Lapas attēli


with water. The charcoal thus shut up will l'ull of burning fuel; and that the fuel which || The Ship or Steamboat Canal surveyed také 60 or 80 hours to cool.

is best suited for this purpose; (small bran- | by E. F. Johnson, Esq. between Urica and A plan and section of this description of hes and twvigs,) is useless in making char- Oswego, is estimated for a canal of 90 feet kiln is represented in Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. coal. In placing the wood, the pieces are Isot feet of lockage; the distance is 92% Fig. 1 and 2. Being plan and section of laid parallel to the largest sides of the vault

, miles and the aggregate estimate is $1,131, one formed in an excavation, and

and in such manner as to leave as little 1989, wbich is at the rate of only $12,23717 Fig. 3 and 4. Of one built above ground. Ispace as possible except in the neighbour- per mile. I wish to inquire whether there Fig. 5. Cover of sheet iron applicable to hood of the flues, which must be kept free may rrot be some error in this estimate? either. for the escape of the smoke and vapour: 1 of these dimensions at a less sain than $12,

and if it be possible to construct a ship canal A. Interior of kiln.

Two days are sufficient to convert the wood 500 per mile? This estimate is but a little B. Wall or lining of earth.

into charcoal, and the end of the process is more than one half the cost of the construc. C. Chamber in which the tar may be known by the appearance of the blue flametion of the Chenango Canal with wood condensed.

of carburetted hydrogen at the chimnies.locks, is less than half the cost of the cond. Pipe leading to the condenser for| The whole of the openings are then closed-truction of the Ut:ca and Schenectady Railpyrolignous acids. and luted with clay.

road, and, if I ani rightly informed, about e, P, e. Air-vaults.

At the end of two days, two holes left for one fourth of the cost of ihe Railroads thao 1, F,f; openings by which the external the purpose in the arch of the vault, but lead in three directions from the city of Bos

M. air is admitted.

which have during the process been care- We publish the remarks and queries of At the Bennington Furuance; a kiln of fully closed, are opened and water thrown Mleaving the answer to those who have similar form was constructed of brick, in to cool the charcoal; these holes are the requisite knowledge and disposition 10 above the level of the ground and covered then closed again. At the end of three or| sive it. by a permanent domé of brick. In the wall four days more, one of the doors in the a door was left for the introduction of the end wall is opened and more water thrown

We take pleasure in giving publicity to wood and this was subsequently bricked up. fin, but the charcoal will not be trady to be the following letter, from Mr. Beach, the Vents were formed by leaving bricks loose removed until all the exteriial jaits of the Engineer who examined the route for the in the wall and when the process was com- apparatus have become as cold as the sur-I proposed Railroad from Morristown to plete the fire was extinguished by ineans of rounding air.

Carpenter's Point :

(cory.) water. An unexpected benefit was found This kind of furnace has been much used

Catskill, May 20,

1836. to arise from the lattet operation, for the in Europe, and the quantity of charcoal coal becoming charged with aqueous va-l obtained is ove third more th:in is obtained SAMƯel Price, Esq. Branchville, Suss ***

Co., N. J. pour, was as fit for inmediate use, as that from coal pits. The turpentine and arcetic which had been prepared for several months. acid are also saved, whichi in other cases of Directors of the Morris and Essex

Dear Sir--At the request of the Board It is estimated that the product of kilns are lo f. There can be no doubt that it of this kind in France is about 25 per cent might be introduced to advantage in those Rail Road Company and a committee of the

inhabitants of the county of more than in a coal pit. The experiment parts of our country where iron is manufacat the West Point Foundry was more ad- || tured by means of charcoal prepared from posed of yourself and others, I devoted

Wednesday, Thursday and Friday of last vantageous, the product having 50 per cent. pine wood. more than was obtained in the usual method. In using kilns of either description' it week, in the examination of the proposed

route for a railroad fron. Morristowni In France the main object was the pyrolig-| becomes a malfer of calculation whether it

through Sussex county, to Carpenter's nous acid, which at West Point was regleitbecheaper to manufacture the charcoal in the

Point, preparatory to making a survey

of ed, and this difference in the object will ac-woods in the usual manner, or to carry the same, which 1 shall probably be able to count for the difference in the results. The the wood to the kiln. The weight of the mode of placing the wood was also different, | charcoal to be transported will be only 17 commence about the first of June next {


supposing that you would be glad to the French using that which has been de-II parts of that of the wood; while the charscribed above while at West Point it was coal ebtained by the kilns will be certainly || that survey, I embrace the first opportunity

have my views of the subject previous to placed vertically.

one third more than that procured from the that I could possibly devote to that objects In the pine forests of Sweden, an apparapits. It must therefore appear that the

since I saw you; to communicate them. ratus better suited to the collection of the value of the additional charcoal shall be at

On my way up, I passed through Rockturpentine that kind of wood furnishez, has least equivalent to the cost of transporting

away, Berkshire Valley, thence on the east been invented by Schwartz. This kiln is the wood to the kiln. It is also to be re. side of Hopatcong Lake, to Sparta, and composed of a vault, built of brick or sili- marked that charcoal prepared on the spot thence via Lafayette to Branchville ; front cious stone laid in a mixture of clay and whore it is to be used is better than that

Branchville up

the North Branch of Pau. sand. Common mortar must not be used which has here been handled and carried

lins Kill, ihrough the gap of the Blue as it would not only be affected by the heat, over rough roads, and that all waste is

Mountain, called Culver's Gap, approachbut would be completely destroyed by the avoided.

ing the Delaware River a short distance pyrolignous acid. The vault is closed at

We hand the following article oter in above Milford; and along the same to Cars each end by a vertical wall of the same kind Mr. E. F. Johnson, as be is the proper per. penter's Point. Returning; a inore northof masonry. The floor of the kiln is oil son to answer them; and boulable and wil-erly route was persued. Leaving the Decarth, and has the figure of two planes slight-ling to do so as far as we can judge. laware at Carpenter's Point, ascending the

From the New York American ly inclined, and meeting in a gutter in the middle of the longer sides of the vault.

Smp CANAIS. - From reading the notice slopes bounding the valleys of the Little

In in your valuable journa! I was induced to and Big Flat Brooks; to Culver's Gap, each end wall are two fire places, and in one examine the map of the proposed New from thence to Branchville, there is but of them are four openirgs for introducing the York Ship Canals; the one accompanied one route. From Branchville, returning wood and withdrawing the charcoal. The with a valuable memoir by Capi: W. G. two routes were examined, viz: via. Laa smoke and vapour are carried off by flues Williams, of the U. S. Topographical En-fayette ahd Newtor, passing at or near Anof cast iron at the level of the ground, and neers for a communication around Niago dover Furnace; Stanhope, Dever, Rockaproceeding from the middle of the larger estimates one route which he recommends way, to Morristown; the route is, generalsides of the vault; these terininate in chan at $4,744,982, and andher route of 7, Ly, a feasible one for the advantageous locanels where the vapour is condensed and cor 7.783) miles in length, between Porter'stion and cor.struction of a railroad. From

hich convey the smoke to two vertical store house on the Niagara river, above the Carpenter's Point, ascending to the sumchimnies. A section of this kiln is repre-Falls and Lewiston, at $3.610,596,50, which mit of the Blue Ridge, in Culver's Gap, sented in Fig. 6.

is at the rate of $46,709, per mile.- l there are no difficulties to be encountered, The advantage of this arrangement is, mevsions of 110 feet width of surface and

These estimates were for a canal of the di.lland I am confident that, on that section, no that no air can enter the kiln without pass- 10 feet deep, and the lockage is stated at

grade need be adopted exceeding forty feet ing through the fire places which are kept 3194 feet:

der mile, ascent, and if desirable may be

reduced below that. From the summit of those practised in England, or on the conti-transplanting successfully the young corri the Blue Ridge at Culver's Gap, to Branch-||nent of Europe. Soon his zinc sold at plants. Whence conies this, but from breakville, the grading will not be expensive, but double price of the common material, and ling the roots in taking the plant up! How

is it then that intelligent planters affirm the á somewhat steeper grade must be adopt- covered far around the roofs of the neigh-doctrine, that one chief object of ploughing ed. From Branchville to Lafayette or borhood. But the mine ran out, as it is corn, is to cut its roots ? If breaking the Newton, and from thence to either Sparta termed, and about six years ago Mr. Hitz | roois of young corn in transplanting it

, is or Andover, a level and cheap route can be removed to this country with all his family. I really fatal to its future growtlr, must not obtained.

Schooley's Mountain Ridge Passing with him through Philadelphia, breaking its roots with the plough, when it may be crossed from Sparta via the suin-| about three years ago, Mr. Wetherbili is older, and the season hotter be a serious init of the Morris Canal, on either side of showed us a specimen of Blende, from injury to it? Any other conclusion seems to Lake Hopatcong, to Dover; or from An- which he could not produce the metal. Mr. Jony of nature. It seenis to nje that there dover Furnace, near Stanhope, to Dover, Hitz told me the procuring the pure zinc can be in truth, but two reasons for ploughtthence via Rockaway to Morristown, with from it would be unquestionably, or hoeing corn-13t, to destroy grass uut encountering any objectionable steep In the last session of Congress, the con- and weeds ; and 2d, to keep the soil loose, grades, or very heavy expenditures in gra-struction of standard of weights and mea- | 'hat the roois may perretrate easily, in search ding. Both the Blue Ridge and that of sures for the Custom Houses was ordered,

of their proper food. But in accomplishing Schooley's Mountain and their vicinity, and in continuance of my former operations one to the corn, by breaking its roots:

these two purposes, great injury must be abounds with timber of an excellent quality of comparison, I was directed by the Sec-Can we not accomplish both ihese ends, for the superstructure of the road, which|retary of the Treasury, to construct the and at the same time keep clear of the asa enn be obtained at a reasonable or low rate. same. Brass being the inctal almost neces-tendant miserief? I think we can. The country to be accommodated is rich in sarily used for accurate Weights and Mea- Last spring I planted a small piece of agricultural and mineral productions; it also sures, it was a primary object to procure it poor ground-first breaking it up well. abounds with water power, and has already of pure and good quality, for which the The rows were made three fret apart, and numerous establishments for the manufac- common spelter is not fit. It was there the stalks left about a foot apart in the drill. ture of Iron in all its various forms. — fore proper for me, to avail myself of the The ground had been very foul last year

with crab grass, whose seed matured. The There are also on the route several flouring presence of Mr. Hitz, (then, and still occumills, and other manufacturing establish-pied in the gold mines of Virginia,) to pro-grass began to appear. When the corn

corn was not well up this spring before the ments of various descriptions, all of which, || cure the pure zinc; this was done by his had about four or five blades, the young with this road completed, will find upon it a peculiar method, and by properly varying the grass completely covered the ground, and cheap and expeditious transportation of their process; with equal success upon the ores the corn was turning yellow. I spread a products to New York market.

froni the copper mines of Perkiomen (where small quantity of stable manure around the I am, respectfully, Your ob't. servant, the blende laid about as refuse,) from the ore-orn, and covered the whole ground three EPHRAIM BEACH, Civil Engineer. (Franklinite,) o New Jersey, and from forest, taking care to do this, when the

or four inches deep with leaves from the the High furnace near Frederic in Mary-| ground was wet, and the leaves also, that We insert the following with pleasure. land. The “beautiful specimen obtained”!!ihey might not be blown away, and to leave The information both as correcting errone- from all three places together, are upwards the tops of the young corn uncovered. In ous statements and as furnishing details is of ten tons pure malleable metallic zinc, ten days there was not a particle of living worthy of notice. We most earnestly re- acknowledged far superior to the imported grass to be found, and the corn had put on commend to the attention of " speculative spelter, by all the importers and workmen hat deep bluish green which always betok

ens a healthful condition of the plant. minds” the concluding warning of Mr. in that line, who have seen it. Hassler's letter.

The amount already obtained being suffi-| after the fodder was palled, and the tops

From the day the corn was planted until From the Morning Courier & N. Y. Enquirer.

cient for the particular purpose of stan-||cut, nothing was done with it, and the re. In your paper of May 26th, 1836, you

dards, the temporary furnace built for that sult is a product at the rate of forty-two, have inserted' an article entitled “ Zinc in purpose exists no more, as I needed the bushels to the acre-about one-third of the Nero Jersey,” inviting to enterprise, in pro- materials to build a brass casting furnace.

materials to build a brass casting furnace. stalks having two ears on each of them. curing the metal from the ore.

The state

If any one should be willing to take up I noted, in the course of the summer, the ments are not entirely correct.

Allow me

the subject in such a manner as to procure following facts :therefore, to furnish ihe public with better to the man who invented the process, and 1st. The corn created thus, was always information to prevent mistaken specula- so successfully produced the results quoted, ahead of some planted along side of it, and tions. that reward of a solid establishment which treated in the nsual way.

2d. It ripened at least ten days sooner The pure zinc lately produced, has lain is due to his knowledge and good character, for centuries in the ore in Jersey, Pennsyl-I offer 10 serve as a means to obtain his than other corn, plairted at the same time. vania, Maryland, (and most likely in many co-operation ; but I am in duty bound 10 | the blades never twisted up, as did other other parts of the country,) just as the warn mere speculators from engaging with corn in the neighborhood. finest marble statutes are yet contained in out that previous knowledge, which besides

4th. In the dryest weather, on removing the marble quarries of this country, needing they will not find in any book, and trials will the leaves, the ground was found to be moist only the artist to cut them out; but this || be ruinsus, as proved by the previous to the surface, aud loose, as deep as it bag cutting them out, enterprise and money


F. R. HASSLER. been at first broken up. alone will never effect; unless art also find

Washington City, May 28th, 1836. 5th. The heaviest rain had scarcely any

effect in washing away the soil, or inaking its proper support to do it; and just as lit


it hard. tle will the speculation in money enterprise

It certainly will require less labor to proalone do it in zinc, without the necessary

From the New-England Farmer.

duce corn in this way, than in the usual science of Metallurgy.


mode. And even if it required more, we It will not only be interesting but instruc


have the consolation to know, that while, tive to give here the whole history of the conclusions in regard to the culture of In- | injury to the land, by this mode, every lour's

By experiment, I have arrived at some by the old mode, every hour's work is an production of the zinc in this country. As dian corn, which i think are of importance work is niaking the land belier ; for few the whole was done under my direction, 1 || to planters in the Southern States. I com-lihings can be beiter manure than the coat may be allowed to be good authority in the municate them for the use of the public withiling of braves put on in summer, when batter.

great liesitation, because they are directly | ploughed in the winter and spring following. Mr. John Hitz, Landamman, in the Gri-|| at variance with the received opinions on I used leaves raked up in the forest, be. sons, (Switzerland,) a scientific miner, had the subject.

cause of these there is an ample supply many years ago produced the pure zinc

The early part of my life was spent in within the reach of almost every person, from the Blende of Daros, which had never agricultural pursuits-and hence, if there and le a use ther+ seems, from my obreria.

were no other reason, I feel a deep interest | tion, tobe a strong antipathy between dead, been done before, by a process entirely of in every thing relating to agriculture. il and decaying forest leaves, and crab grase, his own invention, and different from all I noticed, very early, the great difficulty in that most harassing foe of agriculturisis,

I make this communication, as I have al- l, an unusual quantity of rain. On high land, Snugness is not altogether the only feaready said, with hesitation, because the idea the usual estimates of crops expected, vary ture displayed in such dwellings, but there of raising corn without ploughing and hoe from one fourth to three fourths of an ave. is a character of retirement, blended with ing, and at the same time improving the rage. In some fewer cases, they are worse hospitality. By general observation, it will land, by protecting it against the influence and better than these ordinary extremes, il be seen that the sites of such dwellings are of a scorching sun and washing rains, is so varying from nothing worth reaping, to well chosen where the requisite conforts for directly in the teeth of the universal prac. nearly a fair product. of the latter ca. domestic purposes are of easy access. Shel. tice for ages. The thing is, however, at ses, very few have been heard of-andter and siade are the first consideration in least, worthy of further trial. It may lead those not very lately. From the newspa- this case, and are a grand feature, nainely, to most important results.

pers, we learn that in Buckingham and ihe the fine inipression given on landscape Those who think the plan worth any at. nearest adjacent counties, the wheat was scenery.

The rustic construction of the tention, may easily make an experiment tolerably tair, and near Wheeling, still bet. cot is always pleasing when we can see with an acre or two, and note carefullytheter; if so, these are the only parts of Virgi- | natural materials in every way made useprogress through the sumajer. If they are nia as much favored, of which we have ful, and noi too much transposed into some. satisfied, after the trial, that there is any heard. On our own farm, we cannot esti- thing, of which all recollection of its primi. thing in it, to extend the operation will nor mate the crop of wheat at more than the live state is lost, to appearance. The thatch, be a difficult matter.

fourth of what the land could produce; and being of straw, reminds us of the utility it Jl, on experiment, it should be found ad- where the damage from the fly was the has been in another way-when the bearer visable to extend the operation, the proper least, and the general growth the best, there of grain; and the rude unhewed post of the way would be, I think, to collect the leaves the damage was the greatest from scab, or porch (on which twines the honeysuckle) in winter, and deposite them in heaps on empty or dead parts of heads. The qual. of the use of forest trees The plan of the the ground on which they are to be used, ity of the grain will be very bad.

cot is mostly neat, and generally in the and ihe next spring during a wet season,

Gothic order, with the upper windows

But the rich bottom lands on after the corn is up, spread them, taking have suffered most. These have all been es and appendages are always correspond.

our rivers

peeping out of the thatch. The approachcare to leave the tops of the young corn un-covered by freshets, and to unusual depths. ling. covered.

The rustic arbor well covered with There is oue very important result that

The Roanoke bottom lands have suffered native'grape vines that give a natural effect, must follow the success of this plan on a destroyed, as well as all other crops—and pruner. The approach is generally con

most. The wheat there is almost entirely and impart a luscious reward to the humble large scale--and it was with an eye chiefly the soil itself, in many parts, has been car. to that result, that my experiment was un.lried off by the floods, so that the damage to which gives a healthy employment, or rath

verted into neat and well kept lower-garden, dertaken. The constant excuse for not im- the land is even of more amount than the proving our land, is, that where cotton is entire loss of the year's crops.

er recreation, to an aged niother or some grown, the time necessary, first to cultivate

rosy cheeked prattling children, who are of. the growing crop properiy--next to gather it, Two more days (the 25th and 26th) have ten seer strolling from their plot in quest and then to prepare for a new crop, leaves passed since the foregoing remarks were

of flowers to decorate the little parterre, the planter nr time to collect manare. My written, and on both rain has fallen profuse-transplanting them with care to their new plan will be to put an end to that excuse at ly and heavily; the consequent increase of habitations among, perhaps, some delicate once ; for where leaves are to be had, half damage to the wheat will be necessarily exotics. the time usually bestowed on working the great. Where ready for the scythe, it must The vegetable garden, well filled with es. corn crop in the usual way, spent in gather- be much beaten down and tangled by the culent vegetables and fruit, with a small oring leaves and putting them on the ground, heavy rain of last night; and where still chard and meadow, are often appendages to instead of ploughing it, inay in a short time green, there is danger of the rust coming to the "thatched cottage.” A running stream accomplish every thing that can be desired destroy much of the quantity and value or brook in its vicinity gives a mellowness in the way of manuring.

of the small product previously expeci- to the scene, and some rich verdant spots Why may not the same process answerin'ed.

near the dwelling forms a part, of social efthe cultivation of cotton? If it keeps the

June 27th.

fect, but seldom rivalled in landscape the ground soft and moist, and prevents the

scenery. growth of grass and weeds in a corn crop, RURAL SCENERY: THE

Were I to choose a dwelling for retire. it will surely have the same effect with cot.

ment, when age wears off that activity and ton-and be the means, further, of preserve

zeal from a lite of bustle and business, it ing the cotton, when the bolls open, from all

There are but few objects in landscape should be the cot above spoken of; not, the injury it sustains from the soil in wet scenery that form a more rural character. I gentle reader, that I would be conspicuous seasons. This is, bowever, but speculation. istic than the “ thatched cottage,” by the

at that time of life, but because it would suit, Let it be tested by actual experiment.

side of a wood, which serves to protect it my desire. The wood would be a pleasing JAMES CAMAK. from the cold winter blast, and has the ef.

source for my researches of hoianical speciAthens, Ga. October 10, 1835.

fect of a shady retreat for summer. To im- mens of native plants, and tlie trees and

part to the traveller pleasing ideas of the shrubs about my dwelling a fine retreat for

fertility and domestic comforts, blended the different kinds of birds which would From the Farmers' Register

with rural economy, of the country through visit my 'cot,' as their migrations suit their THE SÉASON AND STATE OF CROPS.-From which lie passes, is, perhaps, one of the approach in the neighboring wood. The all the accounts before us, public and pri. very best criterions of his opinion of the honeysuckle would impart, in the flowering vate, it is inferred that the wheat crop more rapid improvement and increase of the season, a luscious repast to the little queen throughout Virginia, will tall short of hair value of property ; and the col'spoken of of birds—the humming-bird ; and my flowof an average crop--and that the whole is one of the sure features to attract his er-garden would serve to amuse my leisure wheat crop of the United States will be not particular attention.

hours in healthy employment. The fruit, much better than that of Virginia alone.-- There is something about a thatehed cotraised by my care, would add to its flavor, We subjoin in extracts from private letters, tage which is always inviting, and reminds and some to give to a friend, to friendship: many of the facts that have reached us; butus of the comforts of life. I disagree with | A few choice books for my amusement, and none of these, wxcept the one from Halifax, Dr. Johnson, who deems all things of a to recall what had been seen and done in Vil., even refer to the latest and worst ca- rustic nature, as the abode and choice of horticulture; and, at times, to read to relaJamilies, cansed by the inundation of inost the unrefined ; or, in plain words, expres- lives and friends, who should always find of the rich and extensive river bottoms of sive of rudeness in

every degree. Virginia and Norih Carolina. The great

hospitality in my rustic manners, and the

I very much doubt if the greatest mon- welcome repast of the wearied traveller, source of injary to the wheat, and which arch is more intelligent, oftentimes, than

sums up my desire of a thatched cottage. was anticipated as far back as last October, those who dwell beneath a cottage of thatch:

JUNIUS. and expected then to be unusually destruc- nor are his domestic comforts any more el.

New Jersey, April, 1836. tive, was the Hessian fly. In addition to levated or constant than the cottager, althis, and to other muor evils, the very well though fame extends his name to a niore

From the New York Farmer. season latterly bas done great dainage, distant part, where ruinor often falsifies his either by filling the soil with water, or en real charecter. The cottager rarely has

QUESTION-Where you bound, stranger ? tirely overflowing its surface. In the latter any thing to fear on this subject, as his only

ANSWER-I am going to the Far West, sir. part of May, and first half of June, there object is to make home agreeable to himselt

Since my last which was written on my were 21 days in succession, on which more and its inmates; and this eflect being ob. or less rain fell--and some of these rains servable to the passer by, it engraves on his journey to Pittsburg, I passed some time in came in floods : and even since the close memory the snug appearance of the thatch-that flourishing city which approaches much of this uninterrupted series, there has been led coltage.

nearer Burmingham in England, than you






would suppose any thing in this new coun- There are also upwards of ıwenty Bank - 11 the health of our animals, especially contry could ; I descended the Ohio to Wheeling Institutions that are as well managed || sidering the length of our winters and the ing when I took the national road which is as Banks can be, and whose notes pass cur

lime during which they are confined 10 ihe

stall, that ihey should have green and sucnow completed to Columbus 74 miles from rently in all the adjoining States.

culent food to mix with their dry; and that Wheeling. The country through which it It is stated by an intelligent gentleman dry especially not of the best quality. Cerpasses until you reach Zanesville, is quite conversant with the fact, that Ohio enjoys Sainly very much of our bay is spoiled in a hill and dale country, the farmers turning one hundred and ninety miles of ship and it is made either too much or too little; so

the getting-It is cut not at the right time. their attention to raising Tobacco, and some steam boai navigation on the Lake, and four|inuch as to become too huskey and dry or so have large flocks of sheep, to the raising of hundred thirty six miles steam boat naviga-little as to be heated and mouldy; in either which the soil appears peculiarly well ||tion on the Ohio. These great local advan-case much of its nutritive power is lost; adapted, that animal thriving much better||tages, united with a soil abounding in eve

and though it may sustain life, caitle by the on high and dry lands. After passing Zanes- ||ry production and luxury of life, must inevi-dis.ased ; poor, hide-bound, costive and con

use of it lose their condition and become vitle, the country is more level and alluvial, tably give Ohio at no disiant day, if not the sumplive. the canal connecting the Ohio and Lakefirst, at least the second rank in the United

The time when hay should be cut is a Erie, 300 miles in length, is very productive States. The climate is warm and solubri- matter no! well seitled and in which farmand the lands bordering have risen much

ers in different places differ with each othous. The people remarkable for their obser

er. Different grasses ripen at different per in value, large entries of State and United

vance of the Laws, and particularly for the riods; and with some the season of flower. States lands have been made in Ohio the spirit of industry that seems to exist in eve-ling continues much longer than with others. past year, and the wealth of this State is

It is ascertained likewise by chemical anary section of the state. increasing probably faster than any State

Yours truly,

lysis thai grasses at different periods of in the union. Columbus the seat of gov

their growth yield more nutriment than B. P.

all others. What in some parts of the ernmcot, is beautifully situated lying on

country is called the English Bent, a fine very high land, the public buildings are

From the New-York Farmer.

and delicate grass must be cut very early or numerous and what is particularly gratify.

it becomes hard and wiry. Herds grass or ing to the traveller, the public accommoda. | An operation so simple as that of cutting menrs of Sinclair, must be allowed to reach

The season of hay cutting is just at havd. Timothy in order according to the experitioas good particularly Noble's Hotel. As and curing hay every farmer feels that he an extreme ripeness in order to yield the many of your readers are emigrating West, understands, and would disdain on this sub-greatest amount of nutritive matier. We and as they generally prefer stopping shortject any attempt to advise or instruct him. I have some incredulity in regard to the state. of “the far West” prefering Farms partly Be it so ; the wise are glad to examine any ments respecting this latter grass and some brought in a state of cultivation to those subject, on which it is possible discussion hesitation whether these experiments,

or inquiry may throw some light; correct though highly exact and instructive, are 10 which are at less price and untouched, I will prejudices, or suggest new and better means be considered conclusive as 10 the actual close this with statistical information of lof management; the wise in respect to any | value of these grasses for feeding; and Ohio, and in my next give you that of the and every subject are never too wise 10 should deem some exact experiments with adjoining State of Indiana, hoping it will learn; and though our own observations of the cattle themselves made under favorable prove acceptable to your readers.

suggestions on any subject may have no just circumstances and by skilful and careful

foundation, no reasonableness, and no perti- observers, much more decisive. Ohio was organized as a State in 1802, nency, they may be useful if they excite The time of cutting for most grasses is though the first settlement was commenced the inquiries and elicit the observations of when they are in flower. If cut before this at Marietta in 1783 by Gen. Puinam, and 46 wiser or inore experienced minds.

they waste greatly and have little sub.

Hay niaking must be set down as one of stance; and if suffered to stand long after six other hardy and enterprising individuals the most important operations in husban-| this they lose their succulence. It is advifrom Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode dry. Hay with us is the great means of | sable in this matter to be early rather than Island.

supporting our live stock. Our straw is late ; and to cut before the plant is exhaustThe river Ohio gave name to the State, || of our young cattle. Grain and meal are then in the highest perfection. The time

principally used for litter or the subsistence ed by flowering or by forming seeds. It is although Historians do not agree as to || always given with reluctance, excepting 10 for cuiting clover is longer than of other whether Obio means Beautiful River, and || fatting cattle; and comparatively no suc- l grasses as it continues longer sending out taken from the French explorers or Bloody || culent vegetables are grown for the winter a succession of flowers; bui I am decidedly River as the Indians designated it

, at any latter case there may be a speedy alteration cut after it comes into flower, the better, as

keeping of our stock. It is hoped in this of an opinion that the sooner this grass is rate it is a beautiful name for River or in the habits of our farmers; and that it it is so apt to lodge and to become mouldy at State.

will become as much matter of custom bottom. Ohio contains an area about 200 miles among our farmers to raise large crops of

On ne subject of the time oi cuting square, being about 200 miles in extent | Mars as large crops of hay with which to grass I am happy to quote the opinions of a from North to South and from East to West, fill their barns. Common white turnips, || very able writer.

This rule of culing being bounded north by Michigan and the though very little in favor with us are a grass, when i first comes into flower apLake, west by the State of Indiana, and east valuable crop both for sheep and neet cat. I plies to every species of berbage, which is

io be dried for winter food; but iv coarse and south by Pennsylvania and the Ohio they are more solid and retain their good hay the produce of wet or marshy grounds, river. The population may be safely sei qualities much longer. The rula bagai is strongly applicable ; for most of the down as one half million of souls. is a most excellent vegetable for sheep, cat-|| plants, which grow in these situations, Literature is very flourishing. There are

tle and horses. Potatoes, carrois, mangel when they are in full vigor are as tender,

wurizel are all excellent. An agricultural and contain perhaps as great a proporuion eight Colleges in this State besides many friend well qualified :o judge informs melof nourishing juices as any other descripAcademies and Literary Societies, Lyce that he prefers to all others the common Lion of bay; and when cut at that stage

blood beet. He asserts that according to and properly managed afterwards, forma Hi Also a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Medi- his own experience, it is as sure a crop as valuable article of food both for sheep, and cal College, &c. There are also upwards

any other; that it yields as much to the catile; but when the cutting is delayed, as

acre as any other; none will make more indeed it very often is, ull an advanced peof one hundred newspapers printed in this milk or pui op more flesh; none if properly || riod of the season, when the plants have State, a large proportion are published semi-| taken care of will last longer; and none of not only reached their ultimate growth, but Weekly equal value is raised with more ease or all begin to decay, this description of herbage

once the coarsest and least Canals and Railroads are constructing in less expense. My own experience in their becomes at various directions, as a very liberal policy most entire

cultivation and use disposes me to give al. | nourishing of all food. This opinion does

credit io all these stale- not proceed upon theory; but upon the solid seems to have been entertained towards ments.

grounds of experiments carefully inade works of this sort for some years.

It would seem to be most important to opon different kinds of berbage, at different

ums, &c.

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periods of their growth, the result of which under the impression that it would suffer || water to drink. They were fed in this manestablishes a fact which cannot be too gen. no injury though it should remam so twenty|ner until the middle of April, when they érally known, viz: that plants of all soris, ir tour nours, proceeds very erroneous opin- were turned out to grass all day, and lathey are cut when in tuli vigor, and after ions; ang is to be strongly condemned.-ken into a shed at evening; and fed with wards carefully dried, without any wasie I'ne pracuce likewise of culung grass when bay until there was pleniy of grass and the of their natural juices enher by bleaching a heavy dew is upon it, is, on the same weather grew warm. Such of the calves as with rain or exhalation, contain weight for grounds to be disapproved, excepting that were weaned in March were conlinued to be weight, a quantity of nourishing matter in this case that it is very soon stirred anu ted with milk and water,every morning until nearly double what they do, when allowed shaken. We should prefer, excepting that midsummer. All the said calves are in. to attain their full growth; and make some we might sunetines find that it conspelleu good health and condition; and the Society progress towards decay. These opinions us 10 the loss of ioo much time,never to have allowed the premium offered on that head are stated with great confidence; and are en. a swath mowed but when the grass and the preceding year.—[Bath Soe. Papers.) titled to much consideration; and so far as ground are perfectly dry. The grass is they apply to our wet meadows deserve noi mowed so easily when dry as when wet. Rearing Calves, 1789.-In the year 1787, particular attention, since the cutting and it requires more strength and the edge of I weaned seventeen calves-in 1768, I wenig curing of these grasses receive very little the scythe suffers more; but the grass, ||--and in 1789, fifteen, do. I bought in care; they are left standing generally until which is cut when perfectly dry and the 1797 three sacks of linseed. I put one Very late in the season; and the hay from ground under it likewise being perfectly dry quart of seed to six quarts of water, which them commonly is almost worthless, ex. and warm, is made with so much more by boiling ten minutes, became a good jelly; cepung for litter.

quickness and ease, that this consideration, this jelly is mixed with a small quantity of • In the survey of Perthshire, Eng. it is which will go far to balance the supposed the besi hay steeped in boiling water. stated that as the great object of making or actual advantages in the other case. Having my calves drop at different times, 1 hay is that of preserving as much of the

did not make an exact calculation of the ex

The second inportant point is to avoid natural sap as possible, the proper time for getting the liay too dry and stirring it so seed I had better than two bushels left at

pense of this hay tea; but of my sacks of cutting it is when the crop of grass has al- much as to shake off the leaves. tained its highest degree of perfection; constitute the most palatable and nutritious last, I gave them the jelly and the hay tea, when the planis are in full blow, and be part of the hay; and this is particularly || after them 6d a day; the price of the lin. fore their flowers begin to fade. if cut too likely to happen in respect to clover, which seed was 4s. 6d. sig: 'per bushel; the whole green the hay shrivels and lusses much of lif very much dried and shaken becomes ils bulk ; if allowed to stand till the seeds line heiter than so many sticks. Clover three years seed 21 5s. My calves are are ripe, the stean becomes hard and wiry; can be well cured in cocks, without any better at this time than my neighbors, who

kept in good growing stale; and are much the roots loose much of their natural sap;lıurning, but that of reversing the heaps.the aftermath is less abundant; and the This method has been often iried and with are reared with milk; they do not fall of principal part of the hay is in danger of lenure success.

Salt is always to be ap. Soc. papers.]

so much, when they come to grass. [Bath crumbling away into short stuinps, under plied in these cases at the rate of a peck 10 the various operations which it must un- a load; and to all English hay the addition dergo. Better to be tou soon than too late, of salt to the amount at least of four From the American Gardner's Magazine. especially if the crop be beavy and in dan- quarts to the load is always to be recom. OBSERVATIONS ON THE CULTURE OF THE ger of lodging."

mended. “ With clover the best time for cutting is

Plum, with REMARKS UPON THE IN. Spreading out, as it is termed, is an


BY is when the flowers are all fully blown and operation that should be done by a most the earliest begin to turn brown. If allow-careful hard. Clover hardly admiis of this

Messrs. C. AND A. J. Downing, Boed to stand longer, the roots of the stalks when green, and, if atrempted when dry,

TANIC GARDEN AND NURSET, Newluse their leaves, and become hard and the best parts of the hay are sure to be sha.

BURGH, N. Y. sticky; aod the plant is so much exhausted ken off. 'Other kinds of hay lowever, can. The plum in some of its species, as the that it takes a long time before it sends up not after mowing, be too carefully opened || beach plum, (Prunus littoralis) and the new shouts.

and too evenly spread ; not a inatied hand. Chicasaw plum (P.chicasa) is indigenous With respect to curing bay it is impor- ful should be left that is not thoroughly seCont to put it into the baru in as green a state parated and shook out. Hay at night, if it to many parts of the United States, but as will possibly do and avoid its heating and can be done, should never be left in swath || the fine cultivated varieties, now so abunbecoming mouldy. In this way it best re. or in windrow ; but put up at first in small cant in our gardens, have been produced tains its succulence and flavor ; and the cocks and afierwards made with no more from an eastern species (Prunus domestinearer in both these respects it approaches shaking about and spreading than is abso-ca,) probably first introduced into Europe !o grass in its green staie, so much better is lutely necessary to dry it. We have al. from Syria. it relished by all kinds of stock, and so ready exiended ihis article beyond our in

The cultivation of the plum in the Midmuch the more nutritious it undoubtedly is. tentions and yet have pot exhausted it.

dle and Eastern States is exceedingly easy. The best farmers, on the Connecticut river, We commend it to our brother farmers, not and where they estensively engaged in presuming that we can instruct them; but The soil best adapted to that purpose is a the feeding of cauile, have within a few hoping ibat we may at least draw their at- moderately strong, light and dry loam; years been accustoined to put their lay in the tention to a subject of great importance in moist soils predisposing the tree to disease, bara in a very green state and afiera slight husbandry ; but which we think has by no|and rendering it unfruitful. Gravelly and m.king. They deem it of the first impor- means as yet received sufficient considera- || stony soils, though generally considered rance that it should have no foreign dainp. tion and care.

rather ursuitable, will be found excellent if ness adhering to it either of dew or rain;

the trees are planted in orchards, and rebil they do not object to its healing slighily in the mow froin the fermentation of its by A NORFOLK PARMER, Eng.–Mr. Whitley || proper for such situations.

Mode of WEANING AND REARING CALVESceive that care in cultivation, peculiarly natural juices. They are of an opinion of Wallington did, beiween the first of Dethat this even readers it the more palatablecember, 1776, and April, 1777, wean and rear

The plum not requiring walls in this for the catile; bui weiness either of dew or

on his farm ten cow calves and thirteen climate, but growing with great luxuriance Dive us altogether injurious to its quality : bull calves, by the method following: All as an open standard tree, needs but little produces suurness, and mould, and renders Mihree days old they were taken from the skill in pruning; the head of the tree it in nutritious, unfit for the use of cattle; cows, put into a shed and fed with fle should by no means, however, be permitted Erzligi far niers mink their hay is better for ach calf morning and evening. When a judicious trimming, be kept open to the

ul extremely pernicious to horses. The skinmed milk) allowing three quarts to 10 hecome crowded with branches, but by u slighi heal in the stack.

month old, they were fed with a like quan- genial influence of the sun and air. Pru. Two things in the coring of bay are to y o milk and wates, morning and evening, in the plum, as in all other stone hi particulirly attended 10. The first is toning, with bay to feed op in the day time; || ruits, should be performed while the beure il fruin wel. The effect of wet upon and at noon ihey were fed with pats and branches are small, as the exudation of hay is like the effect of water upon tea to bran equally mised, allowing half a peck to extracı all its strength and flavor. For this one dozen calves. At two months old they gum is induced by lopping large limbs, tason the practice of some firiners of were fed only in the morning with milk and the wounds heal with difficulty. To mowing in the rain by way of saving time, and water; they had bay to feed on in the those persons who feel lost in the labyrinth and suffering the hay to remain wet and day time, and at evening instead of noon, of a modem catalogue of fruits, the folentirely saturated with water in the swath, had the same quantity of bran and oals with || lowing selection of plums, of first rate ex

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