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right to use the water, by allowing reason-l'of crime; for how many men would be||ton dam, the pers and bridges for crossing able compensation for it.
found, under such circumstances, scrupu- the Harlem river, &c. with proper descrip5th. T'hat the judges of the county courts lous about taking from another, what they|ions of the materials to be used, the manshould act as appraisers, instead of com- wanted, if they knew they were not to be ner in which they shall be worked together, missioners appointed by the vice chan- prosecuted for it; or how many of the peo:|| and other necessary information preparacellor.
ple of Westchester are there who would|ory to the making of ihe contracts ; which !: The second complainants contended that take the trouble prosecuting for any | he has promised to furnish as soon as practhe corporation ought to be prohibited from losses, when in order to be indemnified,|| ticable and the commissioners are in hopes using the land required under the act for they would only have to present their bills that if they succeed in obtaining the land, any other purposes than that of supplying to the city compiroller for the payment of 10 estimate the value of which commisthe city with water, and should it not be such loses ?
sioners have been appointed, and shall reused for said purpose, that it ought to re
The citizens of New.York, it is admitted,ceive from the engineers the neceseary vert to the person from whom it was taken, will be greatly benefitted, but at a very || plans and specifications, they will still be he paying back the sum received for it.— heavy expense. They are not the only enabled to place some part of the work
That necessary tences should be erected portion of the community, however, who under contracı before the close of the preand sustained by the corporation, and con- will reap advantage from the project. Thesent year. venient passes made under and across the city of New-York is the principal mart of All which is respectfully subrnitted. aqueduct, where it intersects the land of an ihese United States, and those who send
STEPHEN ALLEN, individual owner.
7 the produce of their farms to this market for
BENJAMIN M. Brown, Water The remonstrance to the legislature by sale, or who come there for the purpose of
WILLIAM W. Fox Commissionthe first complainants, was effectually op- purchasing domestic or foreign produce, will
Chas. DUSENBBRRY, posed by the commissioners, and no crder enjoy, as well as our own citizens, the bene
SAUL ALLEY, was taken on it by that honorable body; but fit of a plentiful supply of an element of the the complaints of the second appeared to first necessity, froin the use of which they Ofice of the Water Commis- )
sioners, August 1st, 1836. the commissioners reasonable, and an act can feel assured that no injury will ensue was accordingly passed on the 26th of 10 the constitution or the health of the parMay, 1936, embracing the aforesaid protaker.
From the Albany Argus. visions, to which the commissioners could The county of Westchester is more par
THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY see no objections. ticularly interested in this matter than any
STATE.-It will be generally recollected The commissioners were in hopes that other portion of the Staie, except the city, that the legislature at ihe last session, made the passage of the aforesaid act, would and chai in several ways.
provision for a geological survey of this convince the people of Westchester that First, by the increase of the population State, including an account of its botanical they were anxious to secure to them every and prosperity of New-York, she is insured and zoological productions. This inforright and privilege that could be reasonably a good and unfailing market for all the tant measure was to be executed under the required. It appears, however, that there surplus produce of the county.
direction of the Governor, by competent are still dissatisfied persons among them, Second, the land required for the work is persons to be appointed by him The outas by the proceedings of a meeting lately chiefly of second rate quality, the price lines of a plan for this work, together with held at Tarrytown, it is said, a remon. paid for it will be liberal, and will produce a specification of the objects to be embraced strance in the form of resolutions was a greater income to the owner than what in it, were subrnitted to the legislature in passed, wbich, among other inadmissible would be realized from its cultivation ; and an able and excellent report, made to demands, declares in substance that the Thiril, the large amount of money that that body by Gen. Dix, as Secretary of taking of their lands will be resisted and will be expended in the county, will nat-|| State. This plan has, with some inconearried up to the supreme court of the urally tend to increase the irade of the siderable alterations, been adopted by the United States, unless ihe corporation will place, and thereby not only benefit the Governor. The Siate is divided into four agree 10 indemnify the citizens of farmer, but the merchant and mechanic districts, and one principal geologist and Westchester from all damage they may also.
an assistant assigned to each, instead of two sustain by taking their lands, together with The unfortunate prejudices engendered geologists, as suggested in the report rnade all such other damage as may accrue to by the proceedings alluded to, have pre-| by Gen Dix. them now and hereafter; intended no doubt vented the commissioners from bringing It was supposed that it would be necesto include any loss they may sustain by any farther negociation for the land re- sary to have a draughtsman for each distheft or other crimes commited by persons quired to a favorable issue, and they have trici, but it is believed that a change in this employed on the works. If ihis is not the accordingly applied to the vice chancellor respect can be advantageously made. The meaning, why is it that they oppose the for the appointment of commissioners to geologist and his assistant will be able to act of 1834, which provides compensation take by appraisement some pieces of land execute all the ordinary drawings, and the for all damage sustained in taking the land belonging to James Griffin, James Palmer, services of only one draughtsman will be or water or affected thereby ? The 13th Zophar Paliner and Joshua Purdy, lying required to execute the more difficult parts section declares that “In case of disagree in ihe vicinity of the site for thi Croton of this branch of the work. An accurate; ment between the commissioners and the dam, which application has been acceded | minute and uniform ana Isis of the mine. owners of any property which may be re-| to, and the business is believed to be in a rals, including mineral waters, and of the vaquired for the said purpose, or affected by progressive state.
rious soils of the State, has been deemed of any operation connected therewith, as to the It will be seen from the above that the great importance, and will be of evident ulil. amount of compensation to be paid such principal obstacle now in the way of proy. To ensure the best result in this respect, owner, the vice chancellor of the first cir- ceeding with the work is the difficulty to and to prevent the repetition of the same lacuit may, upon the application of either be overcome in obtaining the necessary bor to some extent at least by each geologist, party, nominate and appoint three indiffer-land. The commissioners
, however, are||this department of the work has been coment persons to examine such property, and still in hopes that after the proper explana- | mitted to one person. The Governor has, to estimate the value thereof, or damage tions shall be made to the inhabitants of we believe, taken great pains to secure 10 sustained thereby."
Westchester, most, if not all these difficul-the State ihe services of persons in all reHow in justice more can be required ties will be removed.
spects well qualified for the duties assigned than what the law provides, the comm.is At a meeting of the commissioners on the them; and has almost completed the list of sioners are unable to perceive. If the cor-23d of July, 1836, the chief engineer was appointmenis. poration agreed to the demands made in required to furnish them with plans and John Torry, M. D, Professor of Chemthe resolutions said to be passed at the specification of the Croton aqueduct, the istry and Botany in the College of Phy-meeting alluded to, it would in effect, as the several tunnels throughout the line of aque-sicians and Surgeons, New-York, &c., is commissioners view it, amount to the product, the several embankments on said line, appointed Botanist, and is to execute the boclaiming of a premium for the commission, the sereral culverts on the said,line the Cro-tanical de partment of the survey.
been appointed principal geologist for the examinations cannot be attained at pre- ley soil, incu' bent on clay, the oak, elm, ash
Lewis C. Beck, Professor of Chemistry The assistance which the geologists will west and norib-east, the bleak points of the and Botany in the New York University || be desirous of receivins, will, I presume, re-tarm-buildings, the borders of permanent &c., is appointed Mineralogist and Chern-|| late principally to informa'ion concerning divisions, and ile highway side. ist, and has charye of that branch of the localities which are interesting as connect Every soil and climate are naturally work which relaies to the chemical analy-led with the objects of the survey—to the wapted to the growth of par:icular species sis of the ininerals, soils, &c.
collection of specimens—and to the facili- lof trees. These indications of nature James E. De Kay, M. D. author of nu-l ies which they may require in condicting should be consulted, and trees growing narmerous papers on the Geology and Zoology the more dillicult part of their researches. urally on similar soils in the neighborhoud, of the United States, has charge of the Those who are disposed to contribute in or under a like temperature, should be seZoological Department. any manner to the accomplishment of this analysis of various soils which had been
The work before us gives the William W. Malher, for several years || use ul work, will no doubt be willing to planted as woodland, and indicates the trees Professor of Mineralogy and Geology in the confer with the public agents as 10 th which have flourished best upon each. On Military Academy at West Point, is ap- | nanner in which they can best carry into a sandy beath soil, containing but three pointed p:incipal geologist to execute the erfect their good intentions.
parts in 400 of clay, incumbent on ferru. survey of the first district. His assistant It may be ikat in the course of their religinous stones, the Scotch fir, (Pinius sylveshas not yet been selecied. The first dis- searches, these agents will wish 10 extend tris) birch and beech succeeded well, and trict is composed of the following counties—their examinations beyond the surface of the last best when the subsoil was a deep Suffolk, Queens, Kings, Richinond, New-l the earth. This will, in some instances at A poor sandy soil, seven paris in York, Westchester, Rockland, Putnam, least requi, e labor which it will not be in | 400 of clay, was found congenial to the Dutchess, Orange, Sullivan, Delaware, Ultheir power to perform. Tne legislature A saudy loam, with nine parts in 400 of s er, Greene, Columbia, Rensselaer, Albany, made no provision for an expenditur for clay, grew the larch and fir tribes luxuriSchoharie
, Schenectady, Sara'oga and such purposes, and unless those who may anili, and also the beach. On a light sand, Washington
be immediately interested, should be willing incumbent on clay, the oak and chesnut did Ebeneze Einmons, M. D., professor of 10 bestow the labor required in such cases, well, and the elm tolerably so. A clay loam, natural history in Williams College, has he advantages that might result from such a clay subsoil, brought the oak’ to the
of . On second district. James Hall, instructor in
sent. the Rensselaer School at Troy, is appoint
A careful and complete geological sur. and the tulip tree (whitewood,) grew free
and horn-beam, attained to great persection, ed the assistant.
This district contains the vey of the State, including a minule and when the ground was trenched. A rich counties of Warren, Essex, Clinton, Frank- | accurate analysi: of its minerals and soils, alluvial marsh soil, containg 32 paris in lin, Hamilton, St. Lawrence and Jefferson. Together with an account of its botanical 400 of clay, and 40 of vegetable matier, is
Timothy A. Conrad, outhor of a work and zoological productions, such as was said to be cap ble of growing all kinds of on the "Fossil shells of the Tertiary for designed by the legislative, is an unileriak-trees, at least the following were found to mations of the U. S. ;" Monograph of thelling of much labor, and although exec telluhrive extremely well, viz. willow, alder, American Unioleæ, &c. is appointed prin.
in the 11.03t econoinical manner, will be a - (some of the European species of these, cipal geologist for the third listrict; and Geo ended with great expense; but both of birch, oak, horze chesnut, Spanish chesnut,
grow to trees,) elm, sycamore, ash, locust, W. Boyd, M. D., curator of the N. Y. Ly. These, however, will be considerably di.
horn-beam, lime, &c. ceuin of natural bisory, is appointed his inished, if the gentlemen engaged in carryassistant. This
In selecting trees for a plantation, referict includes the couning this measure into effec shonld receive,
ence should also be hai to quickness of ties of Montgomery, Herkuner
, Oneida, as I hope, itey will, the co-operation of growth and value of product. "Where it is Lewis, Oswego, Milison, Onondaga, Cay: public spirited in.lividuals in various p.115 exempe from the borer, these qualities are uga, Wayne, Ontario, Monroe, Orleans, of the Siale,
fou'd eminen ly combined in the common Genesee and Livingston.
Perinit me to solicit from you snch fucili orust, (robina pseudo-acucia,) with the fur'The fourth diatrict includes the counties ties in the prosecution of this undertaking, ther advantage, that it multiples rapidly by
its roots. The oak, ash, beech, maple, wal. of Oisono, Chenango, Bronine, Tioga, Cort- those who have been employed in execut. bas wood, plane, chesnut, elm, and many land, Tompkins, Seneca, Yates, Steuben,
other native decidius trees, are readily Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauque, Erie,
propagated by seed, and afford profitable and Niagara. Lardner Vanuxem, late professor of chemistry and mineralogy in spect, your obedient servant,
the seeds of several species of pine, larch,
W. L. MARCY. Colunbia College, South Carolina, has
and fir, indigenous and exotic, may be reabeen appointed principal geologist for this
dily procured. The Scotch pine and larch district. The assistant has not yet been se
are particularly of thrifty growth, and are
From the Cultivator, for Au ust. 1 useful in the arts and on the farm. lected.
PLANTING.-No. 11. The following is a copy of a circular
The relative growth of several kinds of which the Governor, has furnished to the
of the soils and situations urost proper shown below, as ascertained on a plantation
trees, during 17 years after planting, is persons employed in the survey:
for plauting, the treatise which we are con
sulting, “Useful and Ornamental Planting,"| of ihe Duke of Bedford, in England, upon Albany, 25th July, 1836. particularizes
porous soil. The measurement was meant
10 indicate the medium size, individual Sir-I take the liberty to introduce 10 1. Exposed waste lands, and those tha:
Trees being found much larger. The last you
one of the gentlemen employ are sleep, rocky and precipitous. The lo-scollimn of figures shows the height at ed in executing the geològical survey of the ta individuals and to the nation, by suell which the several kinds are usually planted State, directed by the leg.slature at the last large tracts of land lying ulierly unproduc-out, from nursery beds, in Great Britain.
ive, . session. The importance of ihis measure
2. Lands of belier quality, which are un
G rıh or circumfe.
Height in in respect to our general prosperity, ant productive by reason of their exposure to rene at 2 feet Do. do at inches when particularly to the interests of the people bleak winds.' Cases are cited, where land:
from the ground. 7 feet. planted. in those sections of the State which are altogether unproductive before, have been Poplar, 41 inches 37 inches 18 to 36 supposed to contain mineral produc:ions, or brought to produce good corn and pasture. Larch, 37 do
6 to 24 in which valuable discoveries may be maile, merely by a judicious disposition and ar-Pine,
S2 do 26 will, I trust, secure to them a fillorable rangement of bults of trees to shelter the Elm, consideration in every place to which their sound, and thereby ameliorate the climate. Silver fir, 284 do
3. Where the local soil and climle are Spruce, 27 do duties may lead them. I confidenly anti
12 to 30 cipate a readiness on the part of the intrabi ood, a scarcity of timber exists, or is like Chesnut, 27 do
y to exist soon, for the periodical wants of Birch, 25 do 20 tants in every section of the State, to ren agricultural and manufacturing operations Sycamore, 24 do
6 to 30 der to the persons engaged in this work, Here the planting may be confined 10 the Reech,
do 6 to 20 such assistance a3 will facilitate its execu angles of enclosures, belis on the exposed Oak, 23 do
6 to 30 tion. borders of the farın, as to the north, north-As', 20 do
do 6 to 20
6 to 20 9 10 30 8 to 20
25 22 22
9 to 30
an easy double flight of granite steps, for the use of foot passerie gers through the Tunnel.
The shaft, from whence the Tunnel works are carried on, was built at Rotherhithe in the form of a tower, 50 feet in diameter, 40 feet in height, and 3 feet thick, at about 150 feet from the edge of the wharf, and it was sunk into its position by excavating the earth within. In the annexed sketch the brick-work is supposed to be broken open, to show its construction, and the numbers below refer to the different parts of that “ tower," which how forms the shaft, and is intended finally to be occupied by
1.1. The wooden rings or flat curbs.
2. The iron curb.
3. Hoops or laths binding together the uprights. 4.4. Iron rods enclosed in wood | screwed tight to the top and 5.5. Wooden rods
the bottom curb.
A transverse section of the Tunnel is here given, showing the || rity while in progress, built quite solid; but for convenience, dimensions of the mass of brick-work, which is all firmly set in || light, and general etlect, a succession of arches are opened in cement.
that middle wall, so as to admit of frequent communications beIt inust be observed, that the middle wall is, for greater secu. tween the two carriage ways.
This view exhibits the workmen in the iron shield, with a || stantly covered and supported by the iron shield in 12 divisions, transverse section of the archways which they build during their which are adranced alternately and independently of one anoperations, showing us how they appear along the archways. other; they have each three floors, or stages, forming a suc
The dimensions of the excavation under the river are 38 feet cession of scaffolding and cells for the miners and bricklayers wide by 22 feet 6 inches high; the whole area of which is con during their operations.
A longitudinal section of about 40 feet of the Tunnel, with a materials, are placed in readiness for the bricklayers. Towards side view of the shield, and the miners as well as bricklayers at the head and foot of the shield is also shown the position of the work. This sketch represents also the moving stage, with two horizontal screws, a pair of which being attached to each of the floors, used by the miners to throw thereon, for removal, the divisions, and turned so as to press against the brick-work, are earth they excayate ; and where the bricks, cement, and other used to push each division forward.
The divisions of the shield are advanced separately and indepondently of each other, by the means pointed out in the foregoing sketch: each division, as is attempted to be shown in the annexed design, has boards in front (known by the technical name of poling boards) supported and kept in position by means of jack screws, which are lodged against the front of the iron frame; these boards are in succession taken down while the earth in front of oach is excavated, the first board being always replaced before a second is removed ; thus forming a constant firm buttress. The several parts will be better understood by reference to the fallowing nunibers :