Lapas attēli

“ This report was read before our dele- || Emmerson, Ge!). Jo! Cink., M. C.| ive in directing the preliminary movegation, but the Carolinians with some little Rodgers, and F. B. Bugs

menis, and efiering a continuous route, and aid from Georgia, succeeded in preventing From North Garolina, Gov. D. La willingness to be a large subscriber to its being read before the Convention; and Swain, Dr. S. F. Hardy, Joseph M. D. the stock—against these, Georgia offers I have some doubts whether it will ever be Carson, J. Humphry Bissell

, H. P. Willis, the best route, and greater choice of narkets. presented with the other documents laid be- Samuel Chunn, E. M. Bryant, and Mr. A route connecting Nashville, (from fore the Conveution. But with such an | Avery.

wbence ihere is to be railroad to Louiseasy passage before them, the Columbia in- From Virginia, Peter C. Johnson, and ville) entering Georgia at Murray County, terest could not venture to insist upon the Samuel C. Goodson.

joining the Aiheus road, also branching 10 French Broad being the best roule, and

From South Carolina, Abm. Blanding, Macon and Columbus, has many friends. therefore the only resolution offered and Chas. Eimonston, Julge Bayles Earle, The distribution of the public revenue adopted, was that a practicable roạte with-H.Judge O'Neal, Alex. Black, James Ward- will give a new impulse to the railrord in the chartered limits, had been found by | law, J. Barkley, and Gen. Hayne. feeling, and new routes will be proposed in way of the French Broad from Cincinnati From Alabaina, Dr. Thomas Fearne, every direction. to Charleston. and John D. Williams.

July 6-Convention met at 9 o'clock; From Georgia, Judge A. S. Clayton, some new delegates froin Ohio made their The above letters exhibit a flattering ev. Richard W. Habersham, Wm. Dearing, appearance; adjourned at 11 o'clock until idence of the favorable disposition of the H. M. McAllister, and W. W. Holt. to-morrow at 12, when the great commit-delegates in Convention towards our State.

Today the Convention inet, and after tee will probably report. They have been We hope and trust that it will not be in reading the minutes of yesterday, Mr. in animated debate 10-day, which resulied vain, but that the people will, (throughout Chapel, from Macon, presented a report on in appointing a committee of conference, the State,) rouse up en masse, and return to the practicability and importance of the (of five) to report on the subject of charters. the next legislature men who will, by their different rouies for railroads through the

Yours, &c.,

-T. G. Casey, strenuous efforts to advance the prosperity State of Georgia, together with the repori of their State, show the people of other of the Engineer of the Athens railroad to States that they are not only awake on the h: Committee of 44.

froin the Courier and Enquirer. „subject of Internal Improvement, but are

Some one moved 10 add Mr. Coleman,

THE ATTICA AND BUFFALO RAILROAD. unwilling to see their State out-stripped by Maysville, Kentucky, who had just ar

This road will form the last western links: other States in the march of that prosperity, ||rived, to the Committee of 44 which was to which an enlightened spirit on the en

agreed to. Thus the committee will here in the chain of railroads from Albany to grossing subject (to which we have refer- after be called the Committee of 45. Some Buffalo, the first or eastern link of which red) can alone elevate her. Georgia must

one attempted to add another member toto Utica, is in active operation. The other act through her legislature. Delegates

this committee, from Lincoln county, North portions are all chartered. Arica is near Carolina, but was not susiained.

ihe centre of the county of Genesee, 30: must be sent to the Legislatures of Ten

Perhaps we shall be able to have our miles direcily east of Buffalo. The whole nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, North and South

different Carolina, to procure amendments to the

reports prinied for the benefit or in elevation from the Tona wanda to the Buf

struction of the people of the West. Our falo summit is only 80 feet; the greatest charters already granted, so that Georgia

, report yesterday on the commercial advan. uscent per mile is 35 feet for two miles with her imposing position-her immense

tages of our Slate seemed to astonish rany only; the rest is from 30 feet per mile to a resources, may be allowed to participate in of ihe people of this Convention.

level. The charter is very liberal: goods ·a work, creditable to the enterprise of those

The Convention adjourned to-day to and freight are to be carried at all seasons States, who first originated it. The State

meet to morrow at 12 o'clook, by which without restrictions as to canal duties. The too must subscribe, and not leave to indi-|| time we hope the committee will probably cost will be cheap, not over from $6000 10 viduals the completion of an enterprise, be

$7000 per mile, including every thing for a

The distribution of the surplus fund ap- || single track and necessary turnouis, which of her citizens--the treasures of other

pears to have in the minds of some, re- with the rich country and great thoroughfare States, by producing a commercial spirit so

moved some of the difficulties which were of the commerce of the west in the tract of eminently necessary for a sound and in the way of the construction of the con- wbich it lies, together with the facts that bealthful action in the people generally..

templated Railroad. There is evidently Hihere are no charters of turnpikes to he We must not be slothful at this time. If sorne dispondency about the ability of subfought out, and that most of the owners of we are, we will live to reproach ourselves scribing for ibe stock. But this fund they the land residing on the route, have alfor our inaction, and posterity will grieve hope to be able to have appropriated to this ready given written releases to the land that a people lived before them who barmatter.

for the rise of the road, are sure to make tered their birth-right for a mess of pottage I have forwarded the report, &c. of the stock in this road a profitable investment. —who cast away their abiding interests for South Carolina Commissioners to the The following is an extract from the reportselfish or party gratification.

Knoxville Convention. I have heard noth of the Engineer :
ing farther from the committee, therefore On leaving the village of Attica, for the
will close my letter,

first two miles, which brought me to the From the Correspondence of the Augusta Constitutionalists.

summit, the whole rise that must be surRespectfully, yours, A. CUNNINGHAM.

mounted is eighty feet, passing up a small Knoxville, (Tenn.) 6th July, 1836.

stream, or raiher ravine, on almost one re. Gentlemen :-Having obtained a list of It is beliered, if the road is recommended gular inclined plane. This may, however, the committee of 44, and believing you to pass through South Carolina io Colum-be reduced by extending the plane a greatwould like to see it, I shall forward the bia and Charleston, that the other States er lengih, by cutting through near ibe same with such other remarks as may oc- will make such amendments to their summit so as to reduce it to a rise of about cir. charters, as will allow Georgia to connecilih rty-five feet to the mile, or it


be Those taken from the Ohio Delegation her road at any point on the route, with brought to a much shorter space, and surare, Doctor Drake, E.S. Thomas, and Mr. full and equal privileges. The northwest mount the rise in a shorter or longer disMansfield.

is already favorably disposed to the route lance as may be thought best, and yet not From Indiana, Melton Stopp, and Mr. through Georgia. The cost according to materially affect the expense of grading. Fields.

Mr. Thompson's estimate, would not ex- from ihe summit westerty to Alden, I From Kentucky, Robert Wickliffe, Judgeceed $14,000 per mile from Knoxville to find alınost ove perfect inclined plane, fallS. S. Nicholas, Daniel Buck, Richard Athens, Georgia, finished in the very besi||ing from twenty to thirty feet to the mile, a Haws, John Kincaid, F. F. Fox, and manner. T'he advantages South Carolina distance of seven to eight miles. From Daniel Garrard.

has, are, in having obtained the charters in Alden westerly, we pass along the valley From Tennessee, John Williams, Judge which Georgia is not named, and been ac-ll of a creek, a distance of eleven miles, with

which must, more or less,
pour into the lap be able to report

at least in part



no material obstruction, gradually descend- | New-Orleans, on the west side of the river-1| in Miss., and thence another 10 Natchez; ing a part of the way, while other parts of the Plaquemine, which has been in opera. I will give a continuous land route by steam the route we run on a level to the village of tion for several years; and the Barraiaria from New Orleans to Naichez. Various Lancaster, where we have to cross a stream, and Lafourche canal. This latter has lateral railways will intersect the main which will require bridging or embanking been so far completed, as to open an inland route in this direction, through the eastern a distance of two hundred feet. From communication between New Orleans and part of Louisiana ; and bring a constant Lancaster to Buffalo, a di tance of about the Barrataria bay; but it is designed to and early supply of produce, ect., to ibe ten miles, the present surface of the ground extend westward through the lake Verret, market of New-Orleans. is almost sufficiently graded for laying and the Atchafalaya and Teche rivers. A company (we are informed) is now Limbers for the road, and it is nearly a level. The second section of this line will be organized, and will be chartered ai lhe enThe route, on the whole, is an advanta- finished during the ensuing winter.-suing session of the Lousiana Legislature, geous one, and indeed more advantageous Steamboats of light draught ply on this to construct a railway through the lower tran can be found in most sections of this canal.

parts of the city to the English Turn, first, vicinity. The whole amount of grading But more attention is properly paid to and afterwards to the Balize-on the same will not exceed from eight hundred to one railroads than to canals in that neighbor.plan, and for the like objects as the Carrolthousand dollars per mile; and even one hood, as the numerous water courses su- lon railroad. half the distance may be graded for less percede the necessity of the former, excepi But the grand route, independent of the than half that sum. All of which is re. in the south-western parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, is the contemplated railroad to spectfully submitted.

where the alluvial lands are scarcely yet Nashville. This will be about 560 miles JAMES J. BBALDWIN, Engineer.

formed or reclaimed from the Gulf. There long. It has been surveyed throughont; The Tona wanda Railroad which runs

are now three railroads in full operation in and the route for several miles has been lofrom Rochester to Attica, will be com-New-Orleans--the Pontchartrain, the Car-cated and prepared for the grading. Ou. pleted early in the next summer, a distance rolton, and the Orleans.

ing to the opposition experienced in the of about 41 miles, so that the whole dis

The Pontchartrain railroad was the Mississippi Legislature, as to the particu. tance froin Rochester 10 Buffalo over these second completed in the Union; and is pro-lar location of ihe route in that State, the roads, will not exceed 72 miles. Should bably the best disciplined in every respect. energies of the company have been parthe stock of the Attica and Buffalo road It runs through a street in the lower part of tially paralized; but the Mississippians be readily taken. the whole may be finished the city-now situated in the third munici

. being now restored to their better senses, within one year from the first of Septem. pality--to Lake Pontchartrain, where a will not again act so suicidally. The ber next. The books will close this after-harbor is constructed, with a respectable States of Tennessee, Alabama, and Louisinoon, a 3 o'clock, at the Farmer's Loan & hotel for boarders and visitors, to enjoy ana, have largely subscribed to the stock Trust Co.'s Office.

the lake breezes. This drive would be of this company; and Congress has grantexcellent, were it not through swamps; but en permission to pass through the public

these will shortly be reclaimed. Locomo-lands on the route. From the New-York Express.

lives on this route run every hour during The railroad 10 Nashville will have one NEW-ORLEANS-INTERNAL IMPROVE- week days, and every half hour on Sun grand entrance into New Orleans, by Ca

days. The company incorporated to nal street, through which it will pass to Having noticed the improvements in construct this railroad, was lately con. the river; and will have lateral arms into progress to meliorate the health and port of ceded banking privileges, with a capital the upper and lower parts of the city.New-Orleans, and to benefit the naviga- of one and a half million, in order to con- Throughout its course, lateral branches tion of the Mississippi, by removing the obstruct a similar road in the lower part of will be constructed on both sides to every structions at its mouth, we shall now glance the city, to Lake Borgne, where a good principal town or city—so as to afford the at the internal improvements in and nearharbor will be formed that can facilitate necessary facilities io planters, in places that city, for increasing and extending the greatly the communication by that part of where there are no roads better than bridle facilities of intercommunication for irade 'he Gulf of Mexico with New Orleans.- || paths. and travel, witl, the remote parts of Louisi-The navigation of Lake Borgne, has hith- Were it not beside our purpose, we might ana and the adjacent States. The merch-erto been neglected, although the great notice the other railroads and canals in ants and other citizens of New-Orleans depth of water was evidenced by the expe- Louisiana ; but we have designedly conhave wisely resolved not to depend exclu- dition of the British in 1814, when inva-fined ourselves to those in and about New. sively on the manifest natural avdantages ding Louisiana ; but the spirit of competi-Orleans. We may however, remark, that which that city enjoys by its position on tion now happily excited in New-Orleans, | attention is simultaneously paid to the forthe "father of waters," but have concen by the struggles for the trade of various mation of companies to extend and secure trated the late improvements in steam, in ports among the sections and classes of that the facilities of intercommunication between several canals and rail roads immediately city, will bring all facilities of communica- that city and her dependencies. A comor mediately leading into the city. tion into action.

pany has been chartered to establish regu. The Canal Carondelet connecting the The Orleans railroad is a petty one, osllar lines of stearoboats on Lake PontcharMississippi river with Lake Ponchatrain, tensibly designed to effect an easy and ex- train to Mobile, touching at all the interby the river St. John, has been in opera-peditiouş route to a new country in the mediate places; and a second company tion since 1805. The company incorpo- rearward swamps; but really designed by another line to Mobile and Pensacola. A rated for that purpose has a perpetual its projector, to improve his own land in that banking company is required by its act of charter with extraordinary privileges; and neighborhood. It has accomplished both. incorporation, to establish one such line of are now using every exertion to promote A horse car runs on it every hour

, for the steamboats 10 Madisonville, another to the advantages they enjoy. This unwont. convenience of those travelling in that di. Bayou Sarah, and a third to Natchitoches, ed energy has been caused by the competirection.

on the Red river. We perceive also, by tion experienced from the canal construct

The railroad to Carrolton enters the city || advertisements in the New-Orleans paper-, ed in the upper part of the city, in the 10 Canal-street ; and is nearly six miles that companies of merchants are now be same direction and for similar objects, un- long. The company chartered to constructing formed to establish lines of steam-ships der the care of a banking company, hav-it

, met with considerable opposition, and 10 Tampico, to Vera Cruz, and to Havana. ing a capital four million of dollars.-

acted with so much energy in conquering But the inhabitants of New-Orleans are This canal is upwards of six miles in it, that the Legislature of the State per singularly-we had almost written shamelength, and has by its side a turnpike road (ceived the utility of conceding them fully apathetic in the establishment of recovered with shells. When completed it banking privileges-exacting at ihe same gular packets to distant and foreign ports. will be 120 feet wide, and adapted for the time from them the duty of continu- Some of the merchants of this city offered steamboats which ply on the lakes to Mo-ing the railroad to Bayou Sarah.- those of New Orleans to furnish one qile, and other poris in the Gulf of Mexico. When this shall have been completed, the two regular lines between both cities, pro

There are two other canals very near railroad from the latter place to Woodville, vided the merchants of the latter took a


certain share, so as to secure an interest in embracing literary instruction, combined || present legal domestic relations in life, it them; but the project was frustrated. And with the pursuits of real life of every practi- is therefore my wish that no illegitimate

cal description. The institution to be called || child shall be admitted into the institutions we learn that the New Orleans merchants have absolutely refused to establish regu|may be, laid down in the memorial present-married, either before or after the birth of

the Polytechny, upon the plan as near as whose parents shall not have legally interlar lines of packets either to Liverpool or led by me to the legislature of the State of the child, and that such prohibition be made Havre, as they prefer to depend on the New-York, and the report of a committee a fundamental law of each institution transit trading ships. They will however, and drati of a law founded thereon, during which may be established under this will. soon perceive the advantage if not the ne. the session of the year 1830. If after wind. If my life shall not be spared to settle my cessity of having regularity and punctualitying up my affairs, it shall be ascertained estate myself, and ascertain its value, so in their trude, in order to secure despath that there are funds sufficient left to como las to know accurately what may be left for and afford certainty.

inence and found such institution, I then ibis purpose, and also enable me to form a wish my trustees aforesaid to petition the more full and detailed plan for the govern

legislature of ibis State to accept this de- ment and management of the institutions, The lats Hon. Jouw B. Yates. Ve vise for the object named, to confirm its and the specific approriations for each btake from the Albany Argus the following pernanency by a legislative act, and makeject, which, from the unceriainty of the extract from the will of the late Hon. John | and steady governinent by the appointner and extent of the arrangements to the

ihe necessary arrangement for its uniform amount, I cannot now do, I leave the manB. Yates. It is quite unnecessary to eulo-ment of a Governor or Director, who shall sound discretion of my said trustees, in gise ihe character of a man who dispenses not be liable to removal by the fluctuations conjunc:ion with my friends John Savage, the fruits of a life of industry in the man- of pariy or the miserable charlatanry of po.chief justice of the State, Jobin Van Ness

litical jugglers. ner which Mr. Yates proposes in his will lo

Yates, of Albany, and John C. Spencer of

"If such a law to the satisfaction of my || Capandaigua, whom I solicit io aid my do. We should think more favorably of said trustees, cannot be obiained in this trustees by their counsel and advice in ormankind if similar instances of liberality Scale, I then direct that as soon as may be, ganizing and establishing the said instituwere more frequent:

without incurring unnecessary loss, myliions.'

whole estate left after the legacies and deTHE WILL OF THE LATE JOHN B. YATES, ESQ.

vics be disposed of, on the terms and in the We have been tavored with an extraci ofinanner that shall be thought most advania.

GREAT INVENTION.- The Boston Atlas this will, drawn by the testator himself, and geous, and as it shall froin time to time be notices at some length the very important luy it before our readers. It furnishes evi-l disposed of or sold in such portions as may invention, by a young man named Cochdence of that e larged and philanthropic in- be ofered at the various times, and theran, a native of New Hampshire, of what tellect for which Mr. Yates was distin-money received therefur, that the saine be are denominated the " Many chambered, linguished throughout his whole life. A invesied until the sum of one hundred thou-l Non-recoil,” fire arms. Through the inlarge estale, between three and four hun-sand dollars be funded, and they are re- ( strumentality of Mr. G. Gay of Providence, dred thousand dollars, over and above a quested in that event to form such an in. very, ample support for his widow, and stitution in any State which a majority of now in this place, we were some time since other legacies, he has set apart for the pur•them please to select, which is willing to

made acquainted with the prop erties of this poses of literature and science. He has give the proper irrevocable legal guaranty

wonderful improvement in the construction shown, in his dying moments, his regard for its permanency, and appropriate not of cannon, rifles, muskets and pistols--for for the morality, happiness and characier less than one thousand acres of land for the to all these the invention has been adapted of his country. lodeed, this was his ‘mas-purpose. The income only of the one hun.and should have sooner noticed the subject, ter passion, strong in death,' and posterity lared thousand dollars to be applied in this but that we were waiting for an actual inwill enrol his name a:nong its noblest beo- last case to the support of the institution, spection of some specimen. This opporefactors. During his life, he evinced the land the principal to be transferred to the sime unceasinz solicitude for the general State, and kept by it invested for a school of tunity has been promised ; and it is exgoud., Aware that the perpetuity of our this descriprion. "If afterwards, a greater pected that one of the rifles, already sent republican institutions could be best se residuary sum than this shall be realized, for by Mr. Gay, will soon be ready for exhicired by a general diffusion of intelligence, I then direct that the balance, not exceed-bition to those of our citizens who feel an a man was more active in the cause of ed-ing one hundred thousand dollars, be offered interest in the protection of their property ucation than he. The emphatic and no on the same terms to another State, and so upon the ocean, against pirates or hostile less interesting injunction coatained in his on until the whole residuary estate be thus savages aldress deliver:d in February last to the applied and absorbed in amounts not ex. State Agricultural Society, exemplifies the ceeding as above one hundred thousand dol

These weapons are so contrived, that by deep interest he felt in its cause. These lars to each.

means of a metallic cylinder, or wheel, reare' his words: Do you wish, quietly, Having ascertained with certainty to my

volving on an axis immediately in the rear without injustice and without violence, io own mind, that almost all political 'men ot of the barrel, some twelve discharges may equalize property as co ducive to the greater all parties are more particularly anxious for be made in rapid succession ; insomuch safety of the republic? and in fine do you personal agzrandizement than any perma. that by a little practice, the loading and wish to foster any hope to preserve your neni arrangements by which the general firing of the whole twelve may be per• republic?-educate thoroughly your whole standard of popular information may be formed in little more time than is now recommunity. At his own expense he es. raised, and thus greater stability be given Iquired for a single charge and discharge of tablished ihe Polytechny School at Chitte to the political institutions of our country, a common rifle. This wheel is perforated aango, which was ably conducted, and con- I am apprehensive of the same seerei opLinued in successful ope ation ten years.- position which I have experienced and at the periphery, with cavities or chambers, His financial operations and usremitting which I know exists to every project of the to contain the charges, of a calibre corresexertions, in connexion with his partners, || sort. It is therefore my wish that a print - ponding with that of the barrel; and the raised Union College from a state of com-ling press, and weekly paper at least, de-charges arc ignited by means of percussion parative insolvency to tiat of opulence and voted to the purpose of advocating literary caps inserted in a smaller hole at right andistinction. We have no doubt that the information among all classes of people, Igles with the above cavity, and striking the legislature of this State will give every aid be established, connected with the institut || centre of the charge. In large ordnance, in i's power to promote the great and benevoltion, and that printing and book-binding in olent objects of the testator, and thus tur-all its branehes, form a branch of mecháni. Il the wheel or cylinder revolves vertically ; pish a monument more durable than marcal occupation of a portion of the students but in small arms it has a horizontal motion, ble to the memory of its truly patriotic and in the institution. It is also my will that with the lock or igniting apparatus underbenevolent founder,

a professorship of law be established, and neath. The wheel passes round by means He conveys all his property to Mrs. chat every student be inade familiar with of proper guides, and as fast as each charge Yates, his widow, Charles Yates, William the constitution of the United States and arrives opposite the breech of the barrel, it K. Fuller, and George K. Fuller, in trust ; each Stale in the Union, at as early an and after providing for certain bequests, he age as possible, and to be connected derived only from verbal testimony, it may

may be exploded. As our description is directs as follows:

throughout with the moral and religious • 1 direct further that my said trustees ap- instructions of the institution. Being also not be entirely accurate, or even inteiligiply the remainder of my property, my real firmly persuaded that the safety

of society ble ; but we are satisfied that the extraordiand personal estate, if any there shall be, and its proper moral governinent cannot be nary effects ascribed to the invention are by to the endowment and support of a school sustained without a high regard for the 'no means overrated or misrepresented.


Mr. G. informs us that he has discharged || inents, made thirteen years ago, will, it is No. 1, That weighed 53 grains, now several hundred chots from one of the rifles ; || hoped, be found not uninteresting.


394 grains. and after the closest attention he could dis- Small quantities, presenting rkearly equal

Loss 134 grains, cqual cern no recoil whatever. The cannon may surfaces of each of the kinds of copper to 25.4 per cent. be discharged easily, twelve times per min. described in my last communication, name- No. 2, That weighen 30 grains, now ute—and a succession of loading and fir- ly, pure shoited copper of the quality from


114 ing may be kept up for almost any length of which brass is made, and shots obtained Loss 184 grains. Equal time. The shot are also driven to a greater||from unrefined copper, were separately im

to 61.2 per cent. distanı e than by the common method ; and mersed in equal weights of muriatic acid. No. 3, Unrefined copper flata less quantity of powder is used in the The immersion having been continued for tened, 394 grains. now process. 48 hours, the acid was poured off, and the weighed,

19 grains Respecting the inventor, who is short of copper washed repeatedly, and thoroughly Loss 20ļ gains. Equal 25 years of age, we have the following par-dried. The pure copper had lost at the to 50 per cent. ticulars, which we abridge from the Atlas : rate of 54 grains in 100. But the unre. No. 4, Unrefined copper bár, Having obtained a patent in this country, fined copper, on being weighed, seemed to 42 grains now weighed, 384 he proceeded to England aud France, have gained half a grain; so that either a Loss 3. grains. Equal to 8.33 per cent. where his invention was readily patented, mistake must have been made in the It would appear from this experiment after a series of experiments made in pre-weighing, or else' a portion of unexpelled that the unrefined copper resists waste in sence of distinguished naval and military|| moisture had remained in the porous fakes the mauriatic acid, in ihe same way, and officers, at London and Paris. The Turk- of the copper.

to nearly the same extent, as in the cemenish ambassador, who witnessed the tremen- & Six ounces of unrefined copper werelation with lime mentioned in my last presłous results, induced Mr. Cochran to go to mixed with three times their bulk of char. vious paper. Constantinople—where he was most kindly coal, and exposed for six hours to a high In corroboration of this fact, we may received by the Sultan, who loaded the in-| heat of cementation much beyond what in take the following abstract of anoi her series genious artist with presents, after ordering the absence of the cementation would have of experiments, where in the specimens a twelve pounder to be constructed on this sufficed 10 melt the copper. The fakes of were weighed three times, at intervals of principle, under the inspection of Mr. C. copper.were found surrounded by the char-/ 48 hours befween each weighing. at the public laboratories, and attending in coal, welded together without fusion, and Unrefined copper, 1st in mersion, person, with his whole court, at the trial. soft and extremely flexible. Six ounces of Jost,

15 per cent. Mr. Cochran resided six months at the the pure copper shots were treated in a sim

2nd ditto 8,18 Ditto,

2rd ditto 6 Turkish capital, receiving the most markedilar manner, but the result was so far difdistinction from the government.

He then ferent that no adhesion of the masses had returned to this country, and established a taken place, and the only perceptille

29 manufactory at Springfield in this Com-change was a slight cracking or bursting monwealth, at which small arms and can-l upon the surface of the spheriods, which Pure copper, 1st immersion,

lost non are now being made, chiefly to order, may be considered as a prelude to fusion.

25.4 per cent. Ditto,

2nd ditto 9.7 for sportsmen, &c., or for experiment, by|| Boih results were melted down with char.

Dillo. the ordnance officers of the U. States. Ácoal and run into iron moulds. The unre

3rd ditto 11.1 piece of brass ordnance is now in course of fined copper, wherr cold, was the strongest

46.2 construction at Troy, and another at West and softest; a bar of it, about ihs of an Point, under the direction of the inventor. inch thick, cut easily across with a knifr;

In favor of the unrefined copper princi

Two Besides the facility and rapidity with and in color and general appearance it very pally containing tin,-16.9 per cent. which these weapons may be discharged, nearly resembled Swedish copper. Another pieces of copper, the one pure, the other the rifles, &c. possess many other advan- piece was flattened out thin when cold for unrefined, were immersed; utider similar tages over all others. There is nothing the purpose of immersion in the muriatic circumstances, for seven days. The unupon the barrel to obstruct or confuse the acid. The pure copper was melted in rather relned copper lost 17 per cent., and the sight—the sutface being perfectly smooth ; | a higher degree of heat, and although not || pure copper 45 per cent. To ascertain they never miss fire, and are little liable to teemed until it had assumed a creamy sur-whether the greater indestructibility was accident. Our whale ships generally carry face, and the crucible had fallen to a low owing to the tin which remained in the up a number of muskets : but we are persua- red tenperature, it was crystalized through refined copper, I formed a bar of alloy as dled that nothing yet contrived by human in-out the whole fracture. "The surface and follows:

2880 grains genuity for security against cripture or plun-| the fracture of this copper were of a red

Block tin

84 der at sea, an in any shape compete with color; the body wenk, und tearing with the implement under notice. We are thero-facility into pieces. Fraginents for innmer-la proportion of tin about equal to 3 per fore anxious that ship owners, and others |sion were cut off and flattend.

cent. A piece from this bar weighing interested at this place, may examine this

The following specimens were then about 183 grains was exposed for seven new and most effectual engine of destruc-placed separately in muriatic acid.

days in muriatic acid, at the end of which tion, and from its peculiar principle of ac-| No. 1, Pure copper, cut off

time it was found to have lost 30 grains, or tion, judge of its terrific powers.

with a chisel,

53 grains || 16;ó per cent. The unrefined copper, 2, Ditto, flatlened,

30 these deadly instruments, and plenty of

above mentioned, lost in the same time and ammunition, a single man may disperse a

3, Oprefined copper, cut off

under similar circumstances, 17 per cent.,

with a knife, score of pirates, and a small crew contend

391 which is a striking correspondence. The triumphantly against myriads of barbari

4, Ditto, flattened, in which

same piece of tin alloy, at the end of five ans.-[Nantucket Inquirer.]

stuck a minute portion of

weeks, was found to have lost in all 76 the knife,

grains, or 38ļ per cent.

Pure copper by
On the morning of the third day the fol. the foregoing results lost in seven days
ON THE IMMERSION OF COPPER FOR BOLTS lowing remarks were made upon their re- immersion 46.2 and 45 per cent.
spective solutions:

In the first instance I was inclined to at. AND SHIP SHEATHING IN MURIATIC ACID,

No. 1, Light green color, very transpa-tribute the indestructibility of the unrefined

rent when dashed against the sides of the copper in the acid, partly to the effects of DAVID MUSHET, ESQ.

glass. No. 2, equally transparent, but the the charcoal in the cementation, seeing that The durability of copper for bolts and green was brownish and not so decidedly || the effect produced by that operation was ship sheathing being an object of great na- cupreous. After continuing the iminer-much greater upon unrefined than upon tional importance, and as ihere is no bettersion for 48 hours longer, the acid was poured || pute copper. Whatever advantages may test of its resistance to waste, than immer- off and the specimens were well washed belong to the proper use of charcoal in the sion in muriatic acid, the followia e iperi-lland dried,

reduction and cementation of copper (and

Pure copper






per lb.


I consider them not unimportant,) the ad- | the undue preference for those imported more than repay him. The Earl immedition of a small portior of tin will be suf-Equally white, equally pure with that of|diately gave him the money. As the harficient to account for the superior resis- Jamaica, heretofore deemed the best, and vest, however, approached, the wheat grew, tance to waste which this alloy presents in by many thought to be the most nutritous and in those parts of the field that were the muriatic acid, over that of the common of the two, there can be no reason for its most trampled, the corn was the strongest refined copper of this country. This inca- | not superseding the necessity of supplying and most luxuriant. The farmer went pacity to rapid oxidation which is present- | ma ket with any of the articles from abroad. again 10 his lordship, and being introduced ed by the alloy of lin with copper, sug,

We have no price current at hand giving said, “I am come, my lord, respecting the gests many useful hints to the artists and the value of the imported article in first field of wheat adjoining such a wood.”the manufacturors, of which advantage has hands, but we are well assured that it can- His lordship instantly recollected the ciralready been taken in forming ship-sheath-| not be imported at less than from two or cumstance— Well, my friend, did I not ing and other articles.—[Lon. and Edin. three times the price of that manufactured allow you suficient to remunerate you for Phil. Mag.)

this vicinity, which is from 6 to 8 ctz.


loss ?" “ Yes, my lord, I have found

With an increase of demand, the that I have sustained no loss at all, for AGRICULTURE, &c.

aid of machinery would be required, and where the horses had most cut up the land

diminution in price might be anticipated ; at the crop is most promising, and I have About five years since, a

present a similar mode of manufacture to therefere brought the 501. back again.”— man named

ihat followed abroad is pursued in Florida, Ah !” exclaimed the venerable Earl, "that Smith, purchased a number of trees of heavy though it is probable the Florida manufac- is what I like ; this is what it ought to be Locust, in this county, for which he paid as

turers possess not all the facilities of their between man and may." He then entered high as seventy and eighty dollars each. The buts were squared and sent to Philacompetitors.

into conversation with the farmer, asking delphia, where they were used in ship buil

We are not sufficiently versed in botany him some questions about his family-how ding. The price apppears extraordinary : Florida root to that of Jamaica or Bermuda, then went into another room, and returning,

!o pronounce upon the similarity of the many children he had, &c. His lordsphip but had many of those choice trees been but there can be no doubt of there belong presented the farmer a check for 1001. cut up into posts, they would have pro-ing to the same family of plants. The ** Take care of this, and when your eldest duced to their owners, nearly, if not quite quantity manufactured is sufficient for the son is of age, present it to him and tell him, as much as Sinith. Ir proof of the correctness of this present demand, and doubtless will in the occasion that produced it.” We know opinion, we give the following fact:

crease, as the root is indigenious, and but not which most to admire, t'e benevolence On the farın of Mrs. Evans, near Mari

two or three planters being at present en- or wisdom displayed by this illustrious man; etta, in this county, a yellow locust was| Connection with their other agricultural he was handing down a lesson of integrity

gaged in the manufacture, and that too, in for while doing a noble act of generosity, felled last season, from which 140 posts pursuits,

to another generation. [English paper.] were made, one hundred and ten of which

The low price at which the Florida arrow Remarks by the Editor of the Farmer and were first rate, hewed and morticed, and sold for 50 cents each, and the remaining other purposes than thos.: to which, from root is sold, allows of its being applied to


The moral taught by the above simple 30, cullings, fit for board fence, and worth its dearness, foreign arrow root was usually narration of an anecdote, is worth millions 25 cents each, yielding to Mrs. Evans,

restricted. sixty-two dollars and fifty cents.

For instance, it is used here to the world, if those who inhabit it would The yellow locust is of quick growth, and no one can visit Key West without clearness, beauty, and force, which chal

almost universally, in the place of starch, only profit by it. It demonstrates with a sprouts from the stump, and is natural to to the soil of our river bottoms.

being positively satisfied of the fitness of lenges ad niration and wirs respect in every А

grove of this valuable timber, covering three or in the composition of many nicities of the is appreciated, and where benevolence

the substitute. It is so extremely valuable quarter where integrity of the higest order for acres, will keep a farm of 200 acres ; table (a fact which have made known for springing from an unadulterated heart can in fences forever: anl when the trees are the particular edification of our fair readers, find a response. How commendable the at maturity, say 25 yeurs old, will produce more clear cash than 2 years produce of||

and particularly in an imitation Best Mung.example of the young farmer! how glorious

It is used by the pianters in some places that of the venerable Earl! Such acts are, the whole farm.-Larcasier Farmer.

as a bread stuff, and was so used by the indeed, praiseworthy beyond all comparison [It has always been a matter of surprise to us that farmers who own bottoin lands, do abɔregines, but do not ask it for so general they are as the salts of the earth, and do not cultivate the yellow locust as a crop, either wheat or rye.

a use as to have it supercede the use of should teach poor grovelling humanity, even in 12 or 15 years they would produce sev

against its own consent, to pursue an uperal hundred dollars to the acrc.]-Ed.

We shall rest satified if our notices right and honorable course; for it places Farmer f. Gardener.

secures for the manufactures as great athe erpediency of such actions upon the all

demand as the goodness of their arrow subduing ground of interest. By an adage, FLORIDA ARROW ROOT.

root deserves.- Key West Enquirer, as venerable as venerated. we are taught, The day, we trust, is not far distant,

that “honesty is the best policy”—and how when prejudices in favor of the productions

happily does the present anecdote illusof foreign countries will cease to operate

A farmer called on Earl Fitzwilliam to re-trate its truth, and exemplify the justness to the detriment of the agriculturists and present that his crop of wheat had been se- of its philosophy. * Take care of this, manufacturers of our own. We are suffiriously injured in a field adjoining a certains and when your eldest son is of age present ciently friendly to the policy and principle wood, where his hounds had, during the it to him, and tell him the occasioi that of free trade, to allow every man to exer- winter, frequently met to hunt. He stated producod it"-said the Earl, as he handed cise the most perfect freedoin in the pur- that the young wbeat had been so cut up the young farmer a check for a hundred chase of whatever he may require, whether and destroyed in some parts he could not pourds. Could advice be more approthe necessaries or luxuries of life, at wh:1- hope for any produce. Well, my friend,” | priate ? " Tell him the occasion that proever price he may think proper, yet we can said his lordship, “ I am aware that we have duced it!”—how solemn and how pleasing not but lament the blindness or perverse- || frequently met in that field, and that we was the duty imposed upon the fathor of that ness that will lead any one to overlook an have done considerable injury, and if you son !-our life on it, his eyes glistened with article of home manufacture supplied at|can procure an estimate of the loss you the tear of gratitude and joy-gratitude comparatively a low price, for one of for have sustained, I will repay you.” The to the thrice noble and generous donor, and eign production in no way superior and farmer replied, that anticipating his lord- | joy that he had been made the herald of truly considered “a dear article.” The ship's consideration of kindness, he had re- || news so fulfil of the emanations of the most arrow root, which is the growth of South | quested a friend to assist him in estimating exal:ed and estimable attributes of human Florida, may be considered one of the the damage, and they thought that, as the nature, clad in its best and holicst vest, home productions which are sacrificed toll :rop was quite destroyed, 501, would notments! We would rather be able to pro


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