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SATURDAY, MAY 21, 1836.

[VOLUME V.-No, 20


Persons offering to contract, who are unknown to|| will accomplish it, and thereby secure beJames River and Kanawha Canal; Notice to Con

the subscriber, or any of the Assistant Engineers, will yond the reach of competition, the control tractors ; Editorial Notices;. Ship Canal...... 305 be expected to accompany their proposals by the usual of the trade of the vast west.” That this Pambour on Locomotion, continued..... 306 | certificates of character and ability. Railroad to Cincinnati ; Íron Railroads in France 314

work is feasible, and at a moderate expense

CHARLES ELLET, Jr., · An Act to Incorporate the New York and Albany Railroad Company, with an Amendment..

in proportion to its importance, to the whole 315

Chief Engineer of the James River An Act to provide for the construction of a Rail

and Kanawha Company. Union, as well as the Ship Canal around the Puad from Attica to Buffalo....

319 Advertisements.......

320 Note.—The Dame, Guard-Locks, most of the Niagara Falls—no one can doubt, who has

Bridges, and a number of Locks and Culverts, are read the able report of engineer E. F. John

reserved for a future letting. Persons visiting the line son, (Assembly December, No. of 1835,) AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL.

for the purpose of obtaining work, would do well to or has had the opportunity to inspect the

call at the office of the Company in the city of Rich:|| maps, and scientific report of Capt. Wm. G. NEW-YORK, MAY 21, 1836. mond, where any information which they may desire Williams of the U. S. Top. Corps in re

will be cheerfully communicated. JAMES RIVER AND KANAWHA CANAL.-We The valley of James River, between Lynchburg | lation to the work around the Falls. Capt.

and Richmond, is healthy.

C. E. Jr. W. very justly considers it a national work ask the attention of our readers to the fol.

20—ta 18

of the first importance, for the defence of lowing advertisement of the James River

our frontiers connecting two inland seas and and Kanaroha Canal Company. There is a

the whole west, with the sea board. This fine opportunity for some of our enterprising

We continue in this number, PAMBOUR ON | work is now as much called for at the hands contractors.

LOCOMOTIVES ON Railroads. To Engineers of the present Congress, by memorials and NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS.

it needs no recommendation—nor will our

mechanical readers require much persua-|| petitions, as the Erie Canal was when first JAMES RIVER AND KANAWHA CANAL. || sion to induce them to read it.

projected, to open the trade with the interior PROPOSALS will be received at the Office of the

of this State—then more of a wilderness, James River and Kanawha Company, in the City of

than are now the new States of Ohio, Illi. Richmond, from the 15th to the 23rd day of August, New.YORK AND ALBANY RAILROAD.We nois, Indiana and Michigan. for the construction of all the Excavation, Embankment and Walling not now under contract, together

publish at length in this number of the Jour A glance at the map of the United States with nearly all the Culverts and the greater portion ofnal, the original and the amendment to the will dispell the idea that the enlargement of the Locks between Lynchburg and Maidens’ Adven-original, charter of this important Railroad. of the Erie Canal, to 7 feet by 70, with locks ture.

We also give the Attica and Buffalo, called 18 feet by 110, even were it practicable, The work now advertised embracc3 the twenty | the Pattern Bill, for the numerous charters without interruption to the trade upon it,miles between Columbia and the head of Maidens' || granted for Railroads by the late legisla. I can secure and retain to our great commerAdventure Pond, the eight miles between Seven Island Falls and Scottsville, and about twenty isolated cure. We shall take an early opportuity |cial centre of the Union, the rapidly increas. sections, reserved at the former letting, between of referring particularly to this charter. ing trade beyond our own State, even with Scottsville and Lynchburg.

the assistance of the Southern and North. The quantity of masonry offered is very great

ern line of Railroads. consisting of about two hundred Culverts of from three


The present barrier of the Niagara, can to thirty feet span; nine Aqueducts, thirty-five Locks a number of Wastes, with several farm and road||nications from the Hudson to the upper Williams, by 7} miles of canal, lockage 320

The importance of more ample commu- be overcome according to the report of Capt. Bridges.

General "plans and specifications of all the work,| Lakes, is daily claiming the attention of our feet, and at the cost of only $2,568,899. and special plans of the most important Culverts and own citizens and adjacent States. The Bal. This estimate is predicated on the calcula. Aqueducts, will be found at the offices of the several timore American noticing the projected Shiption, for a canal on the magnificent scale of Principal Assistant Engineers on the line of the Canal. Canal from Oswego, by Utica and the Mo-110 feet surface-locks of stone 200 feet

The work will be prepared for examination by the hawk to the Hudson says :25th July; but mechanics, well recommended, desir

long by 50 feet wide. This size, will carry ows of immediate employment, can obtain contracts

“ If this splendid project is feasible, and it through a frigate in ballast, and the largest for the construction of a number of Culverts at private is said by eminent engineers to be so, the class of steamboats, that floats. In the unlotting:

vigorous and enterprizing state of New.York fortunate event of a war with England,



steam frigates would be the only means of with the noble Ontario laying parallel || the engine, vary accordingly. But at preoffence and defence France has 15 afloat, to it.

sent they have nearly ceased to be used and 11 of 160 horse power building!! A The State of New York has a high duty on the railway; they scarcely ever underconsideration of the ntmost importance, to perform to this city, the West and the go any repairs, and none of them will figwhen we view the increase of steamboats on New-England States, who are our custom.

ure in our experiments. We need there.

fore not enter into any particulars concernthese inland seas, and their successful use ers, for ths of their breadstuff,—and give

ing them. as packets on our sea board from Main to us in return their manufactures in cotton, New Orleans. The entire tonnage of the produced from the slave labor of the South, || been constructed for the company, and of

Among the thirty-two engines that have Lakes, may be transferred, at the close of —it is by the immediate construction of the which thirty are still in their possession, navigation to the sea board, to cheapen the Ship Canal around the Falls of Niagara, there are transportation of our sugar, cotton, &c. and from Oswego by Utica to the Hudson,

2 of 14 inches, (diameter of the cylinder.) from the south, whilst 5 months loss of cap. | thereby to cheapen transporation so as to 4 of 12 do. ital in the schooner and ship capital on the draw upon the fertile West for additional 16 of 11 do. with a sixteen inch stroke. lakes will be saved, and a still more import-supplies of breadstuff and provisions. The 2 of 11 do. with an eighteen inch ant considertion gained, our fresh water experience of this and past years has taught

stroke. sailors will become able bodied seamen, not us the lesson, that the progress of Agricul The eight others are of inferior proporlaid up in ordinary during the winter, and|lure in the United States is behind Manu- tions, and rank in the fifth class which we fearful as they now to breast the factures and Commerce, that is, there are mentioned above. storms of the lakes at the risk of life and more engaged in the latter branches than They are all at the effective pressure of loss of cargo to enter any port. are supplied by the former, with all the ex- ||50 pounds per square inch on the boiler.

In proportion as we shall make use of The apathy with which many of our citi. ertions of our own State, at high prices, zens have viewed this subject, has surprized and great profits to the farmer, yet so inad- the engines, we shall state more particume. The extract from the Baltimore paper equate have been our supplies the last win-larly their names, weight and power. at the head of this article shows the import-| ter that we have actually had to resort to

$ 2. Of the expression of the power of Locoance of the Ship Canal, to the enterprizing Europe, for wheat, butter, rye, oats, pota

motive Engines. citizens of that State, who are so nobly con

toes, &c.!! tending with us for a part of the rich dowery

The Erie Canal has now been open for

It is by these dimensions that it is cusof the west. So far our State Legislature have more than a month, yet wheat and flour tomary to express the power of locomotive done nothing to investigate this subject and maintains prices that would pay a handsome steam-engines. We shall see in the course we are indebted to the persevering labors of profit on their importation from Europe and of this work, that to render that expression a few individuals for procuring the survey Canada !! even with the present objection complete, and really sufficient to show the

HARLÆM. tionable duties.

effect of the engine, under all circumstanby the general government around the Falls,

stances, two other elements ought still to as also the map profile. Estimates for the

be added to them, viz. the friction of the Ship Canal, from Oswego to Utica, dis


engine, and the evaporating power or extance 92 miles, 57 natural waters--at a

tent of heating surface of the boiler. How. cost of $

ever, such as they are, they give a toleraThe inap, profiles and estimates of this

bly exact idea of the power of locomotive

engines. work, with the able report of E. F. John.

ARTICLE II. son, Esq., Civil Engineer, now employed by

As to the mode used for stationary steamthe Erie Railroad Company, are placed in

engines, which consists in expressing their

power by the effect produced, and comparthe Exchange for the inspection of the pub

ing it to the work a horse would perform, it lic. There is little doubt, but that a canal $1. Of the Dimensions of the parts from || is easy to conceive such a mode which is 8 feet by 90 in continuation, from Utica which the power of the Engine is derived. very deficient in all cases, as we shall see, along the Mohawk to the Hudson,--say 100

is at all events not applicable to locomomiles,--can be executed within the cost of

Such is the construction of the locomo-|| tive engines, for the following reasons :four millions of dollars, and from Lake Erie tive engines employed on the Railway be 1. Because the power of a locomotive to the city of New-York, within the sum of have made use for our experiments of no residing in the steam; it depends also on

tween Liverpool and Manchester. We engine does not depend alone on the force eight millions of dollars. If these positions other engines but those. To give a com-| the weight of the engine, which produces are correct, and their consideration and ex-||plete idea of them, we have now only to a greater or less adhesion of the wheels to amination, under respectable scientific au- state the dimensions of some of the parts, the rails, and consequently the locomotion thority has often been courted, it appears to on which the power of the engine more es- of a more or less considerable load. the writer of this article the extreme of folly | pecially depends, as will be seen further 2. Because the engine must move at to attempt to enlarge the Erie Canal to a down.

different rates of speed. Now, besides the Ship Canal, 363 miles, at the certain ex The engines on the Liverpool Railway weight of the load, the engine must also pense of some 15 to 20 millions of dollars, | may be ranked in five different classes, as if damages are added to the estimate of the

move itself along by overcoming its own follows:

friction. That friction, entering therefore State Engineer's, of cost 124 millions, when

as an invariable quantity in the resistance,

Effective for half of either of these sums, we can have


from which it must always be first of all another, and a better work, with only 150 Classes. of the of the Wheels. Weight. per deducted, it limits, according to each vemiles of new canal, and this too without

cylinder. piston

locity, the final power remaining in the en. interrupting the trade on the Erie Canal,

inches. finches. it. in.

gine as applicable to the load. The conand its increasing tolls, which, at the pre

sequence of this is, that, if we were to ex. sent very low rates, now give us one and a

press the power of the engine by the effect half million of dollars per annum, gross in

produced, we would find that measure dif

ferent at each degree of speed at which we come.

It is idle to talk of the rights of the cities and villages, or the rent of the Erieused by the company at the opening of In the fifth class come the first engines would consider the engine.

3. Because locomotive engines moving Canal, to monopolize the entire carrying the railway; their cylinders are ten inch-three or four times quicker than horses can trade to and from the far west to this city, es in diameter, and under ; the stroke of do, it would be but an unintelligible fiction to and to confine it to the present channel ;|| the piston, the wheels, and 'the weight of pretend to assimilate them to horses.


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S This engine is now be

ing reconstructed.

13.50/{The tubes of this engine

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93. Dimensions of the Fire-bor and Boil-, ing the power; but what could be their||a pound of water per second, at the effecer in twelve of the best Locomotive En-effect, if that power itself did not exist ?

tive pressure in the boiler of 50 lbs. on gines of the Liverpool and Manchester To complete, therefore, the proportions the square inch. Railway. already given above, we shall add here a

Comparing with each other the extent According to the remark we have made table of the dimensions of the fire-box and of surface exposed in each engine to the here above, and which will be confirmed boiler in the different engines to which we action of the heat, a great distinction must in the course of this work, any expression shall have occasion to refer. At a future be made between the surfaces exposed to of the power of a locomotive engine be- period, our experiments will enable us to the immediate and radiating action of the comes imaginary, unless its evaporating replace this complex expression by the fire, and those which only receive the heat power, or the extent of the heating surface simple expression of the evaporating pow. by communication, during the passage of of its boiler, be given at the same time. Iter of those same engines.

the hot air from the fire-place to the chimis, in fact, in the fire-box and boiler that re The two most important columns of this|ney. An experiment made by Mr. Robert sides the real source of the power of the table, are those which show the extent of Stephenson is mentioned in Wood's work, engine. From thence results all the effect surface exposed to the radiant heat of the p. 403, from which it appears that the two produced. The cylinder and other parts fire, and to the communicative heat of the effects stand to each other in a ratio of are the means of transmitting and modify-|| flame.

three to one. Circumstances did not allow us to repeat the experiment.

It was made with a boiler similar to those described above, but the upper part of which had been taken off, and the water exposed to the direct action of the fire, separated from that which receives only the communicative heat; the water was put into ebullition, and, after it had boiled for some time, the water that had been evaporated in each compartment was meas. ured. It was then ascertained that each square foot of surface exposed to the heat of the radiating caloric, had evaporated three times as much water as the same extent of surface exposed to the hot air. This proportion may be considered as sufficieutly established by the experiment, in so far at least as regards a boiling apparatus, similar to those described above. § 4. Of Locomotive Engines of a different

construction. The description given above is applicable to the most powerful engines constructed until the present time. That form is exclusively adopted on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

On other lines, engines of different constructions are to be found. The Railroad from Stockton to Darlington being used for a different service, that is to say, for a more moderate speed, it may be

proper to give here an idea of the engines used on that line.

The company possess twenty-three locomotive engines of different models, from the oldest to the most recent ones.

In some of them the fire passes through the boiler in a single tube, which serves as a fire-box, and communicates directly with the chimney. In some others the tube bends round in the boiler before it reaches the other end, and comes back to the chimney, which, in that case, is placed next to the door of the fire-box. In others, the tube or flue, when it reaches the end of the boiler, divides and returns towards the chimney, as two smaller tubes. In some, the fire being still placed in an internal flue, the filame returns to the chimney by means of about 100 small brass tubes, on a principle similar to that of the Liverpool engines. Lastly, three of them are constructed on the same model as those of Liverpool.

The company carries both passengers and goods. The first travel with a speed of twelve miles, and the second of eight

miles an hour. Of the different forms of It will be seen hereafter, that with a||form, the engines are able to evaporate boilers, those only with a set of small tubes boiler of those dimensions and of such allabout a cubic foot of water per minute, or suit for carrying passengers; the others


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14 . No. 131

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