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while less than 2 per cent and less than 1 per cent earn $12.50 or over and $15 or over, respectively. No persons native-born of foreign father earn $12.50 or over per week, while the proportion earning $5 or over is slightly above and the proportions earning $7.50 or over and $10 or over are slightly below the proportions shown in the total for all employees. No computations have been made for the foreign-born because of the small number involved. Thus a comparison with the native-born of foreign father is impossible.
Among employees native-born of native father it will be noted that the whites, while showing a slightly smaller proportion than the negroes earning $5 or over, and a much smaller proportion earning $7.50 or over, show a considerably larger proportion earning $10 or over per week. No negroes earn as much as $12.50 a week, as compared with 4 per cent of the native whites. The native whites show smaller proportions earning $5 and $7.50 or over, and larger proportions earning $10, $12.50, and $15 or over, than those shown in the total for all employees.
Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees-[Text Tables 643 to 649 and General Tables 367 to 371].
The general literacy of southern employees is set forth in the table next presented, which shows by general nativity and race the per cent of male employees who read and the per cent who read and write:
TABLE 643.-Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and write, by general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Of 8,240 male employees studied, 83.8 per cent read and 82.6 per cent both read and write. A greater degree of literacy prevails among the white employees native-born of native father than is found in any other group, although the difference between this group and that composed of persons native-born of foreign father is very slight. Of the foreign-born groups, the Scotch and Swedish show the highest degree of literacy, each having 100 per cent who
can both read and write. Next in order come the English, the Germans, and the Irish and Slovaks. The lowest degree of literacy is shown by the South Italians, only about 50 per cent of whom are literate. The remaining races-Bulgarian, Greek, Polish, Lithuanian, North Italian, and Russian-show from 64.6 to 82.5 per cent who can read and write. The standard of literacy for the negro nativeborn of native father is relatively low.
The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of male employees in the South 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition:
TABLE 644.-Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
Of the male employees 20 years of age or over for whom information was secured, 58.9 per cent are married and 4.4 per cent are widowed. The proportion of married employees is largest among white persons native-born of native father, slightly larger among those native-born of foreign father than among the foreign-born, and smallest among negroes native-born of native father. The negroes native-born of native father have the largest proportion of widowed individuals, the native-born of foreign father rank second, and the foreign-born last. Of the foreign-born, the Germans, Bulgarians, Slovaks, South Italians, and Scotch, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of married employees, and the Lithuanians and
Swedes have the smallest. The proportion of widowed employees is largest for the Irish, Germans, and English, in the order mentioned.
In the following table the conjugal condition of the southern iron and steel workers is examined according to age groups and general nativity and race of individual:
TABLE 645.-Per cent of male employees in each conjugal condition, by age groups and general nativity and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]
Total native-born of for-
186 25.868.8 5.4 135 40.053.3 6.7
66 53.0 45.5 1.5
77 14.3 80.5 5.2
43 4.7 83.711.6
132 16.7 75.8 7.6 179 60.3 39.7 .0 383 34.7 64.8 .5 125 39. 259. 2 1.6 141 29.8 69.5 .7
190 63.2 36.8
76 56.6 43.4
70 50.0 50.0
3,613 59.5 38.8 1.7 2,697 19.4 75.6 5.0 1,273 8.9 80. 210.9 7,583 36. 758.9 4.4
173 61.3 37.6 1.2 2,859 57.1 40.8 2.1 751 68.4 31. 4 .1
181 24.9 71.3 3.9 2,044 19.7 74.5 5.9 653 18.4 79.3 2.3
100 12.0 76.0 12. 0
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.
454 35.9 59.5 4.6 5,876 36. 0.59.1 5.0 1,707 39.3 58.2 2.5
Of all persons for whom information was obtained in this section, it will be noted that the largest proportion, or 58.9 per cent, are married, while 36.7 per cent are single. Of those who are from 20 to 29 years of age, 59.5 per cent are single and 38.8 per cent married, as compared with 19.4 and 75.6 per cent single and married, respectively, of those from 30 to 44 years of age, and 8.9 and 80.2 per cent single and married, respectively, of those 45 years of age or over. The proportions widowed range from 1.7 per cent of those 20 to 29 years of age to 10.9 per cent of those 45 years of age or over.
Among the foreign-born it will be noted that of those from 20 to 29 years of age the Greeks, with 84.5 per cent, show a considerably larger proportion single than do the South Italians and a much larger proportion single than do the Russians, Germans, or Slovaks, the last named reporting 50 per cent. A decided decrease in the proportions single, and consequently a decided increase in the proportions married, is noted among those from 30 to 44, as compared with those from 20 to 29 years of age. No Greeks from 30 to 44 years of age, and only
0.8 per cent of the South Italians, are widowed, the proportions of the other races in this conjugal condition ranging from 4.2 per cent of the Russians to 1.6 per cent of the Slovaks.
Among the Germans and Irish native-born of foreign father, it will be noted that in each age group the latter show a considerably larger proportion single and a considerably smaller proportion married, than do the former, the proportions of the Irish widowed, among those 20 to 29 years and 45 years of age or over, being slightly in excess of the proportions shown by the Germans, while the reverse is true of those from 30 to 44 years of age.
The question of greatest interest in connection with the conjugal condition of employees is whether or not the married males of foreign birth have their wives and families with them, the absence of wives being conducive to migratory habits and a group system of living. As regards this point the following table shows by race of husband the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and the per cent who report wife abroad.
TABLE 646.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign
Information was obtained in this locality for 970 foreign-born husbands, of which number the largest proportion, or 57.7 per cent, report wife in the United States, while 42.3 per cent report wife abroad.
It will be noted from the above table that a very much larger proportion of husbands of each of the older than of the more recent immigrant races report wife in the United States. All the English husbands, and all but a very small proportion of the German, Scotch, and Irish, report wives in this country, the proportion of husbands among these races reporting wife abroad in no instance exceeding 3 per cent. Of the more recent immigrant races, the Slovak husbands, 56.8 per cent of whom report wife in the United States, show a considerably larger proportion than do the South Italians. As contrasted with the above, the proportions of Greek, Russian, and Bulgarian husbands who report wife in the United States, ranging from 14.7 to 2.4 per cent, are extremely low.