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Swedes have the smallest. The proportion of widowed employees is largest for the Irish, Germans, and English, in the order mentioned.

In the following table the conjugal condition of the southern iron and steel workers is examined according to age groups and general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 645.-Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Grand total..

Total native-born of for-
eign father.

Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

186 25.868.8 5.4 135 40.053.3 6.7

66 53.0 45.5 1.5
32 71.9 25.0 3.1
25 52.0 48.0
110 84.5 15.5

.0

77 14.3 80.5 5.2
63 36.5 60.3 3.2
51 11.884.3 3.9
61 24.6 75. 4
133 9.0 90. 2
48 12.5 83.3 4.2
64 10.9.87.5 1.6

.0

.8

43 4.7 83.711.6
40 20.0 65.0 15.0
56 5.4 80.414.3
8 (a) (a) (a)
60 1.796.7 1.7
1 (a) (a) (a)
7(a)(a)(a)

132 16.7 75.8 7.6 179 60.3 39.7 .0 383 34.7 64.8 .5 125 39. 259. 2 1.6 141 29.8 69.5 .7

190 63.2 36.8

76 56.6 43.4

70 50.0 50.0

00000

806

3,613 59.5 38.8 1.7 2,697 19.4 75.6 5.0 1,273 8.9 80. 210.9 7,583 36. 758.9 4.4

173 61.3 37.6 1.2 2,859 57.1 40.8 2.1 751 68.4 31. 4 .1

181 24.9 71.3 3.9 2,044 19.7 74.5 5.9 653 18.4 79.3 2.3

100 12.0 76.0 12. 0
973 8.1 80.4 11.5
300 11.3 79.7 9.0

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

454 35.9 59.5 4.6 5,876 36. 0.59.1 5.0 1,707 39.3 58.2 2.5

Of all persons for whom information was obtained in this section, it will be noted that the largest proportion, or 58.9 per cent, are married, while 36.7 per cent are single. Of those who are from 20 to 29 years of age, 59.5 per cent are single and 38.8 per cent married, as compared with 19.4 and 75.6 per cent single and married, respectively, of those from 30 to 44 years of age, and 8.9 and 80.2 per cent single and married, respectively, of those 45 years of age or over. The proportions widowed range from 1.7 per cent of those 20 to 29 years of age to 10.9 per cent of those 45 years of age or over.

Among the foreign-born it will be noted that of those from 20 to 29 years of age the Greeks, with 84.5 per cent, show a considerably larger proportion single than do the South Italians and a much larger proportion single than do the Russians, Germans, or Slovaks, the last named reporting 50 per cent. A decided decrease in the proportions single, and consequently a decided increase in the proportions married, is noted among those from 30 to 44, as compared with those from 20 to 29 years of age. No Greeks from 30 to 44 years of age, and only

0.8 per cent of the South Italians, are widowed, the proportions of the other races in this conjugal condition ranging from 4.2 per cent of the Russians to 1.6 per cent of the Slovaks.

Among the Germans and Irish native-born of foreign father, it will be noted that in each age group the latter show a considerably larger proportion single and a considerably smaller proportion married, than do the former, the proportions of the Irish widowed, among those 20 to 29 years and 45 years of age or over, being slightly in excess of the proportions shown by the Germans, while the reverse is true of those from 30 to 44 years of age.

The question of greatest interest in connection with the conjugal condition of employees is whether or not the married males of foreign birth have their wives and families with them, the absence of wives being conducive to migratory habits and a group system of living. As regards this point the following table shows by race of husband the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and the per cent who report wife abroad.

TABLE 646.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Information was obtained in this locality for 970 foreign-born husbands, of which number the largest proportion, or 57.7 per cent, report wife in the United States, while 42.3 per cent report wife abroad.

It will be noted from the above table that a very much larger proportion of husbands of each of the older than of the more recent immigrant races report wife in the United States. All the English husbands, and all but a very small proportion of the German, Scotch, and Irish, report wives in this country, the proportion of husbands among these races reporting wife abroad in no instance exceeding 3 per cent. Of the more recent immigrant races, the Slovak husbands, 56.8 per cent of whom report wife in the United States, show a considerably larger proportion than do the South Italians. As contrasted with the above, the proportions of Greek, Russian, and Bulgarian husbands who report wife in the United States, ranging from 14.7 to 2.4 per cent, are extremely low.

The table next presented exhibits the tendency on the part of married males of foreign birth to send for their wives after a designated period of residence in the United States. It shows by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad.

TABLE 647.—Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more husbands reporting.}

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No German husbands who have been in the United States from five to nine years, and only 1.2 per cent who have been in the United States ten years or over, as compared with 13.6 and 15.4 per cent, respectively, of South Italian husbands, report wife abroad, while of those husbands who have been in the United States under five years, 22.2 per cent of the German, as compared with 68 per cent of the South Italian, report wife not in the United States.

VISITS ABROAD.

The table next presented shows the visits abroad made by foreignborn male employees, by years in the United States and race.

Table 648.— Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 1,617 foreign-born male employees in this locality concerning whom information was obtained, only 10.8 per cent have made one or more visits abroad, the Slovaks with 18.6 per cent showing a slightly larger proportion than the Germans, and a much larger proportion than the Russians, South Italians, or Greeks, in the order named. As regards those who have been in the United States under five years, 4.2 per cent have made one or more visits abroad. This proportion is increased to 16.1 per cent of those with a residence of from five to nine years in the United States and to 23.2 per cent of those with a residence of ten years or over. As among the several races the representatives of which have been in the United States under five years, the Slovaks with 19.5 per cent show a considerably larger proportion having made one or more visits abroad, than do the Germans or Russians, and a much larger proportion than do the South Italians or Greeks. None of the Germans with a residence of from five to nine years in the United States, and a slightly smaller proportion of Slovaks in this than in the preceding period of residence, have made one or more visits abroad. On the other hand, the South Italians in this period of residence show a slightly larger proportion, and the Russians a very much larger proportion, having made one or more visits abroad, than is shown by those having a residence of less than five years in this country. Among those who have been in the United States ten years or over, the Slovaks, while showing a slightly larger proportion than the Germans or South Italians having made one or more visits abroad, again show a slightly smaller proportion than is shown by the Slovaks who have been in the United States from five to nine years. The South Italians and Germans, however, show considerable increase in this over the preceding period of residence.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES.

The characteristics of the immigrant labor supply according to age is considered in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race the percentage of male employees studied in the South who were in each specified age group:

TABLE 649.—Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 8,325 male employees in this locality, less than 10 per cent are under 19 years old, 43.5 per cent are from 20 to 29, 32.5 per cent are from 30 to 44, and 15.4 per cent are 45 or over. Only 4 per cent are above 55 years of age. The foreign-born show proportions in each age group that vary little from those shown for all employees. Among the foreign-born it will be noted that, with the exception of the Scotch and Swedes, a much larger proportion of each of the older immigrant races are 35 years of age or over than under 35, while the reverse is true of the more recent immigrant races. The proportions of Irish, English, Scotch, and Germans from 20 to 24 years of age, as contrasted with the proportions of the other races, are very low. This is true of the Irish, English, and Germans from 25 to 29 years of age. The Lithuanians in these age groups report the largest proportions, or 37.5 and 29.2 per cent, respectively. As regards those

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