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For Internal Improvements, "Expenses of Government, "Militia,

"Internal Improvement Fund, "Other Expenses,



Balance in the Treasury, Nov. 1, 1831,


STATISTICS OF SCHUYLKILL COUNTY COAL REGION. Number of Inhabitants in Schuylkill County dependent for subsistence on the Coal Trade,

Number of Persons employed in transporting the Coal in boats, 900; including their families,

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Capital invested in Coal Lands, estimated at


66 in Buildings,


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in Rail-roads,

in Rail-road Cars,

in Canal Boats and Horses,

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$2,335,373.72 195,306.91





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The cost of the construction of canals within and without
Pennsylvania, expressly to serve as means of transporting
its coal to market, may be computed at
This sum includes the Schuylkill Navigation, Lehigh Coal
and Navigation Company's works, Delaware and Hud-
son Canal and Rail-road, Morris Canal, and the Penn-
sylvania Canals.

Making an aggregate amount of funds engaged in this trade of $32,540,000 More than 1,200 vessels were employed in 1831 in carrying this coal to the several cities in which it is used.




$5,000,000 2,500,000






The system of education in free schools is very imperfect in Pennsylvania, and no accurate statistical information respecting these schools can be given. The Fourteenth Annual Report of the Comptrollers of the Public Schools for the city and county of Philadelphia, made February 14th, 1832, contains the following facts:

Number of children educated in the Lancasterian schools during





The expenses, for that year, of these Lancasterian schools, of the other public schools,



$19,488,97 8,106.18

Total expenses of the free schools,


A plan of education for children under five years of age has been adopted, and it is hoped that the next annual report will exhibit proofs of its success. Stephen Girard, a wealthy merchant and banker of Philadelphia, who died in Dec. 1831, bequeathed to the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of Philadelphia, and their successors and assigns, in trust, a most liberal sum for the establishment and endowment of an Orphans' College. The site selected and appropriated by Mr. Girard to this object, is in Penn Township, in the county of Philadelphia, at a place called Peel Hill, on the Ridge road. It comprises forty-five acres and some perches of land; and, according to the tenor of Mr. Girard's Will, such buildings are to be erected on this spot as will accommodate at least 300 scholars, together with buildings for teachers, and all purposes proper to the institution. Provision is made for supporting as many poor orphans as the premises can be made to accommodate: first, the poor orphans of Philadelphia; secondly those of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; thirdly, those of the city of New York; fourthly, those of the city of New Orleans. These poor orphans are to be taught "the various branches of a sound education, comprehending reading, writ ing, grammar, arithmetic, geography, navigation, surveying, practical mathematics, astronomy, natural, chemical, and experimental philosophy, and the French and Spanish languages;"-the Latin and Greek not being for bidden, but not recommended. Also, such other learning and science are to be taught as the capacities of the several scholars may merit or warrant. Principles of morality are to be inculcated, but, in the terms of the Founder's Will, "no ecclesiastic, missionary, or minister of any sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or exercise any station or duty whatever in said college; nor shall any such person ever be admitted within the premises appropriated to the purposes of said college."

To erect the requisite buildings in the most convenient and permanent style, and to meet all the expenses for the maintenance of the institution, the sum of two millions of dollars is directly and specifically appropriated; and if this shall be found inadequate, such further sum as shall be necessary, is provided for in the conditions of other bequests.


Pennsylvania State Canals and Rail-roads.

These Canals and Rail-roads were undertaken at the expense of the State, and continue under the control of the legislature as public property. The construction and management of them are entrusted to three commissioners appointed annually by the Governor.

The following table exhibits a view of the Canals completed prior to December 31, 1830, with the amount expended for ordinary and extraordinary repairs during the year 1831.

Delaware division,
Columbia, east division,
Harrisburg line,
Susquehanna division,

North Branch do.,

West Branch do.,

Juniata do.,

Western do.,

French Creek Feeder,

Length Ordinary Extraord.
miles. Repairs. Repairs.

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593 $10,000 $87,339 $97,339

































4261 $92,708 $260,936 $353,644

The main trunk of this system of Canals commences at Columbia, at the termination of the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail-road, and extends thence westward 1723 miles till it meets the Allegheny Portage Rail-road at Holidaysburg. It recommences at the western extremity of the Rail-road, and continues westward 105 miles to the Monongahela river at Pittsburg.

The following Canals, undertaken by the State, are now in active progress, and are all to be completed before the first January, 1833.

Frankstown line of the Juniata division, extending from Huntingdon to Holidaysburg, is 30 miles in length, including about 15 miles of slack

water navigation.

Beaver division commences upon the Ohio river at the mouth of Big Beaver, and extends to Newcastle. Length 24 miles, of which about two thirds are slackwater and towing-path.

Franklin line commences on Allegheny river, at the mouth of French creek, and extends up the latter stream till it meets the French creek feeder Length 224 miles, seventeen of which are slack-water and towing-path.

Lycoming line commences at Muncy dam and extends up the West branch of the Susquehanna, and terminates at the Big island, opposite to the mouth of the Bald Eagle. Length 41 miles, of which about ten miles are slack-water.

Wyoming line of the North Branch division commences at the Nanticoke dam, and extends up the North Branch, and terminates near the mouth of Lackawannock creek. Length 16 miles.

Columbia and Philadelphia Rail-road commences in the city of Philadelphia, at the intersection of Vine and Broad streets, and terminates at Columbia. Length 39 miles and 268 poles. It is designed for a double track throughout. One track is expected to be completed by the 1st of January, 1833, and the whole before 1834.

Estimated cost of the whole work, $2,297,120.21.

Average cost per mile, as estimated, $28,173.63.

Allegheny Portage Rail-road. This Rail-road commences at Holidaysburg, at the termination of the Frankstown line of the Juniata division of the Main trunk of the Canal, and extends to Johnstown, where it meets

the western division of the Canal. Length, about 36 miles. The summit of the mountain, where the Rail-road crosses it, is 1,398.71 feet above the basin of the Canal on the eastern, and 1,171.58 feet above that on the western side. The Rail-road is graded 25 feet wide for two sets of tracks. On each side of the mountain there are to be five inclined planes, intended for stationary engines. The greatest inclination of these planes makes an angle of about six degrees with the horizon. Estimated cost of a double set of tracks and the necessary machinery, $1,271,718. It is expected that both sets of tracks will be laid by the 1st of May, 1833. Amount of money received by the Canal Commissioners for the above improvements prior to Dec. 31, 1830, Received during the year 1831,

Total Receipts to December 31, 1831,

Disbursed prior to February 28, 1831,
Do. from February 28, 1831, to December, 31,

Total expended,

Estimated amount still required,

Total cost of Improvements,

$10,246,566 2,087,922




$12,126,961 3,803,939


Canals constructed by Private Companies.

Schuylkill Canal and Navigation Company, incorporated in 1815. The work was commenced in 1816, and the Canal has now been in operation several years. Length 110 miles; breadth at the surface, 36 feet, at the bottom, 24; depth, 4 feet. Lockage, 620 feet. It extends from Philadelphia to Reading, and thence to Mount Carbon. It comprises thirty-one dams; commencing at Fair-Mount water-works, near Philadelphia, by which is produced a slack-water navigation of forty-five miles; 125 locks, eighty feet long by seventeen wide, of which twenty-eight are guard-locks; seventeen arched aqueducts, a tunnel of 450 feet in length, cut through and under solid rock, and sixty-five toll and gate houses. The dams are from three to twentyseven feet in height. Cost, to January 1, 1830, $2,336,380. Tolls, in 1826, $43,109; in 1829, $120,039; in 1830, $146,548. Expense for 1830, $46,720.

Union Canal. This Canal was constructed in 1827. It extends from Middletown, on Susquehanna river, to the head of the Girard Canal, two miles below Reading, connecting the waters of the Susquehanna with those of the Schuylkill, Length, eighty miles, exclusive of Swatara feeder, which extends twenty-four miles. Its works comprehend a tunnel, 243 yards in length, eighteen feet wide, and fourteen high; two summit reservoirs, containing 12,000,000 cubic feet of water, the one covering twentyseven, the other eight acres ; two steam engines, each of 100 horse power, and three water-wheels for feeding the Canal by pumping; two dams,

forty-three waste wiers, forty-nine culverts, 135 bridges, twelve small and two large aqueducts, two guard-locks of wood, ninety-two cut-stone locks, and fourteen miles of protection-wall of stone. Width at the surface of the water, thirty-six feet, at bottom, twenty-four; depth, four feet. Dimensions of locks, 75 by 8 feet. There is also connected with this Canal a Rail-road of about four miles in length, extending from the capacious basin at Pine Grove, to the coal mines. Cost of the Canal and Rail-road, exclusive of interest on loans, about $2,000,000. Tolls, in 1830, $35,133; in 1831,$59,137. Cost of repairs in 1831, $2,723.

Lackawaxen Canal. This Canal commences at the termination of the Delaware and Hudson Canal, near Carpenter's Point, and unites with a Rail-road at Honesdale. Length, thirty-six miles; width at the surface, thirty-two feet, at bottom, twenty feet; depth, four feet. In 1825, the Lackawaxen Company was authorized to act with the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. Including seventeen miles of Lackawaxen river, these two Canals, united, form a navigation of 117 miles. Cost, $16,000 per mile.

Lehigh Canal. Company incorporated in 1818. This Canal extends from Easton, on Delaware river, to Stoddartsville, connecting Morris Canal with the Mauch Chunk Rail-road. Length, including 9 miles of slack-water pools, 46 miles. Breadth, at the surface of the water, from sixty to sixtyfive feet, at bottom, forty-five feet; depth, five feet. It has forty-three locks, of which two are guard-locks, beside five guard-locks at the several pools. Locks, 100 feet by 22. Lockage, 360 feet. There are, also, eight dams, varying in height from six feet to sixteen; four aqueducts, and twenty-two culverts. Cost, $1,558,000.

Conestoga Navigation. Company incorporated in 1825. It extends from Safe Harbour, on Susquehanna river, at the mouth of Conestoga creek, to Lancaster. Length, eighteen miles. The navigation is effected by a series of locks and dams. Locks, 100 feet by 22. Cost, $4,000 per mile.

Conewago Canal, passing a fall of the same name on the Susquehanna river, is 23 miles in length. Lockage, twenty-one feet.


The Mauch Chunk Rail-road was commenced in Jauuary, 1827, and completed in May following. It extends from the coal mines, near Mauch Chunk, down an inclined plane to Lehigh river. The elevation of the mines above the river, at the point where the coal is received in boats, is 936 feet. The Rail-road has a continued descent from the summit, so that the cars descend by their own gravity, and are drawn back by mules. Its length from the mines to the river is nine miles, and that of its branches at the ends and sides 4. The coal is transported in cars, fourteen of which are connected together, containing a ton and a half each. A single conductor rides on one of the cars and regulates their movement. From 300

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