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D. K MINOR, and


SATURDAY, JULY 30, 1836.

(VOLUME V.-No. 30.




made arrangements with the Commission-| tained, -the doubts that had been enter-
Editorial Nuticos ; Excursion to Philadelpia... 465|ers of the Columbia Railroad, for the use oil ained by some, and the fears of others,
Comunication, irum Win. J. Lewis, etc.... 466
Shurt skelch on the History of

his locomotive.

were dispelled in an instant, the eager look To the readers of the Journal, &c.....

470 Tuesday, July the 19th, was the day ap- that seitled upon every ones face, gave way Railroad Axle Journals.... Suspension bridge uvur the Niagara. 472 pointed for ihe trial.

10 that of confident success, while all pres. Coinmunication from C. R. W..


We left here on Monday afternoon, at 4ent expressed their gratification in loud and
Communication, fionn Wm. H. Talcolt.
Eastera Ruilroad; Van Buren flurbur, etc.

474 o'clock, accompanied by Mr. George N. and repeated cheers. Items....

477|| Miner of this city, Mr. Theo. Schwarız of The length of the plain is 2800 feer. Advertisements


Paris, and Messrs. Elliot and Beats, of Ala The grade 369 feet to the mile, or 1 foot AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL. | bama. Mr. $., who was to sail for Eu-rise in 14.3, which is a much steeper grade

rope the next day, gladly made the trip, than the planes on the Mohawk and HudNEW-YORK, JULY 30, 1936.

with a view to carry home his own testimo- soo Railroad, those being 1 in 18.

ay as an eye witness. Desirous of extending useful information

Making an ascent of 196 feet in 2800 feet.

Our journey over the Camden, and Amand of awakening attention to obects of such | boy, and Trenton and Philadelphia Rail

Weight of engine with water 14.930 lbs. great importance as those treated of in this roads, was highly interesting, and the con

Load drawn up the plane, including No, we have issued a far larger number versation of that evening will long be re-weight of tender with water and coal, two of copies than usual, for the purpose 01 | meinbered with pleasure. We arrived at passenger cars and 53 passengers, 31.270. gratuitous distribution. It will be found | Philadelphia about midnight and fier sun.

Pressure in the boiler, less than 80 lbs. to that we have devoied this No. entirely to the dry mistakes and mischances, succeeded in

the square inch. subject of LocoMOTIVE ENGINES. obtaining some repose.

Time of running 2 min. and 24 sec.

It is to be remembered that the rail were
On Tuesday morning, two cars drawn by
We are gratiiled to perceive that the citi || horses, set out with a party of upwards of

wet with dew. zens of Owego are moving for the purpose torty. We arrived at the foot of the in.

As 10 the oil, it was afterwards mentioned of opening a communication between tbe clined plane before 6 o'clock, while the rails that bets were made with the workmen 19 Canals and Railroads of New-York and were yet quite wet with dew.

a considerable amount and those having Pennsylvania. No Stale pride or selfishness should prevent a free intercourse—but

On our arrival, it was found that owing been lost by the successful performance of trade be unrestricted.

to accident or design, while the fire was the engine on a former day, were now

burning, the water had been blown out of the quadrupled, and to save themselves it is not "PUBLIC Meeting.- The citizens of Owego boiler so as to endanger the tubes. The unlikely that this means was provided 10 attend a meeting, to be held this evening, during the day. and its vicinity, are respectfully invited to result was a leakage of some consequence accelerate the descent rather than the ascent

of the engine. (Wednesday) at Mr. Goodman's Long roon, for the purpose of taking into consideration

The engine started at the foot of the plane. At the conclusion we shall give the dimen

sions of ibis engine. the best means of connecting the public feet, the wheels were found 10 slip, and the and on the plane. After proceeding a few

The party again embarked after examin- ; improvements of the States of New York and Pennsylvania, by a Canal or other

engine returned. It was said that the rails ing the workshops, and proceeded to Paoli water communication.”

were found to have been oiled at this place, to breakfast, and thence to Lancaster, the Wednesday, June 29, 1836.

a small quantity of sand was strown over engine conveying in ai the same time a num-
the spot, and the engine again proceeded.ber of freight cars.
She regularly and steadily gained speed as

The unfortunate location of this road is
EXCURSION TO PHILADELPHIA, AND REMARKA- she advanced to the very top, passing over very evident, frequent and short curves are

LOCOMOTIVE the plane in 2 min. 24 sec. The enthusiasm introduced so uniformly, that it would be “ GEORGE WASHINGTON.".

of feeling manifested cannot be described, I supposed that such a location was to be preJo pursuance of our request, Mr. Norris so complete a triumph had never been ob- fered 10 a direct one. Having a desire to.



this engine was obliged to leave at the bead// valves—which he has attained, after a long railroad. These calculations were made be.

witoess during the passage the surrounding || The solidity of this engine is very great-|| Gremen, &c., up the Columbia Railroad, at country, which is most beautiful-we scai- there is no doubt as to its wearing well. Philadelphia, on the 19th July, 1836. ed ourselves on the outside-but alas, we We also visited the U. S. Mint, where we

Israel Morris, Theodore Schwartz, were obliged to recall our practice at duck- were politely shown the different pieces of Israel Roberis, Alex. McClure, ing the head, acquired on the Erie Canal. ||niachinery, by Mr. Adam Eckfeldt, who has | George Robbins,

T. R. Peale,

Rufus Tyler, Mark M. Reeve, M. D. In transverse bridges this may be excused, | filled the situation of director, for 42 years. but in viaducts for the Railroad itself—if Most of the machinery has been arranged, William Morrison,

J. C. Cresson,

F. Blackburne,

E. Durand, this must be covered, we see no reason for perfected and executed, under his eye. S. Griffits Fisher, P. B. Goddard, M. D. leaving not more than a foot clearance from The machinery is in most beautiful order A. W. Thompson,

Octavius A. Norris, the top of the cars. Tbe locomotive bows-it is mostly moved by a very fine steam en. Robt. B. Davidson, H. R. Campbell,

John E. Garrett, George R. Oat, its chimney bead most respectfully to every gine, by Rush and Muhlenburg.

A. M. Eastwick,

Townsend Smith, one of the bridges—meanwhile the smoke Since our last visit a new milling ma. Joseph Harrison, Jr. J. Sidney Jones, vostrained of its sparks, blls the small chine bas been introduced from France, we Frederick Gaul, Joseph Oat, space leti, and most effectually dredges the believe. The aetion is extremely beautiful, Alex. Krumbhaar, Smith Jenkins,

Geo. N. Miner, Isaac P. Morris, passenger. The practice of using but three and contrasts well with the old process.

Franklin Peale, Frederick Vogel, rails for two tracks is most villanous, espe On Wednesday evening, we returned to R. M. Patterson, Mahlon Ortlip, cially as the bridges are covered. this city-having, during our absence of William S. Oris, James Poultney.

Daniel Smith, We arrived safely at Lancaster and par-lewo days and one evening, travelled over P. K. Minor, took of an excellent dinner. A number of 300 miles, besides attending to much busi. George C. Schaeffer, Thos. Moore,

T. E. Gubert,

Walter Sims, toasts were given, and conversation turned || ness, and having as much pleasure as is

Nashville, Tenn. generally to the subject of internal im- | possible to crowd into so small a space of provement. Mr. Roberts, engineer of the time.

We are gratified to perceive, as we do by Harrisbnrgh road, and Mr. A. R. Campbell, The following are the dimensions of the the following circular, that the people in the engineer of the Morristown, and of the George Washington" engine, of Mr. Wil- | town of Pawlings, Dutchess county, are West-Philadelphia Railroad, were present ; | lian Norris :

moving in relasion 10 the rrilroad from this a number of the company were citizens of

Diameter of cylinders

104 inches.

city to Albany. We hope their example Philadelphia, and we much regretted on

Length of stroke


will be followed by every town on the line looking over the names to find that Mr.

Number of tubes


of the road, when it will in truth, become Franklin Peale, and Isaiah Lukers, had

Outside diameter


the road of the people. been among those who had started with us,


7 feet. Sir:--At a meeting of the inhabitants of and whose personal acquaintance we had

Diameter of driving wheels 4

Pawlings, convened at the house of Gideon not the pleasure of making. We have long

" Truck

Slocum & Sons, on the 9th of July, 1836, 10

30 inches. known these gentlemen as laborers in the

lake into.consideration the propriety of aid

The engine is six wheeled, having two ing and assisting in the construction of the scientife world, and would have had much driving wheels.

New-York and Albany railroad; the underpleasure in seeing them face to face.

Whole weight of engine 14,930 lbs. signed were appointed a committee to call After dinner, the company were presented

Actual weight on driving

on the farmers and others, inhabitants of to Governor Ritner, who was then in town.

The town, 10 ascertain what amount of wheels

8,700He afterwards accompanied the party some

stock would be subscribed, in said town.few miles from Lancaster and back again,

It must be remembered, that there is no In pursuance of such appoiniment, the comwhen he left us, much gratified, with his contrivance as in some engines, for increas- miitee have seen about fifty inhabitants and ing the adhesion, by throwing the weight of lars will be taken in this town when the

have the assurance that fifty thousand dol. rapid journey. We returned in a large 8 wheel car, a

the tender upon the engines—the axle being books are opened, which will be sufficient form that we much admired.

in front of she fire box, preventing any such to defray, the expense of the road through

arrangement. The whole weight attached to the engine,

ibe town, a distance of about six miles.


This engine, we (tender &c. included,) , must have been over

you should see the propriety of pursu.

now informed, isling similar or such other measures as you 14 tons, if not 15. The time of running,

making the regular trips, though a full load may suggest for the promotion of this im(exclusive of stoppage,) from Lancaster to has not yet been obtained, on account of the portant work, it is betieved our united efforts the head of the Schuylkill inclined plane,

will be crowned with success. scarcity of cars.

GEORGE W. SLOCUM, was & h. 11 min., being a distance of nearly The greatest load, as yet, drawn by it over

BENJAMIN BURR, 67 miles. This, it is to be remembered, the road, was 119 tons, gross weight, in

Samuel Allen, Was over a road having curvutures of less | 22 cars. The Engineer confidently ex

Jonathan A. TABER,

JONATHAN Akin. than 600 feet, radius up ascents, of some- || pects, to draw 150 tons, at 12 or 15 miles

Pawlings, July 16, 1836. times, 45 feet


On level and per hour. She now usually works with 70
straight portions of the road, a velocity of lbs. pressure of steam. Mr. Norris con.
47 miles, was attained.
siders tijat inese fine ettecls are owing

The following letter, addressed to Mr. H.

R. Campbell, of Philadelphia, is from Mr. As the trip had already been protracted, an improvement in the adjustment of the Lewis, C. E., of the Brooklyn and Jamaica

series of experiments. of the plane, on her return to Lancaster the same evening and we descended by the rope.

We wish him, and all others, engaged in Chev. de Pambour-and we understand that

fore the appearance of the work of the The bridge at this point, over the Schuyl. || the same cause--all possible success in ac- the results given, very nearly agree with kill, is a very fine one, the masonry being or complishing their object, and obtaining the those obtained in that work. a very substantial eharacter. proper reward for it.

The engine referred to in this letter, is to We returned to our quarters, in good

The following is a list of the names of have 8 wheels-weight, 12 tons. It is the seasoil, and highly delighted with our trip the gentlemen who were of the party:

one referred to also, in our excursion to On ibe next morning we had the satisfac. We the subscribers were present and wit-Philadelphia as having been seen by us. tion of examining an engine now building nessed the experiment and complete success The weight of the one of which the cut is for H. R. Campbell, under his own direc. || of the “ George Washington,” in ascending given, is of the first class-weight, about tion, and of which, a more extended descrip- the inclined plane, with a train of cars con-|(14 tons, having 8 wheels. tion, with calculations, is given in this No. 'aining fifty-four persons, besides engineers, This cut represents a Locomotive engine,



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of the first class, weighing 14 tons, having ||of the area of the piston, in addition to the || Tender included) of 114 tons up grades of 8 wheels (4 driving wheels). This engine || usual allowance for the friction of the axles 30 feet per mile at a velocity of 10 miles per will be able to draw as heavy loads as any || in railroad carriages, viz. 10 lbs. per ton.- || hour, maintaining a constant pressure on engine calculated for rails of the present Puiting r then to express simply the resis- || the safety valve of ninety pounds 10 the width and arrangement.

lance of the train to motion, from the joint square inch, and i hat will ibis load in dry Both of these engines are to use either | effects of gravity and the friction of the as. || weather, no slipping of the wheels on the anthracite coal or coke.

les we shall have r=

dal (P-5) rails iakes place. The effective pressure of It is intended to give further particulars


steam, is as we bave shown, 5 lbs. less than respecting it, in another number.

Let us now ascertain the weight an en. the pressure indicated by the safety valve Scale of drawing, 1 foot to of an inch. gine will carry up a plane of a given in- or 20 lbs. less than its total elastic force, es. New-York, Jan. 20, 1936. clination.

timating the atmospheric pressure at 15 HENRY R. CAMPBELL, Esq. :

Let W =gross weight in tons, engine in-||Ibs. to the square inch. Hence using ihe Dear Sir-I have received your state-clusive.

above formula R =

98 P

for ascertaining ment of the dinensions of your proposed A= ascent in feet per mile. engine, and in return will furnish you with Then

2240 W A 14 WA

The effect of a given pressure on the cylin

Gravity my estimate of its power on a level rail.


ders at the circumference of the driving road; and of its abili!y to ascend inclined of lead in lbs. and 10 W= friction of load wheels, we have : planes of greater elevation than have here. in lbs.

Elastic force of steam tofore been deemed practicable for LocomoHence whole resistance


3,430 lbs. live ongines. It does not require the spirit

14 WA R

Resistance of atmosphere +10 W =

d’I (P – 5) of prophecy to predict that the effect of ihe



(P= 15) = 490 lbs. improvements now making in the con

From which we have W

33 R Friction of machinery struction of Locomotives, will be the en.

14 A + 330 (P = 5) = 163 tire abolition of stationary power on rail.

33d'I(P-5) Total resistance

653 Also W: roads, and, by allowing the adoption of

D(14 A + 330) higher grades than have yet been resorted Having found expressions for The maxi

Traction of engine

2.777 lbs. to, hold out inducements to the formation ||mum load an engine is capable of carrying,

The gravity and friction of 114 ions, of roads in situations where the nature of || prior to entering on the subject of the velo-found by the formula the country has hitberto precluded their in- city of the proposed engine with given

14 WA

+ 10 W is Iroduction. loads or the adhesion of the engine 10 the

33 I shall commence with an examination rails, I shall state the dimensions of some 14 X 30 X 114 1140 = 2591 lbs.,

+ of the mechanical action of Locomotive of the parts of Mr. Baldwiu's and your en.

33 engines, and of the resistance to be over-gines. The capabilities and actual per-which leaves 186 lbs. for ine resistance of come on a level railroad and on an inclined formances of the former being well the engine and train on curves. plane.

known, it will not be difficult to deduce The weight on the driving wheels being Let d = diameter of cylinders in inches. what may be expected of the latter. 5 tons or 11,200 lbs. and the traction 2,777 I= length of stroke in inches.

In the engines built by Mr. M. W. Bald-1bs. We find ibat the traction is nearly P = pressure on cylinders per square win.

the insistent weight. Supposing the weight inch.

d= Diameter of cylinders 10.5 inches. on the driving wheels of your engines to be R= whole resistance to the motion of en. 1 Length of stroke 16 inches. 8 tons or 17 920 lbs. and adopting this progine and train, viz. friction of the parts of D= Diameter of driving

portion we have 4.180 lbs. for the limit of the engine, friction of the axles of the car wheels

4 feet 6 in. traction of your engine. In ascending high riages composing the train, and on inclined Weight of engine and water 7 tons. grades the traction might be considerably planes the gravity of the mass in motion. Weight on driving wheels 5

increased by throwing part of the weight The area of the two pistons being Traction without wheels slidiug 2777 lbs. of the tender on the driving wheels. Cou2 d' x .7854, the force acting against thum Surface of boiler exposed to fire 298 lomb estimates the friction of iron on iroo is 2 Pd? x .7854, and as they move through


the weight; but his experiments a distance 21 (or make two strokes) during Content of fire box 22 cub. ft.

3.55 one revolution of the driving wheels, Herce

were confined to flat surfaces, and as the 4 Pa'l x .7854 will represent the momen 98 P

R ,2=99(P-5)+ 1078(P-5) | amount of adhesion must decrease, when tum of the force which overcomes a resis.

?+ w = 3

14 H +330

the area of the adhering surface is diminishtance R acting at the circumference of the

In engine building by Mr. H. R. Camp-ed, the limit of traction above stated can driving wheels during one revolution. Thebell

pot vary far from the truth. circumference of the driving wheel is d= Diameter of cylinders 14 inches. In Engines siunilarly constructed, the D x 3.1416 and consequently DR X 3.1416 1 Length of stroke


quantity of steam generated under the same will express the momentum of the resis. D=Diameter of driving wheels 4 ft. 6 in. I application of heat, is in exact proportion taoce overcome. Hence

Weight of Engine and water about 1210 the surface of the boilers exposed to the 4 Pd'I x .7854=DR X 3.1416 or R= _doIP

action of the fire. But where there is a D

Weight on driving wheels 8 tons. greater proportional content of fire box, we When an engine has its greatest load,

Traction without wheels sliding 4.480|must suppose a greater proportional conthe pressure of steam in the boilers aod in lbs.

sumptional of fuel, and consequently a more the cylinders will be the same. Taking P

Surface of boiler exposed to fire 723 intense application of beat. The propor• for the pressure on the safety valve the square feet.

tion of exposed surface in the two engines above equatio i will determine ibe maxi Content of fire box 53 cubic feet.

is 1 to 2.43, but the proportion of the conmum resistance an engine will overcome.


tents of the fire boxes is 1 to 2.80. Adding That portion of the resistance arising from 1568P 1568 the friction of the engine depends much


(P—5)&W=8624(P--5)|| 10 the first ratio į of the differsnce for the 27 27

63A+ 1485 more intense application of heat. I shall npon the excellence of its construction, but It is known that M. W. Baldwin's engines estimate the evaporating power of your enmay be estimated at 5 ]bs. per square inch|can convey a gross weight (Engine and I gine at 2.55 times that of those built by M.

square feet.




Rise per mile

in feet.

Load in tons.

Load= 100
tons on a

Rise per mile

in feet.

Load in tons.

Loads = 100
tons on a


66.26|| 63




(R =

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W. Baldwin. As the elastic face of the

tain resistance is opposed to the motion of steam varies in the direct ratio of its densi

machinery, which does not depend upon ty, the momentum of the steam generated

the pressure of steam. Not a word is said by the boiler, or its elastic force multiplied

on the subject of the resistance of the by its velocity of generation will be its

atmosphere, although a large amount of momentum in the cylinders, and conse level] 450

100 51 142 31.611 steam is always consumed in overcoming quent!y, also its momentum at the circum 1 432

95.93|| 52

140 31.19 This resistance. Page 368, the proper load ference of the driving wheels. No error

2 415
92.18|| 53

138 30.78 for an engine upon a level, is 9 or 11 times will therefore arise in refering the forces

3 400 88.71 54 137) 30.39

its weight as the case may be, “that is, the and resistances immediately to the circum

4 385 85.49|| 55

135 30.

engine will carry this weight and no more ference to the driving wheels or find their

5 371
82.50|| 56
133 29.62

without the wheels sliding. The wheels effects as applied to the triction of the

6 359
79.71|| 57


of Baldwin's engine than should slide when engine.

7 347 77.10|| 58

130 28.90

the load exceeded 82 } tons on a level road, This method will avoid much unnecessa.

8 336)
74.66|| 59


28.55 9

mile! 326

or 36ix ions on a grade of 30 feet ry calculation, and enable us at

72.37|| 60

127 28.21
a glance,

10 316
70.21|| 61


27.87 to see how every item of the account affects

I have adopted his statement of the friction 11 307) 68.18|| 62 124 27.55

of cars which he estimates at 10lbs. per the general computation. The steam gen 12 298


I think it will be found too great, but erated by Mr. Bildwin's engines, has been 13

290 64.45|| 64

121 26.92 I have no accounts of any experiments to shown to be capable of overcoming a resis. 14

62.74|| 65

1201 26.61 enable me to make the proper correction. tance of 3,430 lbs. moved 10 miles an hour 15

275 61.11 66 113 26.32

Yours respectfully, or 34,300 lbs. mived one mile per hour.

59.57|| 67


WM. J. Lewis. Now the evaporating powers of the twis

17 261
58.10|| 68

116 25.74 engines being as 1 to 2.55, your engine will

18 255
56.70|| 69


25.46 generate steam of an electic force of

19 249 55.37|| 70

1131 25.19 34.300 + 2.55 = 87 465 lbs. moved one mile

20 2431
54.10|| 71

112 24.92 per hour. The resistance from the pressure

21 238 52.89|| 72

111 24.66

We had proposed to ourselves, on this 22 233


51.72 73 of the atmosphere and friction of machinery

24.41 23 228

109 50.61|| 74


occasion, to give a connected history of this amounting to 20 lbs. per square inch on

24 223 49.55|| 75

1081 23.91

subject, short, but still showing facts of the cylioders, is estimated at the circum25

to 2181 48.53| 76

106 23.67

prominent importance—with a view ference of the driving wheels, since

26 214 47.551 77 1051 23.44

draw attention to the rapid improvements, 1568 P 1568 x 20

= 1161 lbs.
27 2101 46.61|| 78 104 23.21

that leave been made within a comparatively
28 206 45.71|| 79 1031 22.98!

short tiine. Hence we have the following rules appli 29 202 44.84|| 80 102 22.76 From various reasons we have not been cable to your engine.

30 198 44. 81 101 22.54

able to give the attention due to so imporTo find the traction, the velocity being

43.19|| 82 100 22.331

tant a subject. We have, however, prepared given, divide 87.465 by the velocity and 32 191 42.42|| 83 99 22.12 subiract 1161 from the quotient.

a summary of the different steps in the his33 188 41.67|| 84 98 21.91

tory of locomotion, which we lay before our To find the velocity, the traction being

34 1841 40.94|| 85 98 21.71

readers without further comment. given, add 1161 to the traction, and divide

35 181 40.24|| 86 97 21.51 87.465 by the sum.


It is a fact as instructing as curious, that 178 39.57|| 87 96 21.32 37 175 38.92|| 88 95 21.13

for a long time, ingenuity was taxed and Assuming 450 tons as the greatest load

38 172 38.28|| 89 94 20.94 severely taxed, to overcome a difficulty that (zross) the engine can convey on a level

39 1701 37.67|| 90 93 20.75

after all proved to be imaginary. It was road (for want of adhesion) and estimating

40 167) 37.08|| 91 93 20.57 thought that a locomotive carriage, (or one the friction at 10 lbs. per ion, the velocity

41 164
36.50|| 92


20.40 in which the power originated,) when placed will be 15.5 miles per heur.

42 162 35.95|| 93 91 20.22 upon iron rails or a common road, would not The following table will exhibit the trac 43 159 35.41|| 94 901 20.05 advance if the power was applied directly tion at velocities from 15 4 to 25 miles per 41 157 34.88|| 95 89 19.88 to the wheels. Or in other words, the ad. hour.

55 155 34.38|| 96 89 19.71

hesion of the wheels, was thought to be in. Velocity in Tracrion in

46 152

33.88|| 97 881 19.55 Miles per hour.

sufficient to advance the carriage even on a
47 150 33.40|| 98 87 19.39

dead lerel.
48 148 32.97|| 99 87) 19.23

49 1461 32.48||100 861

19.08 In consequence of this supposed obstacle 4.305 3.934 50 | 14432.04|| 1 Illvarious attempts were made to furnish a

hold to the wheels.

3 443

You will perceive that I differ from Wood The first engines constructed with this

is the theory of the action of locomotive || object in view, were made by Messrs. Tre21 3.004

engines, as much as I do in the practical vithick & Vivian. They proposed having 22


results. He estimates the effective power bosses or nail heads of sufficient size and of

of engines at 30 per cent of the actual pres. proper form to furnish a hold to inequality 25 2.338

sure of steam indicated by the safety valve, purposely made, in the surface of the The following table shows the gross load after deducting the friction of the engine wheels. (engine inclusive) your Locomotive will itself.

In 1811, Mr. Blinkensop obtained a pa. carry upgrades from 1 to 100 feet per mile Now in Mr. Baldwin's engines twenty tent for a rack rail-the wheels of the loco. at a velocity of 15,45 miles per hour. A pounds at the safety valves gives a traction motive being furnished with corresponding column is added which shows what weight of 2.940 lbs. 30 per cent is 882 lbs.,, so that|cogs. on different ascents is equal to a 100 tons on vithout taking into account the friction of In 1812, Mr. Chapman obtained a patent a level road, and furnishes a very conve- he engine, we should have a force suffi-|| for advancing a locomotive by means of a nient table of multiples for finding what cient to move but 98 tons on a level road,|| chain extended over the whole line and fas. load on a graded road is equivalent to a or 39,4 tons up a grade at 30 feet per mile ! tened at the ends. This chain was passed given load on a level.

No percentage can be assigned, for a cer- once around a grooved wheel which was




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