Lapas attēli


By this process, it is calculated that about || also applied as a substitute for mill-boards||is arrived, I send you for insertion a sketch eighteen pounds' weight of pure white, fine or board-paper, for the use of engineers, and description of a very effective cowl pulp may be procured from 100 weight of &c. It is capable, when dry, of immense that has, in every case hitherto tried, proved the raw or native turf.

compression by the hydraulic press ; and a complete remedy for that worst (but one) Returning now to the solution of the po- as the fibres naturally lie nearly all in one of all domestic nuisances. tass, which has carried off the geine, &c., ||plane, they thus arrange themselves, so as Fig. 1 represents a section of the im. and which is chiefly in fact a geinate of po- to give great toughness and flexibility to aproved cowl, which is constructed as the tass; it is treated with dilute sulphuric acid ||plate of it when compressed. Accordingly, common cowls are, so far as regards the slightly in excess, and filtered through a suitable masses of this turf are placed in a general principle of the revolving of the calico or linen cloth. The potass is taken strong cast-iron, or other vessel, and the air lateral on the vertical parts of it; but inup by the acid, and the geine and extractive exhausted; the vessel is then filled with a stead of the end opposed to windward be. matter precipitate, and are collected on the mixture of dilute solution of glue and molass-ing, as is usual, closed, a funnel-shaped apfilter, from which being removed, they are es, at a boiling heat, which fills all the pores paratus is introduced, terininating in a pipe dried by a steam or water bath, and become of the turf. The masses are then removed, of about three inches diameter, which is a valuable pigment.

while hot, and exposed to powerful pressure carried just over the opening of the vertiVandyke brown has long been known to in a hot-press, in a similar way to hot-press- cal chimney-pot. The effect of this is, painters in both oil and water colors. This ing paper, which reduces them to the reel that the lateral pipe of the cowl being, by is it, in fact, in its purest form; it is an ex- quired thickness, that of the original mass the operation of the wind on the vane, altremely rich, glowing color, and valuable having been previously properly regulated. ways turned endwise in the direction of for its permanence, as scarcely any agent The plates so formed, are found, when cold, whatever current of wind may happen to ordinarily met with is capable of affecting it to be hard, tough, and flexible, and will an- | be strongest at the time, a draught is crea.

When once perfectly dried, it becomes swer almost every purpose of mill-board. ted by the wind rushing through the fun. insoluble in water, and therefore is not in They are not injured by high-pressure nel-end of the cowl-top, and the smoke is the least deliquescent, but it is still soluble steam. Many other substances may be thereby, with considerable velocity, carried in alkalies thus possessing two properties used, according to circumstances, for filling completely out of the cowl. The stronger

the current the more effectual the apparaeminently fitting it for the uses of the paper-| the pores, previous to pressure, as fat, oils, stainer and scene painter, &c. &c.' It is boiling coal-tar, wax, &c. &c.

This method of cure has been tried in perfectly miscible with gum, mucilages, It is worthy of remark, that the substance and with oils. proposed being used for all the above pro

several instances of heretofore incurable The liquid from which this color or bistre cesses, is the worst turf for burning ; so that smokey chimneys, and has been entirely has been separated, now contains various the material, which is worst, and nearly | tion of an ingenious friend of mine, a clerk

It is the producsulphates in solution, chiefly of iron, lime, valueless as fuel, is the best and most valuand alumina ; but the major part, sulphateable, by a fortunate coincidence, for manu

in the Tower, where a suite of rooms, of potass or soda, whichever has been factures. If, therefore, as there is rea

which were formerly untenantable in conemployed; if the former, Glauber's salt son to believe, the lower strata of turf sequence of the impossibility of using the

be made from it, and if the latter, alum, can, by certain modes of charring, be may

fire-place, has been brought into useful em. as matters of commerce. The quantity of made a valuable fuel, and the upper and || those cowls on each of the flues.

ployment, simply by the erection of one of alkali used is small in proportion to the more recent strata are used for the puramount of fluid; but if the operations were poses of the various manufactures above

I am, sir, yours, &c., very extensive, this economical use of them adverted to, there is strong ground to hope

Oct. 22, 1835.

L. MUNDY. should be attended to.

that, at a future period, the bogs of Ireland, After the fibre has been some time di- instead of being contemplated, as hitherto, From the London Mechanics' Magazine. gested in the solution of chloride of lime, in

as a blot and stain upon her fair and fertile YOUNG'S PATENT INCREASED PURCHASE most cases a resinous-looking matter floats champaign, may be looked upon as one of FOR SHIPS' WINDLASSES. upon the surface of the fluid in very minute the centres of her industry, and the richest

Sir,-Next in importance to the security quantity. This, when a large quantity is sources of her wealth.

of a ship's windlass, which is now so comoperated on, may, by careful management,

pletely effected by the patent pall and riding be collected, and is found to be a species EFFECTUAL CURE FOR SMOKY CHIMNEYS. chock, of which you have given place to a of artificial camphor, mixed with some gum

description in your last Magazine (page resin, and probably an essential oil. This


41), are improvements by which a greater substance, or mixture of substances, pos

power can be given to its action, than by sesses some singular characters: it would

the common application of the bandspike. seem probable that the artificial camphor is

For, however well adapted it may be, when produced by the action of some fine chlo

the resistance to be overcome is much less rine upon turpentine, existing in minute

than the power which can be so applied, it quantity in the turf; and it is a curious sub

is a fact, well known to seafaring men, that ject for reflection, that chemistry should

there are times when the utmost exertions thus, as it were, recal into existence and

of the whole ship's company, by such means, decompose the turpentine existing in, and


are unequal to purchasing the anchor. And produced by, trees or plants, which have

it still more frequently happens, that by their for hundreds of years ceased to have life,

long repeated efforts, they are unable to ador to exist as vegetables. As the proper

vance the pall cylinder even one tooth in its ties, so far as they have been ascertained, of

revolution, that is, to bring in about two this singular substance are purely chemical,

inches of the cable, until aided by some it is unnecessary here to detail them. It is


lucky wave or changed position of the vesnot to be procured from every specimen of

sel: consequently, in such cases, much red or surface turf.

time and strength are expended before a Some specimens of turf have been met

vessel can be got under way, merely for with, unfit, however, for paper-making, from

want of additional power. This has led to which it would appear to be profitable to

various mechanical contrivances, most of manufacture bistre and ammonia, from the

which have been modifications of the cogvery appreciable quantity of the latter they

wheel and pinion, but which have severally contain.

proved defective and unfit for the casualties This fibrous red surface turf, when dry, From the London Mechanics' Magazine. to which they are exposed on ship-board, is extremely tough, and is proposed being Sir,-As the season of smokey chimneys particularly from the changes which take

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From the Cultivator.

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AGRICULTURAL REPORT FOR 1833. The season, as a whole, has been cold and dry, and consequently a late one. Na. tural vegetation was from ten to fourteen days later than usual. The spring was so cry, that the grasses, sensibly injured by the drought and cold of the winter, did not get their accustomed early growth; and from the scarcity of forage generally experienced, the scanis herbage of the meadows

was fed off too late in the spring, as a matplace in the distances of the centres, by the || ing easily and loosely round them, added to ter of necessity. They did not recover their straining of the windlass, bits, or timbers, the peculiar form of the wheels, renders accustomed vigor. Winter grain withstood whereon they may be fixed. Complicated them incapable of being thereby deranged the severities of the winter better than the machinery, however powerful, is decidedly or broken. The men can, with the same grasses, looked tolerable well when the objectionablc. Indeed, any apparatus to be handspike, at pleasure, use the common appearance. Indian corn, which habit bas

spring opened, and maintained their good applied to a ship's windlass should be simple windlass, or take advantage of the patent rendered almost indispensable in the econin its construction, direct in its action, com- purchase, their faces being always towards lomy of our farms, was not generally plantpact, strong, and not liable to be deranged, the ship's bow. The handspike not required so early, by ten to fourteen days, as in orand withal, not too expensive. That Young's | ing to be taken out (as they fleet themselves | dinary years, on account of the backward. patent purchase, of which I herewith send || by the ratchets), no time is lost in re-in-ness of the spring; and it had many subyou a description, combines these proper- serting them, as with the common windlass sequent difficulties to encounter, which have ties, will be readily admitted by those of|| alone. Should the cable ride, or a hand

tended greatly to lessen its product. The your readers who are particularly acquaint-|| spike foul, it allows the windlass to be turn-| crops, particularly to oals and potatoes.

season has been more propitious 10 other ed with the working of a ship’s windlass, ased backward. It is a considerable securi-Yet on the whole, the products of our agit is also by those who have adopted it in its ty to the windlass necks, as its pull is in anriculture are less than a medium yield, as present complete state. Fig. 1, is a back elevation of a ship’s when riding, it answers as an extra riding-||ket,

opposite direction to that of the anchor, and is evidenced by their high prices in marwindlass and bits, fitted with Sowerby's pa-chock. It offers no obstruction to the free

Wheat, we believe, afforded a fair avertent pall and riding-chock in the middle, and use of the windlass, having no spindle pass- | age yield in most of the districts of secondYoung's patent purchase at each end within ing from bit to bit; no wheel projecting be-ary formation, where it constitutes the the garrick bits.

yond the bits, and preventing the weather great staple. In other districts the result Fig. 2, shows a section of the windlassbitting of the cable—no cog machinery to duct was seriously diminished by the Hes.

was less favorable. In the south, the probody, and an end view of the purchase and be deranged—whenever the windlass re- sian fly; while in this vicinity, and to the starboard garrick bits.

quires to be unshipped, the chain may be north of us, the grain worm took at least The patent purchase consists of a strong

taken off in a few minutes. It may be fit-one half of the crop: The quality of the cast-iron wheel, firmly wedged upon the ted to one or both ends, or to the middle, grain was good; and there has been a ma. body, with semi-elliptci cavities in its sur even in a few hours, if necessary. It is ad- Difest improvement, which we hope will face, adapted to hold the sides of the link| mirably adapted to large vessels, as the seed. The extra price one pays for clean

continue to progress, in selecting clean of a chain which embraces it, and a pinion chains may be carried to any convenient seed, weighs but as a feather against the with similar cavities in its surface. The distance; and, if required, the speed of the advantages of a clean crop.

Our apprepinion is keyed upon an iron axle, working windlass increased, by adopting a larger pin-hensions from the grain worm are in do in a carriage placed on the deck, and bolted

ion. Its construction and action are so wise diminished. We have tried the predown to a beam abast the windlass. Ratch-| simple, as to render it unnecessary to en- ventive means which have been recomaxle, and worked by a palling box, from unless it be to say, that it is also the cheap-lihat could happen to our State, than the ex. ets are also keyed upon each end of the croach further upon your valuable pages, Imended, without any sensible benefit. We which a socket arm is continued for receiv- est purchase which has hitherto been ap- tension of this evil, as now experienced ing the handspike. The two ends of the plied to a ship's windlass.

here, to our western counties. And what chain are connected by a shackle made on

Yours respectfully,

is to prevent i1? Is not the subject one of the segment of a link, so that it also fits the

sufficient importance to call for legislative cavities in the wheel and pinion. The chain

T. SOWERBY. inquiry? may be tightened or slackened by means of Patent Windlass Works, near Shadwell

Hay has not been two thirds, and in some adjusting wedges, which are fitted on the Dock Basin, London, Oct. 21, 1835.

districts not one fourth, of an ordinary crop, carriage. The drawings represent the hand

from the causes which we have in part ex. spikes in their places, which, on being de

plained,—the want of the early and ibe lat.

MANUFACTURE OF Salt.-At the Ander- ter rain, and the severe cold of the preced. pressed, bring the pinion round, and with it ton works, near Northwich, a new method ing winter, -causes, which human pruthe windlass body, with a power proportion-of making salt has been discovered, and (dence couid neither foresee or guard aed to the size of the wheel to that of thel pans have been put up on a small scale to gainst. If there is any profitable suggespinion. The usual proprotions adopted are try the effect, which has proved so far mosition which we can make, growing out of about four to one; consequently, one man satisfactory. A fresh-water boiler is placed the failure of this crop, it is that of renova. using the purchase, is nearly equal to four in the midst of the brine directly over the ting old meadows, by subjecting them to men applied to the windlass in the usual fire, the brine receiving at once the whole the plough and an alternation of crops.

of the heat from the boiler and the fire ; the So far as our personal observation will way. Hence, with it, a small number of loverplus steam which is generated is ap- serve as a criterion, old grass grounds fell hands may get the anchor, when the whole plied to another pan; by this means a high off in their product much more than grounds ship's company would be unable to do so temperature is obtained for 1,600 surface recently laid down, on our own lands three without it. In addition to its great power, | feet, which by the old mode would require to one. This disappointment in the hay it possesses other important advantages, a four fires; immense expense in labor, and crop is however likely, we taink, to do a few of which I shall briefly enumerate as

wear and tear, is saved. Mr. William Gar. vast amount of good—by coercing us to follows :- It is not liable to be injured by rod is the inventor; he has taken out a pa. more economical modes of feeding it to our the heaving or pitching of the vessel in a lof salt will be made by one top of coals ;|| means-and by extending the culture of

tent. It is expected that more than five tonscattle, and to the better husbanding our heavy sea; the endless chain which em- by the old method not more than two and a roots. The practice of feeding at stacks braces the two wheels fixed upon the wind- || half or three can be produced from the same and in open yards, or even in common lass body and axle not being tight, but pass- I quantity of fuel.-[Mining Journal.] Tracks, where the cattle tread and waste

nearly one half of the forage, is giving||eastern countries it is extensively cultivated || of the year. The apprehension of a scarway to the better system of feeding in man-exclusively for this purpose. The culture city of fodder bas led to the slaughter of a gers, to which ihe catile are tied, and where of this grain is extending in our State. Bar. vast number of neat cattle and slieep; and nothing is lost. The stacks and shucks olley, for malting, should be threshed with a induces an apprehension that both will be corn have been better saved, and if cut, as fail, as the machine, with the awn, often high the current year. Pork has been they are in many instances, they are afford. | takes off the germinating part, which injures rather light, but the article has sustained a ing an excelleni substitute for hay. We it for malting.

very liberal price. give to-day a cut and description of a yard Rye is the bread corn of Germany and rack, well calculated to promote economy || Russia, and the natural bread corn of many in fodder. The hay cutter is coming into parts of the United States, for we are dis. From the Boston American Gardener's Magazine. general use.

posed to adopt, in tbis case, the opinion of | Observations on the Dahlia, its Species and Indian corn, as we have observed, was St. Pierre, that every country produces

Varieties. By John Lewis Russell, planted late, and was very generally and what is most congenial to the wants, and

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiseriously injured by the grub worm. The conducive to the health of its population. replanted portion did not coine to maturity ||axiom with the actual condition of our

One great difficulty is in reconciling this ology to the Mass. Hort. Soc. before the frosts of September 14, 15—the brethren in some parts of New-England. the dablia has raised it, in the estimation

The surpassing beauty and brilliancy of mean temperature of the summer having been some degrees cooler than usual. The Wheat they cannot grow,-of corn they of the floral taste, whether considered in its frost of the 4th of August also destroyed || insist their soil is incapable of producing. ||1o the acme of perfection by the ingenious

grow but a modicum-and rye, they will singleunadorned simplicity, or when brought much in elevated districts, and upon the || Whether this latter difficulty arises from labors of the horticulturist.' Scarcely uprimargins of small streams. Nor were these

actual sterility in the soil, from the absence valed by the unique elegance of the camellia, the only difficulties the crop had to encoun- in it of the peculiar pabuluin of this grain, it has bicome, like that remarkably transseemed to saturate the cob with moisture, or from the difficulty of tilling the ground; muted plani, as universal a favorite among or to prevenı its becoming dry, and caused we do not pretend to say; but the fact will the curious and wealthy; and süll more mouldiness in the grain; and in many ca. in passing from Worcester in Massachu-companiments of the collage garden or the

not readily be erased froin our memory, that companion of the anique and venerable acses where this was not fully ripened, abso- selts, to Enfield in Connecticut, in October, || village flower-bed, of some humble admirer lute putrefaction. This was not only the

a distance, we believe, of 40 or 50 miles, ||of nature's sportive wonders, such as may case at the north, but extensively so as far we did not notice a solitary field of rye or be found in every community, and out by south as Virginia. We note the fact here, wheat. The puzzle is, what, according to any means few in our own liappy, smiling that the reader may compare it with his St. Pierre's theory, constitutes the natural New-England. Perhaps the moral and own practice and its results, that we cut food of the population? But, to leave this mental improvement of a people cannot be our corn at the ground, before all that had question unsolved, the crop of rye has been better estimated, surely not better promoted been replanted had become glazed; that it good, and the grain heavy. According to chan in the observation and introduction of did not mould or sustain injury in the field; | Von Thaer, this grain absiraets 30 parts in the spirit of the love of tbe more elegant but it is due to truth to say, that it required one hundred of the nutriment contained in land refined occupations attendanı on agrimuch watchfulness and care to prevent the soil where it is grown. mouldiness after it was husked-constant hausting than other small grains, and is no better proof of a feeling and exquisitely

It is less ex. || cultural pursuits. For my own part, I want stirring and exposure,—and that we were ranked next to wheat in its nutritious pro- sensible mind, even under a rough and rude obliged to unerib a quantity, and to spread ||perties. It contains a substance, in the exterior, than may be observed in a love of it, to save it from bein: injured. We think opinion of Thaer, which facilitates diges nature, particularly that which relates to that corn dries and ripens better in stooks,||tion, and has an action particularly refresh-llibe care of flowers. A rose-bush, a honeythan in any other situation, even than whening and fortifying on the animal frame. topped and left in the hill. In the latter case it is receiving a constant accession of cold season has been propitious to this crop. la huge tuft of the singlarly striped " çibbon

Oats have been unprecedently fine. The suckle, a pæony-Samed in village love for

pharmaceutic worth-a lilac-bush, or even sap from the roots, which, for want of leaves | A large annount was sown, and both straw to elaborate it, instead of being beneficial to and grain were heavy. In many cases the grass, preserved by some rustic enclosure the grain, serves but to bring on fermenta-crop was not secured till late in Septeinber: (though less intelligent tenants of the farmtion, as was stated by our Coxsackie cor. Potatoes have, like oats, been favored by respondent, in the lasi Cultivator. The ex.

a cool summer : and where not cut down yard, whose tasies are more alimentary perience of the year seems to admonish us, | by the frost, before they were ripe, the crop

ihan mental-all denote a higlier order of :-1. To fit our corn grounds for early plant has been a very large one. The scarcity of mind, in some tidy house wite, or younger ing, by freeing them from excess of mois. || cattle forage and corn, however, will cause

female; and when I discover the highly ture, by underdraining, or by ridging, where heavy requisitions to be made upon the outspatronized dahlia, listing its rich blossoms the surface is flat, or the subsoil tenacious and potatoes, to make up the deficiency, and among the associates of its new and strange 2. To plant as early as the temperature of present prices of these articles are likely || velopement of a purity of taste and feeling, the season will adinit. And 3. 'To select ||iherefore to be sustained and increased. the earliest kind of corn for our crop.


Mangel Wurtzel and Ruta Baga. The which, though not incongruous, is not alhave heretofore recommended a 12 rowed culture of these roots, as field crops, has ways to be expected in such scenes: From yellow variety, which we termed Dutton been greatly extended, and as far as we can

the elevated sandy meadows of Mexico, corn, and so far as we have learnt, this has learn, with very encouraging success.

Well where, scarce half a century since, they ripened well where it was planted in ordi- are yet hardly well enough versed in the were probably first known, and shortly after nary season, and was not destroyed by the management of these crops, and the labor || were transferred from the Mexican Botanic grub. The growth is rather dwarfish, but saving machines which should be used in Garden, the species, and almost innumerait will the better bear to be planted close; their culture, to enable us fully to appre. ble varieties have extended with a greater the product is abundant, and the grain hard,|ciate the advantages they are capable of|| rapidity and more accompanied admiration heavy and bright. Much of our seed bas affording to our husbandry.

over the civilized world, ihan perhaps any been sent, during the two last years, to New. Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio. We should for the labor bestowed in their culture. The lof the south, and the hard rocky lands of

Hops have made but a very light return other vegetable. The rich alluviai soils he gratified to learn the result of its culture crop was light in New-York, and the qual. || the north, are adorned with their cultivain those Stat?s, as well as in New York. (lity generally inferior, on account of their||tion; and with a singular accommodation On the wbole, we do not think the corn crop not having inatured well before the arrival to circumstances, they evince scarce a prehas been half of an ordinary yield. of the autumnal frosts.

ference, in the expansion of their blossoms, Barley, which ranks next in importance Thc dairy has been a source of handsome for one section than for another. li is preto the preceding in the husbandry of profit, on account of the high prices which sumable, however, that heat is injurious to many of our counties, has been a good,|| butter and cheese have sustained in the the perfection of their flowers, –a defect we think better than an ordinary, crop. On market. This branch of husbandry is being which might be obviated in a great degree lands which will not carry wheat, and which considerably extended among us. It pro- by application of more moisture. Naturalare neither very light nor very stiff, this is a bably affords as sure a profit as any otherization or acclimation cannot speedily, if at profitable crop. It gives nearly the same department of husbandry. The gains may | all, be expected in our porthern latitudes, yield as oats, while it sells for nearly double | not be the greatest, but they are obtained at unless occasionally accidental escape from in the market; and it is a question of some the least risk and expense.

the effects of frosi be deemed such, which doubt, considering its superior nutritive Bulcher's Meat, though rather scarce and has been known in this vicinity in several inproperties, whether it cannot be as profita-high in the early part of the season, has stances; and a case was mentioned of a root bly raised for horse feed. In many of the been abundant and cheap towards the close exposedio che inters of several years, pro

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tected entirely by the early and deep spows|| about the same time, indeed, that the Dutch | general admiration which the subjert of i so common in the mountainous regions of Horists began to procure theirs from seed. Tohtains, as an ornament of our gardens New Hampshire. In the Azores, they are lift-|| A similar curious faci was observed in the and parterres. ed out of the soil at the approach of the win- difference of seed raised at Anteuil and Si. It is a curious subject for reflection on the ter season, and left exposed on the surface tillCloud, the richer soil producing only pure changes effected in horticulture, to be able the returning spring, undoubiedly with the land simple flowers, whereas the thinner to trace the opinions of learned men, founded view 10 give a temporary repose, and secure aand lighter soils of the former place was in sound reason and observation, taking, for greater amount of flowers.

only prone to produce the seeds of double a moment, the situation they occupied, and So much has been said and written on the varieties-accounted for on the philosophical casting a glance forward to our own experisubject of my present remarks, that I can principle, that it was a greater effort to pro-||ence and knowledge, which confirms or disscarcely be expected to ofler any thing new ; || duce a perfect seed than an imperfect one ; proves their theories. Thus De Candolle and it is only with the design of presenting that is, one capable of continuing an acci- || foretold the improbability of the occurrence your Magazine with a succinct account of dental and physiologically considered mon- of a blue variety, and we have almost every ihe early history and rapid progress of this strous developement of petals instead of combined shade and primitive color of the superb Hower, together with whatever ob- || stamens.

prismatic bow, excepting that Mr. Sabine servations may suggest themselves, that I After several attempts to reduce to spe. I tells us of the existence of a double white, undertake the task. Mr. Joseph Sabine, incies the different varieties of this flower, / which he feels inclined to doubt, and now the third volume of the “ Transactions of each botanist and cultivator adopting some“ Kings” and “Queens,” there are of double the Hort. Soc. in London,” has drawn up atrifling character, founded on the form of white, and even “ Mountains of snow," and very able and exceedingly interesting ar-| the leaves, or color of the flower, De Can-beauties of antiquity, and unrivaled only by ticle, embracing all that was known at that dolle discovered that the essential distinc-| the elegance and purity of these fragile time, (1319;) but as it may not be easily |tions consisted in the absence or presence flowers; the grandeur of an avalanche ex. available to many of your readers interested of fertile florets in the ray, and termed, inhibited in a petal, and the winning loveli. in the subject, I shall consider it a sufficieoithe second edition of Hortus Kewensis, su. ness of semale character shining torih in an excuse to pursue my intentions.

perflua and frustranea. Mr. Sabine re- | abortive stamen. ". The dahlia,” says

Count Lelieur, wasduces under the two following species of But with all the attractions of great and originally from Mexico, and introduced into De Candolle the several synonyms, as good and illustrious names, and the won. Europe in 1789.”—“From the Botanic Gar-I quoted from the Hortus Kewensis : drous transmutations of floral skill-for den ai Mexico, it was sent to that of Madrid, where it flowered for the first time in 1791."|| flosculis radii fremineis.

1. Dahlia superflua, caule non pruinoso, || wondrous they truly are—the simple, una

dorned elegance of a fine single flower, with Cavanille (an ecclesiastic and eminent bota nist,) dedicated the genus 10, Dahl, asculis radii neutris.

2. Dahlia frustranea, caule pruinoso, flo.its eight perfectly formed petals and golden Swedish botanist, a disciple of Linne, and Vol. v., pp. 87–88.)

[Hort. Kew., ed. 2, ceatre, expanding gradually into the foreis

of the disk, presents to my ideas a lovely the author of a work on his “Systema

work of nature's skill. Surely it is a misVegetabilium.” “In the same year (1791,)

By this arrangement it will be perceived he gave the description of three varieties || that two species are formed, the first with take to exclude from our collections these sent from Mexico, which he considered as “ smooth siem, and fertile florets in the primitive forms, to give place to double va

rieties only; and during the last season, three species, constituting the genus Dahlia, ray;" and the second with a pubescent or

hoary stem, and barren florets in the ray;"||of however only tolerable merit, more it may

one such has actually insinuated itself, viz: pinnata, rosea, and coccinea,” (Memoire sur le Dahlia, &c. pp. 3—4.) In the number

How far this arrangement has been ob

be suspected from its royal title or foreign for March, 1835, of this Magazine, (Vol. 1., served, I have little means of determining origin, than from any returning taste to p. 114,) some observations were made on

, in a

floral simplicity.
the restoration of the old name of the genus, and only five of frustranea. But even with
catalogue of sixty varieties of D. superflua,

The dahlia, like many other cultivated
given by Cavanille, and altered from erro-line characteristic differences which Sabine|| plan's, seems very prone to sportiveness or
neous impressions of its being already ap: lays down, as to the coarseness of foliage variation in the cints and pencilings of its
sound to Dalea, belonging to an entirely || the delicacy, compactness and erect man:
propriated, strengthened by a similarity of and diffuseness of habit in superflua, and petals. Cultivators begin to recommend

of different natural order and artificial class. Willdenow, in his Species Plantarum, appli.doubt whether in this country it would be tirely counter to one formerly entertained

ner of growth in frustranea, I very much/producing very fine flowers, an opinion ennent Russian botanist, and De' Candolle easy to detect the species in the astonishing and practised upon,--that of planting in

varieties of our gardens. It is almost cer.poor and meagre soils. Undoubtedly the adopted it, apparently on such authority: - tain that color would afford no test, although former practice is the better one, and, added With a similar desire of imitation, or the the original color was referable to purple to this, the fact, that but a moderate degree universal mania after new names, the flo- in the former, and that of orange or scarlet of sun and heat is necessary to their in: rists of this country were fast falling into in the latter. Still more uncertain the crease, there can be no reason why the multhe supposed improvement, regardless

of the downiness or pubescence of the stems, tiplication of flowers is not almost wholly untenableness of one averred objection, and which, though more or less observable in at the disposal of the grower. The natural the gross impropriety of violating that rule all, does not seem to constitute a perma- localities have been discovered to consist of of every scientific nomenclature,—that the original name should be sacredly preserved. || should be instituted, in order to endeavor feet above the level of the sea. nent character. A series of experiments sandy mountainous meadows, of 48 to 5100

A sandy to ine exclusion of every other, unless found. I to trace any observance of this specific dif-meadow, in such a situation, may not be a ed on good and substantial reusons of real || ference of De Candolle, in the seedlings of poor or meagre soil; on the contrary, it is physiological difference. It was with un

our double varieties; and also whether, in most probably a very rich one, being comfeigned pleasure that I therefore bailed the this instance, unobserved, a real hybridizing posed of the alluvial deposit of the decomciples of the illustrious star of northern Eu: process has not taken place beiween the position, both mineral and vegetable, of the iwo supposed genuine species.

upper regions. It is certain that the effect rope shall confer honor, and shed some re

It may be deemned presumptuous to seem


poor soil on the plant is to weaken the flected glory on the plant which was dedi-lingly question the authority of such cele tendency to produce rich flowers, by the cated to his fame and memory.

brated names ; but it must appear an im- poverty of its entire growth, and that, when In the third volume of the “Annales du portant, and surely therefore a harmless in liberally supplied with suitable food and Museum,” we find a memoir on the Dahlia, Iquiry, especially when we consider the ten- | sufficient moisture, nothing can surpass the by M. Thouin, accompanied by a colored | dency to confusion in such a myriad host exuberance of its blooms. plate of three varieties, viz.: rosea, purpu. of abnormal individuals, as our catalogues The value of the dahlia seems confined to rea, and coccinea, probably answering, at of the varieties of dahlias present. I trust, its intrinsic beauty and hardiness, as an orleast in color, to the three species of Cava. therefore, to the candor of discriminatingnamental planı. Many futile attempts have nille,-rosea, pinnata, and coccinea. M. minds, that nothing but a deep interest in been made to introduce it among the escuThouin remarks that rosea was of the size the cause of scientific truth could for a mo. leot roots; but it would require a savage of Aster chinensis L.; and from the plate, ment prompt such an inquiry. Such a appetite, or a love for novelty, to bring this it seems to resemble a prototype of “ Queen theory' has been conceived before, froni the about. Its tubes, nevertheless, a bound in faof Naples,” a somewhat old variety. One failure of the Genevan botanist's characters, || rina,but the supposed presence of benzoic acid these varieties is figured with semi-double as also from other circumstances, which destroys their palatableness. The Composiflowers,-a fact noi a little remarkable, as render it a still more interesting query ; tæ, in their general characters, though of this plate was issued in 1904, and Count and at no better time could it be settled, un great importance to mankind in their mediLelieur mentions that not until 1817 could less it has already been done, than now, in cal properties, offer few articles of nutritious he obtain even two or three double varieties ;l the height of the universal popularity and food. The tubes of the tuberous sunflower,

improperly and commonly called “Jerusa-l in the organization of leaves, which are the linstruments which announce its changes lein artichoke,” are indeed considered by Joaly paris of a plant where transpiration every moment. some as delicate food, and the disk of the takes place. That surface of leaves which I do not propose that delicate and compligenuine artichoke, is used in some couniries is exposed to the direct rays of the sun iscated instruinents should be provided ; but extensively as an accompaniment to the covered by a thick epidermis, which resists I wish to find on every farm an hygrometer, table.

the calorific rays. lo herbaceous plants, as to ascertain the humidity of the aimosphere, Every season brings to the dahlia some in stalks of grasses, this covering is com. a thermometer to indicate the changes of new insect foe, which attacks its valuable posed principally of silex. In other plants temperature, and a barometer to determine and tender buds, or devastates its foliage. it is analagous to resin, wax, gum, or honey ;|| the weight of the atmosphere. This last The grasshopper, (a common green species, whilst the epidermis, which covers the op- instrument would be particularly valuable, and the Syrtis erosa, with Membracis bubalus, posite sides of the leaves, is fine and trans- | as predicting the changes of the weather; better known to the unscientific as a two-parent. It is by this, ihat transpiration the rising of the mercury announces the rehorned triangular bug, has been peculiarly and the absorption of nourishment from the turn of dry weather, and its sinking warns busy for a few seasons past. While some atniosphere are carried on. If we should us of rain and storms. We can regard unknown pest, of a green and smooth larva, reverse the order of things, and present these variations but as sigps; but they are luxuriously riots on the rich petals, or un- the under surface of a leaf to the rays of signs much more certain ihan those which de mines i he leaves. A small dipterous (:) | the sun, we should very soon see that it country people derive from the changes of insect was observed for the firsi lime this would make great efforts to resume its natu- the moon. year, but I was unable to detect any such ral position.

Properties of Mould.-Land owes its fernew depredator. Nothing but a careful ex When a plant is dead, or rather when an uility, mostly, if nou wholly, to the presence, amination and diligent use of the fingers in annual plant has fulfilled its destiny, giving in a greater or less abundance, of principles seizing and crushing the intruders, with assurance of its re-production by the forma-analagous to those constituting moulů.perhaps some liquid application to the roots, tion of its fruit, the action of heat and o1|| These principles are furnished by manures, which should promote a more speedy and the other chemical agents is no longer modi- and by the decomposition of planis; but vigorous growth, is a preventive. li is to tied by any of the causes of which I have each harvest causes a diminution of them, a be hoped attention will be paid to this view just spoken, and the plant receives their im- part being washed away by rains, and a of the subject, that some method may for- || pression in an absolute and unmodified man- part absorbed by the crops which are raised ; tunately be devised to save from disappoint- i ner. When the temperature of the atmos-llihus the soil is deprived by degrees of its ment the promised glories of our finestphere sinks below a certain point, the fluids nutritive qualities, iill at length nothing reand rarest plants, or at least that these in- in plants become condensed, the movement mains but an earthy residuum, deprived of sidious mischief-workers may be known and of the juices is retarded, the activity of their its nourishing juices, and completely barren; exposed.

organs languishes, and is at length suspend it is to restore its fertility thai land must be I conclule this article with only one ed, until restored by the return of heat. The manured afresh, after having yielded several question to the experimental florisi, viz: action of the atmosphere upon plants, when crops. whether sufficient experiment has been deprived of its due proportion of heat, is Dews-Suggestions to render them benefimade, as to the soil or exopsure, to insure however modified by ihe emission or disen-||cial to Vegetation.—The aqueous vapors the perfection and bloom in thai rich and gagement of caloric, which is always given suspended in the air begin to be condensed superb variety, “Levick’s locomparable?” out when liquids are condensed, or solids and precipitated at sunset, and with them is Every one who attended the last annual ex- contracted; and this occasions the tempera- deposited the greatest part of the emanahibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural ture of plants, during the winter, to be alotions which have arisen from the earth Society, must remember a remarkable speci- ways a little higher than that of ihe atmos- during the day; these exhalations, though men which graced the magnificent display (phere.

beneficial to vegetation, are almost always of its sisier varieties, which was produced in It sometimes happens that the tempera- || injurious to man, and it is not without reathe immediate vicinity. Yours, ture of the atmosphere sinks so low as 10 son that he fears and shuns the night damps.

John Lewis RUSSELL. produce fatal effects upon planis by freezing in southern climates, where the heat of the Salem, Jan 1, 1836.

ibeir sap, and thus occasioning their death. sun is more intense, and rains less frequent

This effect does not always depend upon the than in northern, vegetation is supporied by From Chaptal's Chemistry of griculture. intensity or degree of cold to wbich they the dews, which are very abundant. In orCHEMISTRY APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE.

are exposed, but upon particular circum- der that the dews of nigbt may produce their

stances. I have seen olive trees resist abest effects upon vegetation, it is necessary Influence of Heat and Light upon Vegeta- temperature of 220.2 Fahrenheit, and perish that the soil should unite certain qualities, tion. The changes of temperature experi- from that of 280.6, because in the last case which it does not always possess. enced by the atmosphere in the course of a line snow, which had collected upon the When the soil is hard and compact, and year, are so great, as to cause some liquids branches of the trees during a night, was forms by the action of the air an impenetrato pass alternately either to the solid or aeri. dissolved the following day by the heat of|ble crusi, the dew is deposited upon its surforin state, and some solid bodies to become the sun, and the wet iree was exposed du-| face, and evaporated by the rays of the sun, liquid. The natural effect of heat upon ring the succeeding night to the action of without having moistened the rocis of the these bodies is, by dilating them, to weaken 280.6. There is nothing niore dangerous for plants or softened the earth around them; the force of coliesion which unites their corn and grasses, than those frosts which so that of the organs that serve to convey inolecules, and, by facilitating the ac:ion of follow immediately after a thaw, because nourishment to the plants, the leaves are the chemical atfinity, to enable them to enter in the still wet plants, not being deeply rooted only ones benefitted by the dew, while the to combination with foreign bodies. Thus in the ground pulverized by the frost, have roois which are :he principal vehicles of nuheat renders the juices of plants more fluid, no means of defending themselves from the criment when the plant is fuliy developed, and facilitates their circulation through the effects of the cold.

are not in any degree benefitted by it. It is cells and capillary vessels; and by giving Though the action of light upon vegeta- | necessary in such cases, that the soil should activity to the suckers of roots, enables them tion does not appear to be so important as be softened, lightened, and divided, so that to draw from the earth the juices necessary that of the other fluids of which I have spol the air may convey the water with which it for their pourishment.

ken, it is not in reality lesz so. Planis, is charged, to the roois of the plants, and to Above a certain temperature, heat, by pro- which are raised in the shade or un darkness, every part of the earth surrounding them, to mouing evaporation, causes the juices of|are nearly or quite without color, perfume, a certain depth; then the plant can imbibe, plants to become thickened and dried in taste, or the firmness of texture of those lihrough all its pores, the reviving moisture; their organs, and thus vegetation is arrest-Ithat are exposed to the direct rays of the and that which is received by its roots is ed, and life suspended. This effect always sun: and if the luminous fluid does not com- more lasung than that which' it absorbs in takes place during great heats, when neither bine with the organs of plants, we cannot any other way, because the roots being shelraio, dew, por irrigation can sufficiently re-deny that it is a powerful auxiliary in theirtered from the direct rays of the sun, evapopair the loss occasioned by evaporation.-- || combinations.

ration takes place less rapidly, and the This effect would be more frequent, if provi When we reflect upon the influence which moisture iz reiained, whilst the leaves are deat nature did not employ means to mode-| the atmosphere exercises over vegetation, speedily dried by the heat. Besides, that rate the action of hear.

and over the principal operations which are earth which is most easily affected by the The first of these means is the transpira- carried on in rural establishments, such as dews, yields most readily to the action of tion of the vegetables themselves, which fermentations, the preparation of various roots, whether it be to fix the planı firmly cannot take place without carrying off a productions, and the decomposition of some by their extension, or to draw from the soil large portion of heat, and thus preserving substances, in order to apply them to parti-l its nutritive properties. the transpiring body at a temperature below cular purposes; we are astonished at finding This explains in a natural manner the that of the air. The second means is found nowhere any of the simple and unexpensive origin of a custom observed by all agricul

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