Lapas attēli

ms PD


ms PD


ton in the case of that engine was 46 lbs. Igine, with the above-mentioned proportions || the circumference of the wheel to twice the per square inch; and we have also seen is able, if in a good condition and with a stroke, thus the speed of the engine is that, in consequence of that resistance, the well-animated fire, to draw a load of 100 t., total pressure of the steam, when arriving tender included, with a velocity of 21, miles

Rd? / in the cylinder, was also necessarily 46 lbs. an hour. per square inch.

The same mode of calculation may serve or, putting for R its value found above, and The mass of water evaporated is 41.87 for any other load or any other engine. passing from the speed per minute to the cubic feet per hour, or 0.70 cubic feet per Thus, in general, making again use of the speed per hour, in multiplying by 60, minute. This water is immediately trans- letters already employed in our research of

V=60 formed, in the boiler, into steam, at the the resistance on the piston, viz.

(F+M+nM) D+pd' effective pressure of 50 lbs. per square inch M representing the number of tons of

It must be remarked that 60 8 equal or at the total pressure of 65 lbs. per square the load. inch.

n the resistance of the load per ton.

to S, or the evaporating power per hour; But we know the volume of the steam

that is to say, that by employing this value

F the friction of the engine without load. generated under a determined pressure. its additional friction for each to of the and the reckoning will be simplificd in its

it is no longer necessary to multiply by 60, Tables of that volume have been formed load. from experiment, and one will be found be


D the diameter of the wheel. low, $ 11. According to these tables, the

The formula will then be,

d the diameter of the cylinder. steam, generated under a total pressure of

m PSD I the length of the stroke.

V= 65 lbs. per square inch, occupies 435 times And p the atmospheric pressure per unit

[F+(8+n)M]D+pdel the space of the water which produced it. of surface.

This will consequently be the general Thus the water transformed into steam at the total pressure of 65 lbs. per square


expression of the velocity of the engine per

R=(F+0M+nM) inch, and spent each minute in the motion,

hour; expression in which everything is dol

known by measures taken on the engine, formed a volume of

will be the pressure of the steam per unit even the evaporating power S, which results 0.70 c. ft. X 435 = 304 cubic feet. of surface in the cylinder as above demon- from the extent of the heating surface comThis steam, penetrating into the cylin-strated (Chap V. Art. II.)

puted as above. m, which is the volume ders, is then reduced to a pressure of 46 lbs.

If, besides,

of the steam generated under the pressure Its temperature, however, remains the same,

P express the total pressure of the steam in P, is found in a table like the one below

the boiler; because the pipes that conduct it to the

(Chap. V. Art. V. $ 11.) cylinders and the cylinders themselves are

s, The effective evaporating power of the By means of this formula, and by measimmersed in the boiler, or surrounded by engine expressed by the number of cubicures simply taken on the engine, it will the flame that comes out of the fire-place. feet the boiler is able to evaporate in a therefore be easy to determine immediately We know that the space occupied by the minute at the pressure P,

the effect we may expect from it. steam, when its temperature remains the

And m the ratio of the volume of steam, In that expression, the evaporating power same, augments in an inverse ratio to the at the degree of pressure P, to the volume S being expressed in cubic feet the resulting pressure. At the moment it arrives in thel of water,

speed will also be expressed in feet. If we cylinders, that same mass of steam occu

wish to have it in miles, as a mile contains pies consequently a greater space in the

2580 ft., it will be sufficient to divide by that proportion of 65 to 46.

will be the total volume of steam generated number, and the result will be the speed of Thus its total volume is then

in a minute at the pressure P of the boiler. | the engine in miles per hour.

The steam, arriving in the cylinder passes 65

We shall see further on that the produce 304 x 430 cubic feet. from the pressure P to the pressure R, and mP is almost invariable; and consequently 46

changes its volume in an inverse ratio to the we learn by the inspection of this formula, Now, the area of the two cylinders is

pressures ; so that 190 square inches or 1.32 square foot ;

that the velocity of an engine with a given thus the above volume of 430 cubic feet of


lead increases with the heating surface and R

the diameter of the wheel, and diminishes, steam, passing through the cylinders in a ininute, must necessarily cross them with is the space occupied by the steam when

on the contrary, when the diameter of the a volocity of arrived in the cylinders.

cylinder and the stroke of the piston aug

ment. 430

This volume of steam, crossing the cyl326 feet


minute. 1.32

inders in a minute, if we divide it by the § 2. Analytical expression of the Load

area of the cylinders, we shall have the that an Engine can draw at a given which gives us, consequently, the velocity speed it must necessarily have, and conse

Velocity. of the piston in feet per minute with the

quently the velocity it will communicate to supposed load.

If, on the contrary, we wish to know the the piston. To deduce from that the speed of the

load a given engine can draw at a deter

Now the area of the two cylinders is mined speed, it is sufficient, in the foregcing engine in miles per hour, we must observe that an hour contains 60 minutes, and thus | #do; thus the velocity per minute will be, equation, to consider V as known and to that the speed per hour will be 60 times as

draw from it the unknown quantity M. great ; a mile containing 5280 ft., the pro

It will then be,

επd R duce must be divided by that number in In order to effect that division, the area of

F m PSD-pd21 V

M= order to have the speed expressed in miles;

(0 +n VD

sen and finally the speed of the engine, accord the cylinders ought necessarily to be exing to the proportion of the stroke to the pressed in units similar to those of the vol

After the manner that the calculation has diameter of the wheel, is 5.887 times that

The area of the cylinders must be been established, it is clear that the value

then expressed in square feet and not in we shall find for M, will be the number of We shall consequently have

inches; and the same condition is conse- tons of the total load, that is to say, tender

quently required also for R, P, and p. So included. 326 X 60 X5.837=21.83 miles, velocity of in the calculation we must express the


sures in lbs. per square foot, which putz $ 3. Of the Heating Surface that must be the engine per hour. them at the same rate as if expressed in the

adopted to obtain from an Engine a deThus we see that the evaporation sup- usual manner.

termined Velocity with a given Load. posed above, must necessarily produce a Passing from this exprossion to the velo The same equation may also serve to velocity of 214 miles per hour for tho en-city of the engino, we know that it is to the determino any one of the indeterminato gn:; that is to say, that a locomotivo, en velocity of the piston in the proportion of quantities in the general problem of loco.

m X 8

ms x

ms P


of the piston.




motive engines. Thus, for instance, it will ||tion of the velocity of the engine to that of||tion will, in that case, give for the diamet show the extent of heating surface, or the the piston, the result will naturally be the of the wheel evaporating power necessary to enable an relative speed of the engine. engine to draw a known load at a fixed We also see that in the case of a maxi


(P-p.da 1 speed. For that, we have only to draw mum load, the pressure of the steam in the

(8+n) M+F from the general equation the value of S. cylinder will be the same as in the boiler,

It is understood that this method can It will be,

and that its velocity will be the very veloc-only succeed within certain limits, and that V [18+) MDnF D +p da l].

ity at which the steam is generated in the the diameter of the wheel cannot be reduced S =

boiler; results which besides are, of them- beyond certain dimensions, fixed by the m PD

selves, evident to an attentive mind, and other requisites of the business. The result thus obtained will be the ef- which have already been pointed out. fective evaporating power of the engine in

$ 9. Of the effective Pressure necessary in

In regard to the limit of speed with small cubic feet of water per hour; and as we loads, the engine-men never urge it so as

the Boiler of an Engine, the Dimensions have seen (Chap. V. Art. IV. 93) that the to risk an accident, by too great a velocity

of which are already fired, in order that effective evaporating power is equal to 16 in tho motion of the piston, or other parts

the Engine may draw a certain Maxi

mum Load. of the heating surface expressed in square of the mechanism. Only one single infeet, we shall easily obtain the last by mul- stance, in the experiments we shall relate

Finally, if the length of the stroke, the tiplying the result by the fractional num- below, will be found, in which the engines diameter of the cylinders, and that of the

attained a speed of 35 miles an hour. This wheel are already fixed, we may calculate $ 4. Of the Maximum Load of an En- velocity is the greatest that has been ob- what is the pressure that must be produced

gine with a given Pressure. served, until the present moment, except in the boiler to enable the engine to attain We found above ($ 2) the expression of during some extremely short intervals. the maximum load required. The same the load an engine is able to draw at a giv- When the train is too light, the engine-men equation resolved in that case, in regard to en velocity; and the less the velocity, the take care partially to shut the regulator, the quantity P considered as unknown, more considerable may be the load.

and not to animate the fire to its highest gives must, however, add that in all cases, for pitch, as we shall mention hereafter.

D[(8+n)M+F]. the motion to be possible, the resistance on $ 6. Of the Diameter that ought to be giv

d'1 the piston must not be greater than the force en to the Cylinder, to render an Engine

This pressure will be expressed, accordthat is to move it. Consequently, the re capable of attaining a fixed Marimum ing to the adopted measures, in pounds per sistance we have expressed by R must, at


square foot, but, by taking the ti part of it, most, be equal to P. This observation

we may reduce it to the usual expression fixes the limits of the possible load, with a concluded above ($ 4) the limit of possible

The same equation from which we have of pounds per square inch. determined pressure. Beyond that point loads with a given pressure, may

The same would take place in regard to

also serve the equation may continue to give results, to determine the diameter that ought to be easily found ;-we shall not stop any longer


other research. These deductions are but they will no longer suit the question, given to the cylinders of an engine to ren on this point. It is scarcely necessary to The limit of the load with the pressure Pder it capable of drawing a fixed load at a add, that the values given by those equawill thus be known by the equation R=P;


tions are only applicable to the questions, D [F + (8 + n) M]

d=/D[(8+n) M+F]. in as far as they are not in opposition to the d? +p=P,


practical rules of construction. Thus, the This diameter will be expressed in feet, pressure determined above must in no case (P-pd1


according to the manner the calculation was exceed the resistance of which the metal of

made. It will be easily reduced to the the boiler is capable ; neither must the di(6 + n) D common expression in inches.

ameter of the wheel be large enough to put This equation will give the maximum

the engine in danger in going off the rails, load' of the engine, including the weight of $ 7. Of the Length that ought to be given nor small enough to destroy its speed, &c. the tender, subservient, however, to the to the Stroke of the Piston of an Engine, &c. conditions of adhesion explained hereafter, the Cylinders of which have already a in Chap. VIII.

fixed Diameter, so as to enable that Én- | $ 10. Synoptical Table of the preceding $5. Of the Velocity of the Engine corresgine to draw a certain Maximum Load.

Formula. ponding with the Maximum Load.

In the same manner, also, if the diameter In a view to facilitate practical researchPutting that value of M in the formula of the cylinder has already been chosen ones, we shall collect here those different forthat gives the speed, we have the speed account of some other consideration, we formulæ into a table. corresponding with the maximum load. may, in a certain degree, produce the same The signs employed having the following After the necessary reductions we find effect; that is to say, render the engine significations, viz. :

m S D V=

able to attain the maximum load required, M, representing the number of gross tons d'I

by adopting for the stroke of the piston a of the load, tender included. If we write this expression under the fol- suitable length. In that case the equation |n, the resistance per ton of the load, or aclowing formgives

cording to the determination already

made, n = 8 lbs. V

I-D[(+n) M+F] **d?

F, the friction of the engine without load,

(P-p) d? we shall perceive at first sight, that it is

taken, according to the average of the exactly the speed produced by the

This measure of the stroke will be ex above experiments, in case the engine is

passage in the cylinders of the steam of the boiler, pressed, according to the adopted meas not yet constructed ; that is to say, at when that steam undergoes no reduction

ures, in feet and decimals of feet; one may 15 lbs. per ton of its presumed weight. m S transform it, as usual, in inches.

In case the engine is already constructed, of pressure. In fact,

and one wishes to obtain a very accurate § 8. Of the Diameter thal ought to be giv. of steam produced at the pressure of the

en to the Wheel of an Engine, so as to

result, F must be determined by a direct boiler, divided by the area of the two cyl

enable it to draw a fixed Maximum Load. || , the additional friction of the engine per

experiment made on the engine itself. inders ; that is to say, the speed which its

We may also obtain the same result by passage in the cylinders, without alteration, reducing, in a suitable proportion, the di

ton of load, or according to the determin

ation hereabove, 0 = 1 lb.; and, conseproduces for the piston; and multiplying ameter of the wheel, by which the speed of

quently, (8 + 1) = 9 lbs. that quantity by -which is the the engine will be diminished, and a great-i D, the diameter of the wheel, expressed in



er power of traction given to it. The equa feet.


which gives


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is the mass

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square foot.

d, the diameter of the cylinder, also ex lected, that the reduced heating surface We must remark that these formulæ ar

pressed in feet and decimals of feet. itself consists of the sum of the heating not such as are called empiric ones ; tha 1, the length of the stroke, in feet and deci surface of the fire-place, more the third is to say, imaginary suppositions, corresmals of feet.

part of the heating surface of the tubes.),ponding more or less exactly with experiP, the total pressure (or atmospheric pres- ||m, being the ratio of the volume of the ence. They are, on the contrary, rigorous

sure included) of the steam in the boiler, steam at the total pressure P, to the vol-deductions from the most solid principles expressed in pounds per square foot ; ume of water that has produced it, accord- of mechanics; their elements have been that is to say, 144 times the pressure per ing to the known tables, one of which determined by direct experiments, and their square inch

will be found in one of the following par-results will soon be confirmed in the same p, the atmospheric pressure expressed in agraphs.

way. pounds per square foot as above, that is V, finally, being the velocity of the engine

In all cases, these formulæ suppose the to say, p=2117 lbs. ; and, consequently in feet per hour, that velocity being ne- engine drawing its load on a dead level. If ( PP), the effective pressure of the steam in the boiler, being expressed in

cessarily expressed in that manner for it be required to apply them to the case of the same manner, viz., in pounds per

the general harmony of the calculation ; an inclined plane, it will suffice to take for but as a mile contains 5280 feet, it can M, not the nominal load of the engine, but

easily be reduced to the speed in miles, its real load ; that is to say, not merely the S, being the effective evaporating power of

and vice versa.

resistance of the wagons, but their resistthe engine per hour, or otherwise, accord These different signs being thus well un-ance in ascending the inclined plane in ing to

described experiments, S being derstood, and the letters n and 8 being re- question, as will be seen in Chap. VII. Art. the iss of the number of square feet in the placed by their values, 8 lbs. and 1 lb., the II. reduced heating surface. (It will be recol-formulæ above give the following table :- $ 11. Table of the Volume of the Steam

generated under different degrees of Pressure, necessary for the application of the Formula.

The use of the formulæ we have obtained, necessitating a knowledge of the volume of the steam at different degrees of pressure, we subjoin here a table which we have calcuted from 5 to 5 lbs. pressure.

The intermediate degrees may be easily filled up; but it would be an unnecessary operation, as we shall see that the pressure in the boiler has so little influence on the speed, that we may, in our calculations, take from the table the pressure nearest to the one we require, provided we also take the volume corresponding with that approximate pressure.

The reason of the little influence the pressure has on the result is, that in proportion as the pressure augments, the volume of the steam diminishes, so that the produce mP, that the equation contains, remains constant for such values of P as are very near to each other. We shall very shortly be witnesses of the fact, which will be explained in the calculation we shall make of the velocity of the engine at different pressure.




! V[(9 M+F)D+pdal]

m PD

(F +9 M)D+pda i V=

m PSD-pd? I V


D (9 M+F);



9 D

d=D (9M+F).


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(P-p) da

(P – p) da 1 Me 9 M+F:

(P –'p)=

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Total Pressure expressed.||

Volume of Correspond- the steam ing tempera- compared to

ture by the volume In Ibs. per In atmos

Fahrenheit's of the water pheres. thermometer that pro

duced it.

square inch.!


1. Velocity which an Engine of known proportions will take, when working at a given

The result being the speed in feet per hour, the speed in miles will be obtained by di.

pressure, and drawing a determined load.
2. Load that a given Engine will be able to draw, with a known pressure, and at a de-

This lead will be expressed in gross tons, tender included :-
3. Heating Surface that must be given to the boiler of an Engine, in order that it may
The equation gives the effective evaporating power per hour, from which the heating

surface may be deduced by multiplying by the fractional number 10 :-
4. Maximum load that an Engine is able to draw at a determined pressure.

draw a known load with a fixed velocity.
This load is expressed in gross tons, and includes the tender :-
5. Velocity of an Engine, with its maximum load.

This speed being expressed in feet, the speed per mile will be its zz'to part :-
6. Diameter that must be given to the cylinder of an Engine not yet constructed, in order
The diameter being expressed in feet and decimals of feet, its expression in inches will

that, if necessary, it may draw a certain maximum load.
7. Length of stroke of the Piston that may replace the diameter of the cylinder and pro.

This stroke will be expressed in feet, and may be transformed into inches, as above :-
8. Diameter of the wheel of an Engine, in order to render it able to draw the same maxi-
9. Effective pressure that must be produced in the boiler of a given Engine, in order to
This pressure being expressed in pounds per square foot, the pressure per inch will be
render that Engine capable of drawing a certain maximum load.
duce the same effect of maximum load.
be found in multiplying by 12:—
viding by 5280:-
termined velocity.
muin load :-
its ir

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- I foot

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$ 12. Of the combined Proportions that ought|| 1254

= 139 t. on a dead level.
to be given to the parts of an Engine, in

Tlit surmuwi be 13 x =143 square, iak.

9 order that it may fulfil several conditions at ||of resistance occasioned by the nchina son Finally, this letgondition will be fulthe same time.

of the plane is, therefore, equai to the irac-Slied by giving, for instance, to the fireWe have given, above, separate from tion of 139 t. on a level. Consequentiy place a heating surface of 50 square fett, each other, the different practical formulæ the total traction on the rising sind will and to the tubes a swfuce of 280 square

fet. of locomotion; but we may also combinebe 139 t. + 100 t. 239 t. those formulæ with one another. To give

This example indicates sufficiently the an example of this, and at the same time || clined plane will be

Thus, in this case, the load on the in- manner in which the calculation is to be a practical application of the results ob- And the load on the dead level V" = 100 t. other combination that might occur. Evi

M' = 239 t. made. It would be the same with any tained hitherto, we shall suppose that it is

The engine being supposed to weigh tently, nothing is required but to bring drawing a certain given maximum load, ||.:2 t., with coupled wheels, will have a fric. together the different equations concerning drawing a certain given maximum load, || tion of about 180lbs. If, besides, we suppose the different, unknown quantities, and to and, at the same tiine, capable of attaining it to have a wheel of 5 feet, with a stroke of express that they exist simultaneously a certain speed, with another load also 16 in. or 1.33 ft.; and if we wish the effecknown,

tive In this case we inay determin the di

pressure (P

-p) in the boiler, during the ascent, not to exceed 60 lbs. per square

ARTICLE VI. ameter of the cylinder, according to the first condition; and the heating surface of inch, or, in other words, 8640 lb 3. per squar

GARLES OF THE PROPORTIONS the boiler according to the second. Lele foot, the first equation will give, for the di

AND ECTS OF THE ENGINES. ameter of the cylinderting, therefore, M' be the given maximum

* A Praciicuble Table of the Diameter of load, M" the second load mentioned above,

5 (9 x 239 + 180)

the Cylinder and Prog 1,240p of Steam, neand V" the velocity of the engine corres

8640 X 1.33

Goster y do trable a L com tive Engine to ponding with that second load, we shall

Mr 120 11 g - Narimm Load. have simultaneously the two following Thus the cylinder must have 1 ft. or 12;

We :1p rust Calculaird, in a special equations :-(See § 6 and 3.) in. in diameter.

case, the dialeler necessary for the cylinD (9 M' + F)

This value must be introduced in the der of an engine working at a given presd=. (P-pl

second equation with the other data of the sure, so that it may draw a certain maxi

problem. Observing, moreover, that dur-Imum load. In continuing the same calcuand

ing the journey one may reduce the effec-lation through a series of different cases, V" [(9 XM" + F) + D p dal] tive pressure in the boiler to 50 lbs. (or 65 after the formula 6, we form the following (m PD)

lbs. total pressure) per square inch, which practical table, which will show either the The first equation will give the diameter gives for the corresponding volume of the diameter of the cylinder when the pressure of the cylinder ; and then, introduced in steam m =435 (see the table given in the is given, or the pressure in the boiler, when the second equation, it will fix the wanted preceding paragraph,) the second equation it is the diameter of the cylinder which is value of s. will give

determined, or, finally, the maximum load This case is evidently that of a railway

when the two other data are fixed beforeon which it would be required that the

S=20 X 5280 (900+180) 5+2117 x 1x1.33

= 42.65 435 X (65 X 144) X5

hand. average trains should have on a level a cer

It must be understood that the engines tain regular speed, and that, at the same time, By which we see that the effective evap-' will not be able to draw the loads marked the engines might ascend with those trains,orating power S of the engine must be 43 in the table, unless the rails' are in such a and without any extra help, an acclivity cubic feet of water per hour. And, as we state as to offer a sufficient adhesion to the occurring on a point of the road. know, by the experiments related above, wheels; without which condition, the

Let us then suppose that it is wanted to that the effective power is equal to 1s of movement could not be effected, as will be build an engine with coupled wheels, ca- the reduced heating surface, this surface "explained in Chap. VIII. pable of drawing a train of 100 gross tons, A PRACTICAL TABLE OF THE DIAMETER OF THE CYLINDER AND PRESSURE OF STEAM at a speed of 20 miles an hour on a dead

CORRESPONDING TO GIVEN MAXIMUM LOADS. level; and that it is required, at the same time, that that engine be able to ascend

load in Diameter of the Cylinder, in inches, the without extra aid, and with the same load DESCRIPTION OF THE ENGINE.

pressure per square inch in the Boiler (reducing, however, its speed,) a plane in


tender clined in the proportion of zdo.

55 lbs. 60 lbs. 65 lbs. 70 lbs. We know that an engine working upon a level undergoes, from its load, a certain

Engine with wheel
5 ft. 100 8.8 8.4 8.0 7.7

7.4 degree of resistance, which proceeds from Stroke of the piston 16 in. or 1.33 ft. 125

9.2 8.8 8.5 8.2 the friction of the wagons; but in going

150 10.5 10.0


8.9 up an inclined plane, the load presents not Weight

175 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.9 9.5 only that same friction of the wagons, but

or presumed friction 120 lbs. 200 12.0 11.5 11.0 10.5 10.2 also a surplus of resistance proceeding from

225 12.7 12.1 11.6 (11.1 10.7 the tendency of the train to roll back

250 13.4 | 12.7 | 12.2 (11.7 | 11.3 towards the foot of the plane. The force

5 ft.

200 12.2 11.6 11.1 110.7 10.3 that draws the train backwards, depends Engine with wheel

225 Stroke of the piston, 16 in. or 1.33 ft.

12.9 12.3 11.8 11.3 10.9 on the weight of the train and on the in

250 clination of the plane. It is the gravity

13.5 12.9 12.3 11.9 11.4 Weight,

12 tons.

275 14.1 13.5 12.9 12.4 11.9 along the plane, and is equal to the mass

180 lbs. or presumed friction

300 14.7 | 14.0 13.4 12.9 12.4 that is to be moved, divided by the number

325 15.3 14.6 14.0 13.4 12.9 that marks the inclination of the plane.

350 15.8 15.1 14.4 13.9 13.4 On an inclination of zov, the gravity of a weight of 112 t., which is the weight of Engine with wheel

5 ft. 200 11.5 / 10.9 10.5 10.0 9.7 the train and engine together, is in pounds. Stroke of the piston 18 in. or 1.50 ft. 225 12.1 11.5 11.0 10.6 10.2 112 x 2240

250 12.7 | 12.1 11.6 11.1 10.7 = 1254 lbs. Weight

11 tons. 200


11.6 13.3 12.7 12.1

11.2 or presumed friction Now, 1254 lbs.. at the rate of 9 lbs. per

165 lbs. 300

11.7 13.8 13.2 12.6 12.1 325


14.4 | 13.0 13.1 ton (including the increase of friction in


350 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.6 the engine,) represents the resistance of




50 lbs.








8 tons.

3 ft.



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19.0 22.8 AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL, AND 52. A Practical Table of the length of use, the following table is formed, which length of stroke of the piston and diameter

Stroke of the Piston, and Diameter of will show, at first sight, either the length of the wheel.
Wheel, necessary to enable an Engine to of stroke of the piston, or the diameter of
draw a fixed Maximum Load at a given the wheel which an engine ought to have, $ 3. A Practical Table of the Area of Heal-

for it to draw a maximum load at a given ing Surface capable of producing a given In solving the formula $ 7, in a series of pressure; or, again, the maximum loads cases adapted to the engines the most incorresponding to given dimensions for the


In order to faciliate practical researches, OF WHEEL, CORRESPONDING TO GIVEN MAXIMUM LOADS.

we shall extend, to a certain number of the

most ordinary cases, the calculation of the Maximum Length of Stroke, in inches, the diame | determined effects.

heating surface capable of producing preDescription of 1 he Engine.

load in gross ter of the wheel being
tons, tender

The table which we are thus going to
4 ft.
5 ft. 6 ft. form after the formula in § 3, may serve,

not only to determine the heating surface

in. in. in. in. Engine with cylinders

or 0.917 ft. 150

11.7 14.6 17.5

capable of producing desired effects, but 8 tons. 175 10.1 13.4 16.8 20.2

also the velocity of given loads, when the or presumed fried

200 11.4 15.2

heating surface is already determined. Effective pressure jen "sq.

225 13.8 17.0 21.3 25.5

The table supposes the engine working inch in the boiler

50 Ds.
250 14.1 18.8 23.5 28.2 at 50 lbs. effective pressure, per square

inch, in the boiler. Ås, however, the presEngine with cylinders 12 in. or 1 ft.

200 9.8

13.0 16.3 19.5 Weight

sure has no perceptible influence on the 10 tons. 225 10.9 14.5 18 1 21.8

velocity, as will be seen hereafter, if the or presumed friction 150 lbs.

250 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 engine works at a higher pressure, it will Effective pressure per sq. 275 13.1 17.5 21.9 26.3

be able to attain a more considerable maxiinch in the boiler

50 lbs.
300 14.3 19.0 23.8 28.5

mum load; but for all the loads of the table, Engine with cylinders 13 in: or 1.083 ft.

it will, nevertheless, require the same heat

200 8.4 11.2 14.0 16.8 Weight

ing surface in order to produce the same 11 tons. 225 9.3 12.5 15.6 18.7

velocity. In consequence, the table may or presumed friction 165 lbs.

250 10.3 13.7 17.2 20.6 Effective pressure per sq.

serve for any pressure, either above or be

275 11.3 15.0 18.8 22.5 inch in the boiler

low 50 lbs. The only difference will be in 50 lbs. 300 12.2 16.3

20.4 24.4

the maximum loads, which, agreeable to the 325 13.2 17.6


pressure, will be greater or smaller than
23.6 28.3

those fixed in the table. Engine with cylinders 14 in. or 1.166 ft. 250 8.9 11.9

14.9 17.9 By recurring to 10 of the preceding Weight

12 tons.
275 9.8


19.5 Article, it will be seen in what manner the or presumed friction 180 lbs.

300 10.6 14.1 17.7

21.2 area of heating-surface is to be compuEffective pressure per sq.

325 11.4 15.2 19.0

22.8 ted.
inch in the boiler

50 lbs.
350 12.3


375 13.1 17.4


26.2 400 13.9 18.5 23.2 27.8

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