Lapas attēli



8. d.

s. d.


in practice, and with the nature of the busi $ 4. Total Expense of Haulage. uess on that line, the different losses amouni

The remaining expenses of the haulage lo one-fourth of the expense of the active PÅ M BOUR LOCOMOTION. work.

require, on nur part, no separate discussion. Continued from page 331. This increase is owing not only to the

The particulars will be found in the follow

ing statements relating to the Liverpool necessary expense for lighting ile tire every

Company But their aggregate amount morning, but also to the necessity, on that The dita laid down above must therefore line, of keeping, for the passage of the in. acquaints us with she total expense of haul. be taken each in their speciality, that is to clined planes, helping engines, the fire oilage by means of locomotive engines, and say, the one as suitable to a slow motion, which must remain lit the whole day, all his is a point which requires some consid.

eration as well as the former ones. with engines of a certain construction and though they only serve at distant intervals, intended for the drati of goods, and the other and to the long delays between one journey | the year io question, we see that the total

According to the statements concerning to a rapid motion with engines of a differ- and another. These circumstances, that ent construction, and intended for the drali of the helping engines alone excepted, are||ed to the following suns :

expenses of the Liverpool Company amount. of passengers. inevitable in a business of the nature of

£ Before we close this article, we must re- that of Liverpool.

Ist half-year mark that the repairs of the railway consist

9 On the Darlington Railway the same

56,350 1 principally in replacing the blocks, chairs, causes of loss do not exist, at least noi 10

2nd hall-year

60,092 15 11 keys, and pias. The rails themselves, being the same degree. in malleable iron, seldom break. As for According to the nutes, carefully kept by

£116,442 17 8 their gradual decrease of weighi, by wear, the directors of that company to serve as a

But our purpose being to know the exthis is a very inconsiderable effect. foundation to the contracis they sign, the penses relating to the use of the locomotive On May 10ih, 1831, on the Liverpool quantity of coals consumed on an average,

engines taken separately, in order to comline, a malleable iron rail, 15 feet long, care- during one journey of an engine, that is to pare the amount with the total haulage they fully cleaned, weighed 177 lbs. 102 oz. On say, to convey 21 wagons to a distance of execnted, we must deduct from thai sum February 10ih, 1933, the same ráil, taken 30 miles down hill, and bring them back

ihe following articles : up by Mr. J. Locke, then resident engineer! again empty to the same distance up hill,

£ o the line, and well cleaned as before, costs the engine men 4s. 934., when the coals

Ist. Interest on loans

1st hlar.year 15,1 40 6 A weighed 176 lbs. 8 oz. It had consequently are at 5s. per ton. So the weight of coals lust in 21 months a weight of 18} oz. The consumed is 2157 lbs.

2nd half-year 5,546 40 number of gross tons ihai had passed on The useful load drawn by the engine is 2nd. Stationary engive and the rail during that iime was estimated ail composed of 63.60 t. of coals in going down,

lunnel disbursements 600,000. Thus we see that with so consid. and ihere is no useful load at all in going

1st half-year 1,807 16 6 erabie a tonnage, and with the velociiy of lup; making an average of 31.80 tons of

2nd half-year

986 10 3 the motion on that ruilway, the annual loss goods drawn to a distance of 10 miles in all. Srd. New rails, this being an of the rail was only one of its primitive This weighi, from what we have secu

exiraordinary expense

1st half-year 150 16 0 weight. So ibat it wouli require more than (Appendix, § 1..) corresponds with a gross

2ad hall-year 3,153 14 0 a hundred years to reduce it to the half oliveizhi, drawn on a level to the same dis

410. From theamount for main.
its present strengti.
tance, of

tenance of way, new rails
$ 3. Expense of Fuel.
31.80 t. X 1.9717 = 62.70 t. ;

not included, inust be deIn regard to fuel, we have already, io lhe consumption of coals per gross ton car.

ducied io for expenses Chapier IX. of this work, related experi. ried to a distance of one mile on a level is,

concerning the tunnels, ments from which may be deduced the con- consequently, 0.86 lb.

that are nvi worked by the sumption of fivel a 'cording to the load the This is nearly the same consumption as

locomotiveengines and the engines have to driw. on the Liverpool Railway, especially if we

length of which is 14 mile However, as in the intervals of the trips copsider that a ton of coals, of a good qual

on the 31 miles of the the fire inusi ho k pt up, and as, besides, ity, produces a little more evaporation ihan

whole line 1st balf-year 627 10 0 there are alivys vaivoidable losses during the same weight of good coke.*

2nd half-year 619 14 0 working, an incr:ase of expense in that This result may appear surprising, the 5th. On the rest of the exrespect m'ist naturally be expected in prac-boilers of ibe Darlington engines being

pense for maintenance of tic... This we also learn in a positive man- genera!ls constructed on a less economical

way must also be deducted ner by the examination of facis. principle, as to the application of heat, than

š, being expenses occaAccording to the hali yearly reports of the the Liverpool opes; but considering the

sioned by ihe passage, Liverpool Railway Company, for the year way of working on each line, this circum

with their trains, of locoeding June 30, 1331, the expense for fuel stance will easily be accounted for. On the

motive engines not belong. for the lucoinotive engines was Darlington Railway the engines never 20

ing to the company. The
off but with a full load ; that is to say, that

haulage effected by the en.
£6.073 153. 8d.
they draw, as we have mentioned, an ave-

gines of the company being The number of trips performed was rage weight of 62.7 t. per trip, and we know

373,776 tons, carried on

the whole line. We have 11,656; consequently the expense for fuel that this circumstance is favorable to che for each journey amounted 10 10.43:25., and consumption of fuel. If these engines were

sren (Appendix, § 2) that as the averige price of co'e employed dur-10 draw only an aveage load of S2 i., like

the work of the engines ipz that year on the railway was 23.55., the the Liverpool ones, their comparative con

not belonging to the com. consumpiion of fuel, measured in weighi, sumption would certainly be greater. To

panv, raises the tondage amounted to 994.37 lbs. per trip. ibis must also be added that, on the Dar

to 515,252 tons; censeWe have seen (Appendix, $ 1.) that the lington Railway, the engines und rgo no

quently the work of ihe

latier engines is 141,476 total number of gross tons conveyed by the delay between their journeys, and that the locomotive engines of the company from invariability in the load and in the speed

tons, or of the haulage one end of the railway to the oiher, in the makes it unnecessary to give them more

of the company's engines. same number of journeys was

This article makes
evaporating power than is strictly wanted
for their motion. The consequence is that

1st half-year 2,258 18 0
373,776 t.
one never sees at the valve that enormous

2nd half-year 2,231 0 0 The average lead of the engines was con- blowing which takes away from the Liversequently about 32 tons. pool locomotive engines a fourth part of Remains for expenses concern

Total sum to be deducted £12,022 9 A load of 32 tons, not including the ten. Their produce. der, has consequently required, by the fact, It is to these combined circumstances that

ing the work of the coma consump:ion of coke of 994 Tbs. So, the practical result appearing in this case,

pany's locomotive engines 94,420 8 0 considering that the load has been really must be attributed.

The haulage executed by the same encarried to a distance of 344 miles, this makes

gines being 0.90 lbs. per gruss ton drawn to a distance The proportion of the quantity of coke | 12,895,272 gross tons carried to a distance of one mile on a level. Our special Exper. prepared in a closed vessel, and of New.

of one mile, iments (Chap. IX. 8 2.) only give an ave. castle coals, necessary to transform the same the consequence is that, on the Liverpco rage consumption of 784 lbs. of coke for a quantity of water into steam at the same Railway, at an average velocity of 16.75 load of 32 1.' By this it will be seen that, I pressure, is nearly as 14 to 13.

miles per hour, the total expense of haul






6,709 71 age by locomotive engines amounts to We shall be happy if the elucidations we Coach disbursements

979 19 8 1.75 d. per gross ton carried to a distance of have already given and those we intend 10 Wagon ditto one mile on a level. subjoin be of use to persons who may feel Compensation (carrying de


786 8 2 This includes all sorts of expenses, car- inclined to engage in these speculations, riages, rent, offices, &c. which, in regard 10 expenses, cannot fail to Police establishment

1,490 14 1

98 9 10 On the Darlington Railway the expenses be as advantageous to their private fortune | Law disbursements

175 13 6 of haulage are much lower. The company as to the prosperity of the country at large. Bad debts estimates them at 1.00 d. per ton of coals

We shall conclude this Appendix by givcarried to one mile in going down the line; ing the specified statements of the receipts

£49,025 18 5 which, after our calculation (Appendix, and expenditure of the Liverpool Company, Neit profit from 1st July to

Sist Dec. 1831

£40.783 3 7 $ 1.,) would make 0.51 d. per gross ton car-from its origin to the preseni momeni.

Dividend per share of £100 4 10 0 ried to one mile on a level. The cause of that difference between the

Nett profit on Sunday travel.
ling per share of £ioo

0 7 8 two railway's has already been mentioned, being the velocity of the motion and the FROM THE


Tons. nature of the goods conveyed. To this musi also be added the considerable difference in

Merchandise between Liverpool

WAY, FROM THE OPENING OF THE RAILWAY, the price of fuel, the Darlington Company ON THE 16TH SEPTEMBER, TO THE 30TH

and Manchester

54,174 employing coals which cost only 5s. per ton, JUNE, 1834.

T'raffic to and from different instead of 23s. 6d., the price of the coke

parts of the road

3,707 used by the Liverpool Company. But the

Between Liverpool and the Boluse on that line of several ways of working STATEMENT OF EXPENDITURE

ton junction

14,720 either by locomotive or stationary engines,

Coals from different parts of the or by horses, does not permit us to class and Amount of expenditure on

road brought by the Compa• verify the expenses with the same precision

ny's engines

22,045 the construction of the as in the case of Liverpool. This is the

way and the works, from

Coals brought by the Bolton enreason why we shall not enter into any par. the commencement of the


7,411 ticulars in that respect.

Number of passengers booked at
undertaking to 31st De-
cember, 1833

the Company's offices

£1,089,918 17 7 $ 5. Profits.

174,122 Number of trips of 30 miles per

forn ed by locomotive engines After having examined the expenses, i1|| ANNUAL OR WORKING ACCOUNT.

with passengers

2,656 is also necessary to cast a look on the re.

Ditto with merchandise

2,248 ceipts. Before we go over to the specified From 16TH SEPTEMBER to 31st DECEMBER,

234 Ditto with coals

1830. statements of the expenses of all sorts of

Receipts. the Liverpool Company, we shall therefore Nett profits of the Company £14,432 19 5

Coaching depariment

£40,044 14 7 take down here, from those same statements Dividend per share of £100 2 0 0

General merchandise departthe amount of the profits made by the com HALF-YEAR ENDING 30TH JUNE,


32,477 14 0 pany from the opening of the railway: Nett profits of the Company £30,314 9 10 Coal


2,184 7 6 *This sketch will show that, if the mode of Divideod per share of £100 4 10 0 haulage in question necessitates consider.

HALFYEAR ENDING 31ST DECEMBER, able expenses for its establishment, the

£74,706 16 1 1831.

Expenses. profits it produces are fully adequate to in

Tons. demnify speedily the shareholders. Merchandise between Liverpool and

Bad debt account

394 5 7 The road was opened to trade on Septem


52,224 r

Guards’and porters wa.) ber 16th, 1930, and from that period the Road traffic


ges, £11044 6--Par. dividends per share of £100 sterling Between Liverpool and the Bolion

cel caris and drivers' amounted to the following sums :


10,917 wages, £254 10 5-Coal from Huyton, Eltonhead, and

Ompibuses and dury,
December 31, 1330

Haydock collieries brought by

£1082 0 7-Repairs and 4888 011 June 30, 1931

4 10 0

the Company's engines December 31, 1831


materials, £1777 9 4-
4 17 S
Coa! from Hulion brought by the

Gas, oil, tallow, &c.
June 30, 1832

4 4 8
Bolion engines

£228 14 6-Stationery
December 31, 1332

Number of passengers booked at

and sundry disburseJune 30, 1333

7 6

Company's offices December, 31, 1933 (besides a


menis, £441 17 Number of trips of 30 miles per

Salaries £1749 5 10% reserved sund of 4,098 8s. formed by the locomotive engines

Porters' wages £3562 0 10d.)

4.15 3 June 30, 1934

8-Brakesmen's wages
with passengers
4 15 2

Do. with goods


£461 5 9-Oil, tallow, Do. with coal


cordage &c. £561 12 6 'Total Sum from Sep. 16, 1830,

8010 6 9

-Carting £808 16 5

Receipts. 10 June 30, 1834, that is 10

-Repairs to jiggers, say, in three years, nine

Coach departinent

£58,343 10 0

trucks, &c. £163 14 11 months and a-half £33 18 3 General merchandise

30,764 17 8

-Stationery and sunThis sum makes 9 per cent. a.year, be

Coal department

605 14 5

dry expenses, £563 108) sides the reserved fund laid aside by the

Coal ditto
£89,809 2 0 Cartage (Manchester)

26 8 10 company, and notwithstanding the extraor

1420 4 9 dinary expenses inevitable at the beginning

Charge for direction

309 14 0 of an undertaking, which being the first of Office establishment

£902 310 Compensation (coaching) 101 10 9 its kind, was nec ecessarily obliged to pay Coaldisbursements

60 15 5 Compensation (carrying) 288 10 3 dearly for its own experience, whilst future Peily ditto

110 0 5

Coach office establishment railways will profit' by that acquired by Cart ditto

60 17 8

(salaries, £573 13 1–Rent their predecessors.

Maintenance of way

0,599 12 6 and iaxes, £106 10 0.)

680 3 1 Besides this high interest for the capital Charge for direction

297 19 0 Engineering department

520 90 invested, we repeat that the shares of this Coach office establishment 589 59

5966 14 11 railway, from the original price of £100|| Locomotive power

12,203 5 6 | Fuel and watering sterling, have-risen, and sell at present, af- Advertising

59 3 41 £2907 8 0-Oil, tal. ter four years establishment only, at £210;| Interest

2,737 7 3 low, hemp, &e. £507 and that those of the Darlington Railroad,|| Rent

900 5 3

31-Repairs and ma 10,582 16 2 which boasts only nine years' existence, Compensation (coaching de

terials £5947 6 5 give 8 per cent, interest, and have risen in partment)

156 7 5 Enginemen's wages that short interval from £100 to £300, wbich Engineering department

625 0 0
£1170 18 8

) is their present price.

Carrying disbursements 10,450 12 3 Maintenance of way (wages, „This, plain recital of facts speaks vol-|| Taxes and raies

2,763 5 1 £3929 8 0_Blocks.sleepers, umes. It is, therefore, unnecessary for us | Stationary engine disburse

chairs, &c. £2668 123to add any reflection.

269 4 711 Ballast, £783 0 3) · 7,3331 0 6



Carrying disbursem'is. Coach disburseinents.






Coach disbursements.

Locomotive power.


Wagon digbursements.


Carrying disbursements.



Wagon dis.

Office establishment (salaries,

27 2 10

Guards and poiters' £662 8 6–Rent and taxes,

Cartage (Manchester)

: 2744 18 7 wages, £1150 4 0£77 9 24-Stationery, &c.

Charge for direction

295 1 0 Parcel carts, horse £81 10 5) 811 8 1 Compensation (coaching) 209 15 11

keep and

drivers' Police and gatekeepers 1356 9 11 || Ditto (carrying)

150 19 11 wages, £401 18 6 Petty disbursemenis 75 10|Coach office establishment

Maierials for repairs, Rent 1840 1 10 (Salaries £556 3 10-Rent

£383 15 11- Men's Stationary engine and tunnel

and taxes, £75 16 2).

631 19 0

wages, repairing, disbursement, new tunnel

Engineering department

450 0 0
£758 10 6-Gas, oil,

5,835 2 1 rope, £330 10 8-Coal £265


4555 15 7

tallow, cordage, &c. 70_Wages £290 9 9—Re

Fuel and watering,

£324 4 0-Duty on pairs, ol, tallow, hemp, &c.

£3848 10 8.-Oil, tal.

passengers, £2466 15 £165 8 9

1051 16 2
low, hemp, &c. £661

4-Stationery and Taxes and rates

1109 14 9
1 9.-Materials for

petty expenses, £236 Smiths' and joiners'

15 6-Taxes on offi. repairs, £3723 9 7. 12,646 9 18 wages,£586 6 7-Iron, Men's wages, repair

ces, stations,&c.£112 timber, &c. £265 0 9

ing, £3352 16 2.

1006 18 2 -Canvass, paint,&c. Engine and firemen's

Agents' and clerks' for sheels, £155 10 ( wages, £1060 11 6.

salaries, £1703 176– Law disbursements

113 3 8 Poriers' and brakesMaintenance of way (wages

men's wages, horse £47,770 15 5 £3675 16 5-Block, sleep.

keep, &c. £4687 9 7 Deduct credits 1,112 4 11 Eers, chairs,' &c. £2355 17 1

-Gas, oil, tallow, -Ballast, &c. £846 1029) 6878 4 3 cordage, &c. £648 4 £ 46,658 11 4 Petty disbursements

66 2 0

11-Repairs to jis. 8,579 15 9 Rent ,

1 246 50 gers, trucks, stations,

&c. £405 13 1-Sta. Nett profits for six months £28,048 4 9 Stationary, engine and tunnel Dividend per share of £100 4 0 0 disbursements (Coal, £209

tionery and petty exNett profii on Sunday travel. 15 3-Engine and brake.

penses, £336 9 o-
ling per share of £100
0 4 8 men's wages, £316 7 5–

Taxes, insurance,&c.
Repairs, gas, oil, tallow,

on offices apd HALF-YEAR ENDING SIST DECEMBER, 1832. &c. £326 14 7)

852 17 3

tions, £798 1 8. Taxes and rates

3483 18 (2Ccal disbursements Tons.

120 16 1 Merchandise between Livepool

Smiths' and joiners'

Cartage (Manchester)

2460 16 1 and Manchester 61,995 wages, £5830 54

Charge for direction

252 0 0 Ditto, to different parts of the

Iron, timber, &c. £350

Compensation (coaching)

38 1 2

946 13 1 Compensation (carrying) road, including the Warring12 10. Canvass,

1033 18 3 ton and Wigan trade . 6,011 paint, &c. for sheets,

Coach office establishment Ditto, between Liverpool and

£31 0 0.

(Agents' and clerks' saBolton 18,836 office establishment (Sala.

laries, £577 19 6–Rent and Coals from various parts of the

taxes, £102 17 1) 1. 680 (

67 ries, £623 18 0–Rent £85 road to Liverpool or Manches

Engineering department

441 17 4 727 7 0

00-Stationery £18 9 0) ter 39,940|| Police ditto .

Interest Number of passengers booked

902 16 5

5,367 11 9

Coke and caring, in the Company's offices 182,823

£2795 4 5–Wages to Number of irips of 30 miles

£48,278 8 10

coke fillers, and wa. performed by the locomotive

Nett profit for six months £32,623 14 0 engines with passengers

tering engines, £338 3,363

Dividend per share of £100. 4 4 0 Do. with goods

16 10-Gas, oil, tal1,679

low, hemp, &c. £760
Nett profit on Sunday travel-
Do. with coals

ling per share of £100

0 4 0

15 2 – Copper and

brass tubes, iron, tim.

ber, &c. for repairs, Coaching department £43,120 6 11

£3290 8 8- Men's į 14,715 16 9

Tons. General merchaudise 34,977 12 7

wages, repairing, Coal department

Merchandise between Liverpool 2,804 3 4

£4115 0 8–Engineand Manchester


men and firemen's £80,902 2 10 Ditto, io different parts of the

wages, £892 4 4
line, including 'Warrington

Out-door repairs to
and Wigan


engines, £9436 E-
Ditto, between Liverpool, Man.
Bad debt account

Two new engines,
£81 60
chester and Bolion .

19,461 “ Leeds” and “Fire-
Guards’and porters'wa-
Coals from various parts, io Li-

fly,” £1580 0 0 ges £1173 19 6-Parcel

verpool and Manchester

41,375 carts and drivers' wa. Total number of passengers

Maintenance of way (wages,

£3648 18 5—Blocks, sleepges, £375 14 4-Mate.

booked in the company's rials for repairs, £464

ess, chairs, &c. £2052 5 11 offices

171,421 1 9—Mens' wages, reNumber of trips of 30 miles

Ballast and draining, £1013 4261 31

5 11)

6,714 9 8 pairing £613 18 1--Gas, performed by the locomo

office establishmeni (Salaries, oil, tallow. &c. £232 11

tive engines, with passen. 7Duty on passengers

£624 190-Rent and taxes, gers

3,262 £985 19 1-Stationery

Ditto with merchandise


£62 18 6—Stationery, &c.
£56 19 5)

744 16 11 and petty expenses


950 4 7 £414 19 7

Petty disbursements

70 0 0 Salaries £1822 13 2. Coaching department £44,130 17 2 Reni

601 16 8 -Porters', &c.wages,

Merchandize ditto 39,301 17 3 Repairs to walls and fences 296 4 0 £3925 7 4.-Gas, oil,


2,638 15 9 Stationery engine and tunnel tallow, cordage, &c.

disbursements (Coal £155 £296 11 7.-Repairs 6983 95

£86,071 10 2

81– Engine and brake. to jiggers, trucks, stations, &c. £398 3 11.

men's wages, £363 8 10 Expenses.

Repairs, gas, oil, tallow,
--Stationery and pet-

Advertising account
£50 8 7 &c. £340 15 11

859 12 10 ty expenses £540 13 5.,

Bad debt account .
176 18 6|Tax and rate

1,891 07

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Locomotive power.

Coach disbursements.


Carrying disburse.



Waggon disbursements
Coach office establishment

Merchandise ditto

41,087 195 (Smiths' and joiners'

(Agents and clerks' sala


2,925 15 11 wages, £598 3 1-Iron,

ries, £602 6 8-Rent, £30) 632 6 8 timber, &c. £320 1 4-Cor

Engineering department
319 3 4

£94,784 12 3 dage, paint, &c. for sheets


5,140 6 4

Expenses. £82 7 3)

1,000 11 8 Cartage (Liverpool)

Coke and carting, 18 4 6

Advertising account

£16 15 0 £3197 4 4–Wages

Bad debt ditto

75 12 3
to coke fillers and
£52,900 91

Guards’and porters’wa.)
waterers, £348 8 5-
Gas, oil, tallow,

ges, £1167 11 10—ParNett profit for six months £33,171 1 1

cel carts, horse keep and

hemp, cordage, &c. Dividend per share of £100. 4 4 0

drivers' wages, £359 13

£865 14 9-Brass and Nett profit on Sunday travel

0--Materials for re

copper, iron, timber, ling per share of £100. 0 3 6

&c. for repairs,

13,965 S 1 pairs, £10079 7–Mens' HALF-YEAR ENDING S1ST DECEMBER, 1833.

£3755 3 7-Men's

wages, repairing,£1221

15 5-Gas, oil, tallow, Tons.

7,353 13 1 repairing,

wages, Merchandise between Liver.

£4401 4 10–Engine

cordage, &c. £358 15 6 pool and Manchester

-Duty on passengers,
and firemen's wages,

£3008 111-Stationery Ditto, to and from different

£784 8 5-Out-door parts of the line, including

repairs to engines,

and petty expenses,

£165 2 5—Taxes, inWarrington and Wigan

9,733 | £613 3 9. Ditto, between Liverpool, Man

surance, &c. on offices Wages to plate lay- )

(and stations, £65 8 11 chester, and Bolton

19,708 Coal from various parts to Li.

ers, joiners,&c. 2937
19 2-Stone, blocks,

Agents' and clerks' sa-
verpool and Manchester

laries, £1740 14 24 sleepers, keys, chairs,

6,425 14 8 Total number of passengers

Porters and brakes

&c. £2411 9 4-Balbooked at the company's

men's lasting and draining,

wages, horse offices.

£925 16 11-New

keep, &c. £5397 8.5Number of trips of 30 miles

rails, £150 16 3.

Gas, oil, tallow, corperformed by the locomo

dage, &c. £708 17 4 Office establishment (Salaries, tive engines with passen

--Repairs to jiggers, } 9,322 11 3 £607 2 0–Rent and taxes, gers 3,253

trucks, stations, &c. £75 14 3—Stationery and Ditto, with merchandise

£716 2 8—Stationery 2,587 printing, £22 7 8–Stamps,

and Receipts.

petty £17 23)


722 6 2 Coaching department £54,635 6 11 Police .

£290 3 2—Taxes, in

1,022 7 6 Merchandise disto . 39,957 16 8 Peily disbursements

surance, &c. on offices

61 19 6 Coal ditto 2,591 6 6 Rent

(and stations, £469 6 2 )

603 10 8 Repairs to walls and fences

Coal disbursements

45 1 0

665 3 4 £97,234 10 1 Stationary engine and tunnel

Cartage (Manchester)

2,988 6 2 Charge for direction

289 16 0 disbursements, (Coal, £302 Expenses.

Compensation (coaching)

26 3 10 6 5--Engine and brakesAdvertising account

6 10 0
men's wages, £319 11 24

Compensation (carrying) 645 60 Bad debt account 374 10 1

Coach office establishment
Repairs, gas, oil, tallow, &c
£419 15 5-New rope for

(Agents' and clerk's sala(Guards and porters'

tunnel, £266 3 6)

1,307 16 6

ries, £615 1 11-Rent and wages, £1168 4 6–

678 3 0 Tax and rale

taxes £63 1 1).

3,409 110 Parcel carts, horse

Smiths' and joiners'

Engineering department

352 10 0 keep, and drivers'

Interest wages, £718 19 7–

5,546 40 wages, £361 17


r Coke and carting: Materials for repairs,

&c. £700 71---Cord

1,611 03

£2882 11 4-Wages to 1 £689 12 6-Men's

age, paint, &c. £285

coke fillers and water. I wages, repairing,

2-Canvass for sheets

ing engines, £386 19 5 £1041 1 3-Gas, oil,

7,133 16 9
£163 6 5

-Gas, oil, tallow, tallow, cordage, &c.

Cartage (Liverpool)

80 17 10 hemp, &c. 881 18 4 £196 4 11–Duty on

Law disbursement

300 39 -Copper and brass passengers, £3224 11

tubes, iron, timber, &c. 11-Stationery and

£56,350 9 for repairs, £4140 19 6

15,641 17 10 petty expenses, £277

-Men's wages for re4 5–Taxes on offi

Neit profit for six months £40,854 8 4 pairing, £5432 8 8– ces, stations, &c.

Dividend per share of £ 100 4 10 0 £116 08-Guards'

Enginemen and fire-
Nelt profit on Sunday travel.

men's wages, £836 14 clothes, £54 15 0.

ling per share of £100

0 5 3 3—A new engine, £700 Agents and clerks' Reserved fund formed in the

-Lathe engine, boiler salaries, £1728 16 9

six months

4,088 8 10 and fixing for repairing - Porters and

sheds and watering staHALF-YEAR ENDING 30TH JUNE, 1834. brakesmen's wages,

(tions, £380 6 4. horse keep,&c. £5006

Tons. Law disbursements

100 0 0 6 10-Gas, oil, talMerchandise between Liverpool

Wages and small low, cordage, &c. and Manchester


materials, £4221 2 5 £529 17 0-Repairs To and from different parts of

-Stone, blocks,sleepto jiggers, trucks, 8,627 17 0 the road, including Warring

ers, &c. £1482 18 7 stations, &c. £366 9

ton and Wigan


-New rails and 9,550 17 5 11-Stationery and Between Liverpool, Manchester

chairs, points, crosspetty expenses, £429

and Bolton

19,633 ings, &c. £3153 14 5 5 1–Taxes and inCoal to Liverpool and Manches

-Ballast and leadsurance on offices,


46,069 ing, £493 20 &c. £456 17

Number of passengers booked Sacks for grain, £110 at the Company's offices .

Office establishment (salaries,

3 10.
Number of trips of 30 miles

£819 14 4–Rent and taxes,
&58 8 0)

877 2 4 Coal disbursements

82 09
performed by the locomotive



engines with passengers Cartage (Manchester)

1,016 18 1 3,173 18 0

Petty disbursements
Ditto with merchandise

60 00 Charge for direction 812 180


363 11 11 Compensation (coaching) 142 48


Stationary engine and tunnel Compensation (carrying) [223 10 11 Coaching department £50,770 16 11 disbursements, (Coal, £327




Wagon dis-


12 1-Engine and brakes

The light itself, and the combustion to pro-|| the second 140 ; thus one is capable of givmen's wages, £385 70

duce it, could be placed above the shati, in ing the same quantity as 290 Argaud burn. Repairs, gas, oil, tallow,

tho open air. Ir, however, from mechani-ers, and the other as much as 140. &c. £273 11 l)

986 10 2 cal difficulties, such as obstructing parts in The term Bude Light has no application Tax and rate

1,778 16 10||the way of its passage down the shatt, it is to the peculiar manner in which it is pro(Smiths' and joiners'

possible that the light might be placed induced !-It is a term simply used to distinwages, £773 3 8

some safe part of the mine itself, where guish it. Iron, timber,

tire-damp is never found, and from thence From what is it derived ?-It is produced £729 12 4--Cordage,

1,851 15 21 be reflecied and refracted through the va- || by striking nacent carbon, evolved in the paint, &c. £109 19 2

rious parts of the mine. I have inade ex-combustion of oil, resin, or similar bodies, -Canvass for sheets,

periments with this view, and have found with oxygen gas. £240 00

lighi capable of being retlected, in various You have spoken of difficulties in the inRepairs to walls and fences 664 011/ directions, with simple and inexpensive re-troduction of ihis new system of lighting Cartage (Liverpool)

SO 17 6 flectors; the first reflection requires a true in the mines of this country; apply your

parabolic reflector, but afierwards plain and nuind for a moment to the difficulties which £60,092 15 11 simple surfaces will do. Possibly, the whole mightjarise in the mines not having above

mine and galleries may be all lit by a single two or three feet depth of seam?-I think Net profit for six months £34,691 16 4 light, if not very extensive; but if seven such difficulties are to be overcome by inDividend per share of £100

4 10 0 lights of the first order be placed in the folexpensive boring or widening to admit the Nest profit on Sunday travel

cus of seven true 12 inch parabolas, and light to pass ; in such a dritt a stream of ling per share of £100

0 5 2 | arranged within a circle of 3 feet diameter, light, highly concentrated, of six inches di.

which they may be, I firmly believe one of ameter, would be ample, and whether it the longest mines might be most effectually passed by the side or the top of the gallery,

liglated in every gallery. No one can judge it matters not. A large quantity of light, From the immense mass of testimony, of the power and management of this liglie by simple means, might be concentrated in collected by the Select Committee of the who has not seen it, or possibly conceive such case, and passed along such an openIlonse of Commons on Accidents in Mines, its practicability to the subject before using, and afterwards diverged in larger galwe have selected the following article in I need not go into explanation of the man-leries, if such was indispensable. These

ner of doing it. The Committee will rerelation to a novel and ingenious method of member thai, as the angle of reflection is tee will find other persons more capable of

are points upon which I think the Commitlighting, not only mines, but all places | always equal to the angle of incidence, we giving information on than myself. where actual exposure of fame to the ai- may throw the light in whatever direction Supposirg a light is required to be in a mosphere, might be productive of danger.

we please ; by this means we may turn it straight line for a mile, there would be on

round a corner at right angles, or in any difficulty in obtaining a sufficient light at the ous explosions or conilagrations.

angles suited to the drifts the mine happens terminus ?- The light at the distance of a | We recollect a domestic application of 10 be cut into. The practical difficulties mile would enable you to read the smallest this method, that was ingenious enough in connected with this plan chiefly, I conceive, print. If it is reflected two or three times its operation.

are those arising from obstructions in the in that distance through a circuitous pas.

galleries : oue, for instance, is the air.doors, sage, you would lose very little. if you use A gentleman had lost a knife of some which are necessarily used for ventilation ; good reflpetors made of speculam metal. value, at the bottom of a very deep well. || there is no difficulty, however, in such case The quantity of light lost by such reflection By means of a large mirror, he reflected in placing a piece of plate-glass in some is very trifling. the sun's rays to the bottom of the well, I particular part of the door, so as to admit The question related to the casting of

the passage of the light through it, or a light upon one object at the distance named? and immediately discovered the position of second light may be brought in an opposite so I have answered it; it is of little con. the knife. A magnet, attached to a line, was direction; again, if the galleries are so low sequence whether it be straight a-head, or let down upon it, and brought up the knife that there is not room for the light, coal at ihe end of a curved or angular gallery. with it. We have not unfrequently used wagons or miners, to pass together, it is In case that light is then to be divided into this method of illumination, when in search possible so to widen them, or enlarge them,fifiy different directions, so as to suit differ

that there would be a sufficient space for a ent galleries, what would be the conseof some small article in an obscure corner sufficient quantity of light to pass; it may quence as regards the terminus ?-The reof a dark closet.

be passed through very small openings by sult would be, that the light would simply

strong concentration, and afterwards di- be reduced fisty times in quantity ; it would MR. GOLDSWORTHY GURNEY'S SAFETY verged as may be necessary.

be divided into filly portions; it would then METHOD OF LIGHTING MINES.

Would it not be attended with great ex- be still stronger than the strongest Argand (From the Minutes of Evilence taken before the Se

burners; and I beg to be understood as lect Commillee of the House of Commons on Accidents in Mines.)

Less than the ordinary mode?-I am not meaning the Argand burner used on the

prepared to say exactly, but I think it would tables of private families, not the little oil Has it ever occurred to you to consider not be more expensive than the presentburner of the safety-lamp. I will make an whether mines might be lit under such cir- mode. In case the light is not required to observation here which may be important, cumstances is to do away with the neces- be very great, I think a light of less inten- | namely, the stream of light may be sent sity of the moveable lamp?—The subject|sity might be used, with advantage, that throngh the various galleries, and when it has been one which I have lately considered would be less expensive than the present arrives at the situation where the men are a good deal, in conseqence of being engaged oil-lamps. A very simple but powerful working, every man, with a little reflector again in experiments of a similar kind to ligiit, is about to be adopted by the Trinity or refractor, as may be determined on, may those of 1822 ; I have recently made a se- Board for light. houses, which, by way of take that portion of light which may be in. ries of experiments for the Trinity House distinction, and in reference to the place tended for him, and no more, from the on artificial light; and the results of these where it was discovered, has been called great stream, and thus limit him the quan. experiments, and observations connected the “ Bude Light.” This ligh: produces antity of light that he may abstract from the withi then, induce me to believe it possible intensity 140 times that of the present Ar-stream; which portion he may at pleasure to light coal mines withont taking flame at gand burner; this light, therefore, may be direct wherever be pleases on the work all into mines: In a few words, I will state, used where the ramifications of the mine, before him; so that instead of a lamp, he that I think it capable of being done by re or greater extent, does not require the first would work with a little diverging refertur, flected light. In these experiments I found order, namely, the lime light. In some or refractor, which he would carry'in his artificial light may be produced, so intense cases, the light from the common Arzand pocket, perhaps of the size of half-a-crown. that when placed in the focus of a paraboli- burner, placed in a parabolic reflector, may Do you not think that the experiments of cal reflector, it will throw a distinct shadow be sufficient, and in that case it certainly scientific nen miglit be better 'made in the at the distance of eleven miles. Now, as would be cheaper. I am of opinion, frominines themselves, than they could be in light is capable of being concentrated, re. the experimenis and investigations made at their own laboratory !-Certainly; if a prin. flected, and retracted in any angles, or in the Trinity House, that the light from lime ciple is established, it rests as a matter of any direction, or in any quantities, I think and also the Bude Light,is less expensive mechanical detail, or of mechanical situa. it possible that such light may be reflected than that of the ordinary light, taking quantion and position, to know whether it can into mines, subdiv ded, and passed through tity and intensity into account, which mayor cannoi be applied, practically, with ad. the galleries, in sufficient quantities and be sub-divided io equal intensity with the vantage. Sir George Cayley informns me intensity as to enable miners to work far first; the intensity of the one is 290 times that he used the principle of reflection 10 better than by lamps of any description. greater than the other, and the intensity of throw daylight to sume mieu wlio were


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