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the Germans and Poles a much larger proportion of the latter than the former have been in the United States less than five and from five to nine years, a considerably smaller proportion from fifteen to nineteen years, and a very much smaller proportion twenty years or over, while only a slightly larger proportion of the latter than the former have been in this country from ten to fourteen years.
As regards the German and Polish females, the latter show a very much larger proportion with a residence of less than five, a considerably larger proportion from five to nine, a much smaller proportion from fifteen to nineteen, and a considerably smaller proportion from ten to fourteen years and twenty years or over than do the former.
In the table next presented the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years is shown according to race of individual. TABLE 102.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
The above table shows that among the foreign-born persons in this locality for whom information was secured a considerably larger proportion of the Poles and South Italians than of the individuals of any other race have been in the United States under five years. The Poles and South Italians have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of individuals who have been in the United States under ten years and under twenty years, respectively.
RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.
The racial composition of the present operating force in the community is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by sex, the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured:
TABLE 103.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.
In this industry information was secured for 858 employees, of which number 49.4 per cent are foreign-born, 32.3 per cent nativeborn of foreign father, and 18.3 per cent native whites born of native father. Of the males, the foreign-born constitute a considerably larger proportion than do the native whites born of foreign father and native-born of native father combined, while of the females the native-born of foreign father constitute a considerably larger proportion than do the native whites born of native father and the foreignborn combined, the proportion of foreign-born females being considerably in excess of the proportion native whites born of native father.
It will be noted that among the foreign-born males, with the exception of the Germans with 21.7 per cent, the Poles with 18.2, and the Irish with 4.5 per cent, the various races each constitute less than 3 per cent, while among the native-born of foreign father, with the
exception of those whose fathers were born in Germany, Ireland, England, and Canada, who constitute proportions ranging from 10.1 to 2.6 per cent, those whose fathers were born in countries other than the United States each constitute less than 1 per cent of all males for whom information was obtained.
Concerning the females, the foreign-born Germans, Poles, Irish, Russian Hebrews, and French Canadians, in the order named, each constitute more than 1 per cent of all females for whom information was obtained, the proportions ranging from 7.9 to 1.2 per cent. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Germany constitute the largest proportion, or 27.6 per cent, a proportion only slightly below the combined proportions of those whose fathers were born in each of the other specified countries. Those whose fathers were born in Ireland constitute the next largest proportion, or 14.6 per cent, while the proportions constituted by those whose fathers were born in countries other than Germany and Ireland range from 5.5 per cent of those whose fathers were born in Canada to none of those whose fathers were born in Italy and Wales.
RACIAL COMPOSITION OF THE PRESENT POPULATION.
Community B supported an estimated population of 31,000 persons in 1909, of which the English-speaking races composed about 61 per cent. Of the remainder, the Germans constitute about 16 per cent, the Slavic races about 7 per cent, the French Canadians about 6 per cent, the Italians about 4 per cent, the Swedes about 3 per cent, and all other races about 3 per cent. The English-speaking races, the Germans, the French Canadians, and the Swedes were the first immigrant races to settle in the community and, with the natives, compose over 86 per cent of the total population. These races have been rapidly assimilated, and form an element in the present population which differs in few respects from that of the native Americans. The Slavic and Italian races form about 11 per cent of the population, and have chiefly composed the immigration to the community during the last two decades. The latter races have been less exposed to American influences than the earlier races, and form a less desirable element in the population. The numbers of the other races found among the population are small and merit no particular mention in this connection. It is estimated that about 10,000 persons residing in the community are foreign-born. The remaining 18,000 are native-born of either foreign or native born parents.
The following shows the estimated population of the community in 1909, by races:
Since 1900 immigration to Community B has been light, and the indications are that it will be even less in the future. The immigration which may come in the future will be made up of immigrants from eastern Europe and from Asia, and as this class of aliens are almost entirely unskilled laborers, few of them will find employment. The demand for all classes of labor, especially the unskilled, is small, and a ready supply within the city is always available.
While those industries already located are in a very thriving condition, no new industries are being introduced, and the growth of the existing ones finds a ready labor market in the normal increase of the population. The need of farm hands is small and where formerly the unskilled immigrants could secure employment on a farm, this occupation is now practically closed to them. The industries in which employment is to be had prefer skilled men for most of their work, and those with trades find ready employment.
The predominant types of industry, as the plated silverware and, to a less extent, the hardware industry, employ skilled workers and have few occupations open to unskilled men. The nature of the industries already established will have the tendency to check future immigration, for with a well-stocked labor market, and with few opportunities for unskilled workers, the immigrants will not readily come to this community.
Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-Occupations of the second generation compared-Occupations entered by immigrants-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied—Annual family income-Wives at work-Relation between earnings of husbands and the practice of wives in keeping boarders or lodgersSources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income [Text Tables 104 to 121 and General Tables 97 to 106].
INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
Preliminary to the discussion of the economic status of immigrants in this country, the industrial condition and principal occupations of foreign-born persons while abroad are set forth. The table first submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.
TABLE 104.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
The above table shows that 63.5 per cent of the foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States worked abroad for wages, that 29.2 per cent worked without wages, and that only a small proportion worked for profit or were without occupation. The proportion of individuals who worked for wages is largest for the South Italians and Swedes, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the Poles, while the proportion who worked without wages is largest for the Poles and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, and smallest for the South Italians.
The table next submitted shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at the time of their arrival in this country.