule or order be issued except within jurisdiction delegated to the agency and as authorized by law.

(b) In any case in which application is made for a license required by law the agency, with due regard to the rights or privileges of all the interested parties or adversely affected persons and with reasonable dispatch, shall set and complete any proceedings required to be conducted pursuant to sections 1006 and 1007 of this title or other proceedings required by law and shall make its decision. Except in cases of willfulness or those in which public health, interest, or safety requires otherwise, no withdrawal, suspension, revocation, or annulment of any license shall be lawful unless, prior to the institution of agency proceedings therefor, facts or conduct which may warrant such action shall have been called to the attention of the licensee by the agency in writing and the licensee shall have been accorded opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with all lawful requirements. In any case in which the licensee has, in accordance with agency rules, made timely and sufficient application for a renewal or a new license, no license with reference to any activity of a continuing nature shall expire until such application shall have been finally determined by the agency.

Judicial review of agency 5 U.S.C. 1009

Except so far as (1) statutes preclude judicial review or (2) agency action is by law committed to agency discretion

(a) Right of review.-Any person suffering legal wrong because of any agency action, or adversely affected or aggrieved by such action within the meaning of any relevant statute, shall be entitled to judicial review thereof.

(b) Form and venue of proceedings.—The form of proceeding for judicial review shall be any special statutory review proceeding relevant to the subject matter in any court specified by statute, or, in the absence or inadequacy thereof, any applicable form of legal action (including actions for declaratory judgemnts or writs of prohibitory or mandatory injunction or habeas corpus) in any court of competent jurisdiction. Agency action shall be subject to judicial review in civil or criminal proceedings for judicial enforcement except to the extent that prior, adequate, and exclusive opportunity for such review is provided by law.

(c) Reviewable acts.—Every agency action made reviewable by statute and every final agency action for which there is no other adequate remedy in any court shall be subject to judicial review. Any preliminary, procedural, or intermediate agency action or ruling not directly reviewable shall be subject to review upon the review of the final agency action. Except as otherwise expressly required by statute, agency action otherwise final shall be final for the purposes of this subsection whether or not there has been presented or determined any application for a declaratory order, for any form of reconsideration, or (unless the agency otherwise requires by rule and provides that the action meanwhile shall be inoperative) for an appeal to superior agency authority.

(d) Relief pending review.—Pending judicial review any agency is authorized, where it finds that justice so requires, to postpone the effective date of any action taken by it. Upon such conditions as may be required and to the extent necessary to prevent irreparable injury, every reviewing court (including every court to which a case may be taken on appeal from or upon application for certiorari or other writ to a reviewing court) is authorized to issue all necessary and appropriate process to postpone the effective date of any agency action or to preserve status or rights pending conclusion of the review proceedings.

(e) Scope of review.-So far as necessary to decision and where presented the reviewing court shall decide all relevant questions of law, interpret constitutional and statutory provisions, and determine the meaning or applicability of the terms of any agency action. It shall (A) compel agency action unlawfully withheld or unreasonably delayed; and (B) hold unlawful and set aside agency action, findings, and conclusions found to be (1) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law; (2) contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity; (3) in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitations, or short of statutory right; (4) without observance of procedure required by law; (5) un

supported by substantial evidence in any case subject to the requirements of sections 1006 and 1007 of this title or otherwise reviewed on the record of an agency hearing provided by statute; or (6) unwarranted by the facts to the extent that the facts are subject to trial de novo by the reviewing court. In making the foregoing determinations the court shall review the whole record or such portions thereof as may be cited by any party, and due account shall be taken of the rule of prejudicial error. Appointment of examiners 5 U.S.C. 1010

Subject to the civil-service and other laws to the extent not inconsistent with this chapter, there shall be appointed by and for each agency as many qualified and competent examiners as may be necessary for proceedings pursuant to sections 1006 and 1007 of this title who shall be assigned to cases in rotation so far as practicable and shall perform no duties inconsistent with their duties and responsibilities as examiners. Examiners shall be removable by the agency in which they are employed only for good cause established and determined by the Civil Service Commission (hereinafter called the Commission) after opportunity for hearing and upon the record thereof. Examiners shall receive compensation prescribed by the Commission independently of agency recommendations or ratings and in accordance with the Classification Act of 1949, except that the provisions of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (b) of section 667 of this title, and the provisions of section 669 of this title, shall not be applicable. Agencies occasionally or temporarily insufficiently staffed may utilize examiners selected by the Commission from and with the consent of other agencies. For the purposes of this section, the Commission is authorized to make investigations, require reports by agencies, issue reports, including an annual report to the Congress, promulgates rules, appoint such advisory committees as may be deemed necessary, recommend legislation, subpena witnesses or records, and pay witness fees as established for the United States courts. Impairment of rights; effect on other laws 5 U.S.C. 1011

Nothing in this chapter shall be held to diminish the constitutional rights of any person or to limit or repeal additional requirements imposed by statute or otherwise recognized by law. Except as otherwise required by law, all requirements or privileges relating to evidence or procedure shall apply equally to agencies and persons. If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter or other applications of such provision shall not be affected. Every agency is granted all authority necessary, to comply with the requirements of this chapter through the issuance of rules or otherwise. No subsequent legislation shall be held to supersede or modify the provisions of this chapter except to the extent that such legislation shall do so expressly. Chapter II. INSPECTION OF VESSELS

What are steam vessels 46 U.S.C. 361 (R.S. 4399)

Every vessel subject to inspection propelled in whole or in part by steam or by any other form of mechanical or electrical power shall be considered a steam vessel within the meaning of and subject to all of the provisions of this Act: Provided, however, That motorboats as defined in the Act of Apr. 25, 1940 (46 U.S.C. 5269), are exempt from the provisions of this Act. Domestic and foreign vessels; laws applicable 46 U.S.C. 362 (R.S. 4400)

All steam vessels navigating any waters of the United States which are common highways of commerce or open to general or competitive navigation, excepting public vessels of the United States, vessels of other countries, and boats propelled in whole or in part by steam for navigating canals, shall be subject to the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes. Department of Commerce vessels 46 U.S.C. 363

All steam vessels owned or operated by the Department of Commerce, or any corporation organized or controlled by it, shall be subject to all the provisions of title 52 of the Revised Statutes for the regulation of steam vessels and Acts amendatory thereof or supplemental thereto. Foreign steam passenger vessels 46 U.S.C. 362 (R.S. 4400)

And all foreign private steam vessels carrying passengers from any port of the United States to any other place or country shall be subject to the provisions of sections 170, 391, 392, 399, 400, 402, 481, 494, 495, 497, and 498 of this title, and shall be liable to visitation and inspection by the proper officer, in any of the ports of the United States, respecting any of the provisions of the sections aforesaid: Provided, however, That when such foreign passenger steamers belong to countries having inspection laws approximating those of the United States, and have unexpired certificates of inspection issued by the proper authorities in the respective countries to which they belong, they shall be subject to no other inspection than necessary to satisfy the Coast Guard that the condition of the vessel, her boilers, and her lifesaving equipments are as stated in the current certificate of inspection; but no such certificate of inspection shall be accepted as evidence of lawful inspection except when presented by steam vessels of other countries which have by their laws ac

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corded to the steam vessels of the United States visiting such countries the same privileges accorded herein to the steam vessels of such countries visiting the United States; it being further provided that there shall be collected and paid into the Treasury of the United States the same fees for the inspection of foreign passenger steamers carrying passengers from the United States that any foreign nation shall charge the merchant vessels of the United States trading to the ports of such nationality; it being further provided that the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall have the power to waive at any time the collection of such fees upon due notice of the proper authorities of any country concerned that the collection of fees for the inspection of American steam merchant vessels has been discontinued.

It is further provided that the Commandant of the Coast Guard may, in his discretion, permit any foreign passenger steamer coming within the provisions of this Chapter whose foreign certificate of inspection shall have expired at sea since last leaving the country to which said vessel belongs, or while said vessel shall have been in a port of the United States, to sail upon her regular route without undergoing any further inspection than would have been required had said foreign certificate of inspection been in force: Provided, however, That such discretion shall be exercised only with respect of vessels operated upon regularly established lines, and in cases where such foreign passenger steamers will be regularly inspected by the authorities of her home government before her next return to a port of the United States. Foreign vessels admitted to registry 46 U.S.C. 366

The Commandant of the Coast Guard is, authorized to direct the inspection of any foreign vessel, admitted to American registry, its steam boilers, steam pipes, and appurtenances, and to direct the issue of the usual certificate of inspection, whether said boilers, steam pipes, and appurtenances are or are not constructed pursuant to the laws of the United States, or whether they are or are not constructed of iron stamped pursuant to said laws. The tests in the inspection of such boilers, steam pipes, and appurtenances shall be the same in all respects as to strength and safety as are required in the inspection of boilers constructed in the United States for marine purposes. Suspension of provisions as to survey, inspection, and measure

ment 46 U.S.C. 82

The President of the United States is authorized, whenever in his discretion the needs of foreign commerce may require, to suspend by order, so far and for such length of time as he may deem desirable, the provisions of the law requiring survey, inspection, and measurement by officers of the United States of foreign-built vessels admitted to American registry under section 11 of this title.

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