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The proportion of foreign-born male employees who speak English is 33.8 per cent for individuals who have been in the United States under five years; 57.3 per cent for individuals who have been here from five to nine years, and 89.6 per cent for individuals who have been here ten years or over. Of the three races for which the percentages are given the Germans have the largest and the North Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States under five years, and from five to nine years who speak English, while the Germans have the largest and the South Italians the smallest proportion of individuals in the United States ten years or over who speak English. There is in the case of all the races mentioned a steady increase in the proportion of individuals who are able to speak English, with length of residence in the United States.
I. GENERAL SURVEY: TABLES 1-53. II. PENNSYLVANIA: TABLES 54-69. III.-SILK DYEING: TABLES 70-82.
GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.
Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:
1. Native-born of native father.
Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.
2. Native-born of foreign father.
Persons under this group are classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.
Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.
In the study of households information is presented
1. By general nativity and race of the "individual" in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.
2. By general nativity and race of "head of family" in tables concerned with family matters-for example, family income.
3. By general nativity and race of "head of household" in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family" and "household" is dependent upon the use of the term "apartment.'
An "apartment" is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner of a wareroom or the back of a store room partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these
conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment, and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered, the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment.
The "household " includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families with or without
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boarders or lodgers; or it may consist of a group of persons living together, no family included; or it may consist of various combinations of families, "groups," and boarders or lodgers,
The term "family" as used throughout these tables refers in general to the immediate family composed of husband, wife, and children. Groups of persons among whom none of these relations exist are not considered families. Households in which complicated relationships exist have been resolved into the component immediate families. Remnants of families maintaining a home are considered families when either husband or wife is present.
The general tables show results of two practically independent studies, as follows:
STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.
All tables headed "Study of households" are based on information from the schedule which was filled out for certain selected households in each of the several communities. Names and addresses were secured of employees in a given industry who were heads of households; and for each such household a schedule was filled out by an agent of this Commission, who visited the apartment and secured detailed information, so far as possible, for every occupant, as well as data in regard to family and household organization and status at the time of the visit.
STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.
The general tables headed "Study of employees" present data from the schedule relating only to the individual employee. This schedule was filled out by the employee himself, or by some one detailed by the employer to the task, to whom the employee furnished data. The general tables of this series, therefore, concern only the history and present status of the employee, while the other series, as has been stated, presents data not only for certain of the employees, but also for members of their households. All data included under the "Study of employees" are tabulated by sex and by the general nativity and race of the individual. For the native-born of foreign father the classification is by country of birth of father and not by race of father.
DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.
Total number of households and persons studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 1.—This table enumerates the households studied of each race, the aggregate of the members of the households of each race, and the persons, male and female, for whom detailed information was secured. All members of households appear in this table under the general nativity and race of head of household.
Number of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 2.-This table is a second enumeration of the persons, male and female, who are included in the detailed study of members of households. In this enumeration each individual appears under his own general nativity and race.