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COMMONS

ON

ARTS

AND

MINUTES

From the London Mechanica' Magazine.

as gold and silver, having what I should||teen years in that capital, and studied in SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE HOUSE

of term a positive color, are less applicable to one of their best schools, and at the Royal

MANUFAC- the works of art than bronze, and still more Academy, for eight or nine years, I am deTURES.

particularly marble. In bronze it is more cidedly of opinion that private schools, un

a work of casting. In fire works it is af- | der the most eminent masters, are greatly (Continued from page 185.):

terwards wrought up with great nicesty by | superior to any public establishments. The OF EVIDENCE.

the chisseller; in the above case Mr. Pitts, | private schools are the original system of the George Foggo, Esq., Historical Painter, a very nelebrated artist, was employed for instruction in France, as they were in Italy examined :

that purpose. With respect to the mode of during its greatness. These schools are I have been repeatedly employed to de protecting inventions and designs in brorze, generally intended for the higher branches sign for the application of my art to bronze I think it, if it were worth the while of a man of art; but persons who do not evince talent and silver. That manufacture now in Eng- of talent to claim his protection, it would be of a high order, naturally fall into the emland is exceeding depressed; principally, I fast carried out, according to our habits, byployment of manufacturers. There is one should suppose, in consequence of the special juries, but under the present system school in Paris for the instruction of artiwant of copyrigh, on which account the this is much too expensive. By special sans employed by manufacturers. Each French have very greatly surpassed us.- jury, I mean a board of persons conversant department has also something like a school In England at the present moment the unwith art, but subject, like our juries, to all of that kind; I am afraid it will be found certainty of recovering in cases of piracy, challenge. Something like a cour de prud'they produce very little of that which may and the great expense attending a lawsuit, hommes, or a board of competent arbitration, || really be called talent. The national course make it almost impossible for any but men but doubt whether it would be right for them of instruction for artists in France is very of great capital to undertake such works at all to be artists. I also think that the pe-| superior to the usual means in England ; it all. When they are undertaken, as theriod of the duration of copyright should consists of private schools, which system sale is exceedingly limited, those articles are be in proportion to the talent displayed, and bears the most national character of any.almost universally converted into silver. In the importance of the object. Some cases Every man of talent, as an artist in France, France, in consequence of the cheaper law might not deserve three months protection, is supposed to owe much of his reputation and the greater facility of recovery, a much others would require 50 years. Some things to the pupils he produces ; his object is to greater proportion of works of that nature deserve also to be better protected than produce men of superior abilities, but the are cast in bronze.

So doubtful is the re-others, in consequence of the great facility school gets popular, and the system is so covery, and so great the expense attending of copying them. All works that can be well understood, that the number of students it , that where otherwise 50 guineas would cast in plaster particularly require protec- becomes very great

, and from their superibe expended on a design, not more than 51. tion ; for that which has cost the labor of ority they are, when interest does not interwould now be ventured by the silversınith. months or years, and vast expense, may be fere, appointed teachers in the Government As, for instance, in one case where the re-produced by the plagiarist in a few hours. schools, and give a general tone to the amount to be expended on a piece of plate Such circumstances prevent the application talent of the country as far as circumstances was 8001. I received 8 guineas for the de. ll of first-rate talent to any such productions. admit

. The Government schools are very sign. In other cases, where the finished

In a great measure the protection should inferior to the others in utility. The priwork would amount 10 200 or 300 guineas, depend on the talent of the artist. I consi- vate establishments have the spirit of the the utmost the silversmith could spend uponder that it would be for the interest of the country in them much more than the Gothe design has been less than 51. If the copyright could enable the undertaker of public, for instance in a very beautiful work, vernment schools, for the Government such works to spread them to the amount have the power of proposing, on the part of with one or two exceptions, all follow the

that such a board or special jury should schools are founded on one system, and, of 20 or 30, he could then afford tbn times the public, to the artist, that his design same course ; they do not fall into the wants the best artists, and rewarding them liberal- || should be bought up; but I have a very of the times and the people so much as the ly. The main advantage of the copyright || strong objection to the consideration of the private establishments. " I do not mean that in France depends on the circumstance of interest of the public being paramount.-- ||they are in name national schools, but they the cheap law. I was lately in court in a

The circumstance of the Americans giving are the schools that give a national characcase where the sale of spurious works was to their citizens an exclusive privilege of ter to the French artists; which character most clearly proved. The expenses, I was copyright, takes away all energy and exer-is materially checked by the control of Goinformed amounted to 1001.

, and the award | tion of those citizens. It has become scarce-vernment administration. In France, Gofor the sale of five different and distinci|ly worth while for an American to produce vernment interference in positive instruction prints was 151. From what I recollect of a work of talent, when the bookseller canis injurious. The encouragement given to such cases in Paris, I should say that the get them from abroad for the price of a lart in France is principally from the liberalexpense would have been under 15l., and single copy. The French are superior to ity of exhibitions, and most particularly of the award might have been 1001. It is, us in the accuracy of the execution of their the libraries and the museums. therefore, in France worth while (particu- work, but not equal in fancy and imagina-portunities of study in the libraries and mularly when we consider the certainty of re- tion; I have myself been employed to de-seums are far superior to any thing in this covery) for a man of talent to claim his sign for a work that has been sent over to country. I may mention, in proof thereof, protection; it would not be so in London. France to be executed, and the execution that the works of Flaxman, of Mr. Hope, Bronze and silver are the same kind of was exceedingly correct. I should speak and the publications on Etruscan vases of manufacture, I should say: in most in-| rather in favor of their execution and know-Sir William Hamilton, were shut up in pristances, bronze is first cast for the sake of||ledge than their taste ; for works in metalvate collections in England, and produced the silver plate; that was the case with we still prefer that of the early period of little effect on the public taste; but being the celebrated Achilles' shield, by Flax-Louis XIV. as more free and effective. I placed in the libraries in Paris and other

The original shield in bronze, most attribute the superiority of the French in towns, where not only artists, but the public, elaborately and beautifully finished, could correctness of drawing to the various schools had free access, the knowledge and taste of not have been sold for much less, if any of design established in every principal Flaxman and Hope became there generally thing less, than the silver-gilt. But the town, but more particularly in Paris ; there appreciated, instead of being, as in England, taste is so much in favor of the more costly schools are so various, that I do not thinkconfined to a few. A fine example of their metal, that no one would give 3,000 guineas that any but a resident in Paris can fully museums was that of the French monue. for the bronze, when they could get the sil- understand the relative difference; they ments, where, in appropriate halls, samples ver-gilt for 4,000 guineas, although the value consist of the Royal Academy and the of French statuary of seven successive cen. of the silver be not above 250l. ; and I Government school of drawing; of private turies, afforded an excellent opportunity of should say decidedly the bronze was most schools under an eminent artist, and of sub- studying the taste and the history of the navaluablo; and I apprehend the taste of the scription academies, with no other than tion. That of mechanical machines is also public in that respect is deficient, inasmuch mutual instruction, Having resided seven of great utility, Museums, I apprehend,

The op

man.

must be the permanent and all-important and positive rules of art, such, for instance, pediment to the plagiarist, and consequentsources of taste. Public lectures on the as perspective, anatomy, proportion, and ly a protection to the original designer. In great principles of design and taste may be perhaps botany, and those things which con- the case of the japan manufacture, in conadvantageously added thereto; and from nect arts with manufactures, in which the sequence of the difficulty of the manual opethe necessity of the case, another country || principles are undeniable, should, of course,|| ration itself, the thing is better protected, being so greatly in advance of us in those be taught. I think it almost as necessary and I ascribe it partly to the system of en. branches, schools for the instruction of mere for a people to possess a knowledge of couragement and competition established in outline, and still more of the rules of per-| those points, as to know how to write ; I the manufactures themselves ; the works in spective, would produce very great and consider it a second way of reading all the japan are, however, conspicuously defective beneficial effect. 'I certainly do think that beauties and merits of nature. The defi- in perspective. I mention this to show, much advantage would be derived from in- ciencies, both in England and France, that of all the branches that ought to be struction in the proper simple rules, without which still exist, are, first, the deficiency of taught, that of perspective is one of the first, shackling the taste; but it appears to me correctness of perspective, even where cor-linasmuch as it is not readily to be obtained. that good taste is so essential to the inter- rectness of outline is otherwise generally Each manufacturer in the japan trade has ests of the community, that museums should || attained; perspective is often little under his own designers and painters.. Designing be provided at the national expenge ; but stood in other countries, but is particularly is not a trade by itself, by which persons practical skill being an advantage of a more neglected in England. Secondly, a very get their livelihood, that is, to furnish patindividual nature, ought rather to be paid for imperfect knowledge of the history of the terns to the manufacturers of designs in (moderately) by the individual. The gene-arts and of commerce, their effects on each paint, not at least in Birmingham; what ral taste is decidedly higher in France than other, and on the state of nations, and thence there may be in London I am not acquainted in England; but superior taste and imagina-false theories. The relative influence of with. In that particular line the designs tion more frequent in England. I account the taste of Paris and London is this: the are very superior, but there are inaccuracies for the distinction from this circumstance: taste of Paris spreads all over France al- from want of instruction. At some interI think the arrangements of Louis XIV. most like lightning, while that of London is val of time and distance I examined the and Colbert have placed such fetters on very much counteracted by the different French and English japan works repeatedimagination, that the utmost that instruction | habits and influences of our commercial ly, but not lately; there are no French ones can do in France is to inculcate fixed prin- towns: for this very reason, museums ex- that can at all compare with ours,

The fourth year of the republic, under the Con-actly similar might be established in France French shun the competition, though many

without any material injury; but museums individuals in France are anxious to introvention, schools of various kinds were insti- in England would be best under the direc-duce our japan articles in France at pretuted. Exhibitions and prizes were also tion of a general board, but modified by the sent. We have the advantage in both madecreed on a liberal scale, but they were management of men capable of applying terial and design ; we are not equal in exeultimately counteracted by the re-establish-them to local purposes. If the town of cution to the Asiatics, but superior in dement of the Academy, similar to Louis Liverpool had a museum, it certainly would sign. Mechanics’ Institutions would be so XIV., and the occasional injudicious interference of the Emperor. There has been board, be similar to a museum in Birming-sign, that they would convey to pupils

not, if left to the management of a local far more beneficial than any school of deno alteration in the Academy of Arts from ham or Sheffield, and it would be right that knowledge in chemistry or mechanics or 1800 till the present moment, except the

they should not be similar. A knowledge design, according to their natural genius. exclusion of foreigners from the prizes, and of mineralogy might be exceedingly useful They would do exceedingly well if you a few minor bye-laws. I conceive that the in one town, and perfectly useless in ano- could manage the election of the professors ; fixed principles and correctness of execu

ther. Objects of general utility, of general but in that case a member of an Instituiton tion are all that can be properly conveyed taste, such as fine representations of the is more likely to be elected than one not a of instruction to an artist

. They are all most beautiful pieces of sculpture, objects member; it is therefore local talent which that can be wished for when competition is of taste, such as vases and ornamental de- gets the influence, which is not so good as encouraged; and without free competition signs in general, might be exceedingly use a person confirmed by the approbation of a art is stifled, therefore it is absolutely essen- ful in them all, but each would superada general board. If the Institutions would tial. With regard to the departmental/what was of local interest in proportion to agree to be subjected to the decision of a schools, if the appointments of professors its connexion with different countries, and board in London, that much good might be were popular they might do a deal of good ; || the manufactures on which it depended. - effected. The advantage Mechanics' Inbut when I have seen an old man of 62 or A local administration should be under a stitutions would derive from the parent In63 appointed to one of those schools, not general control, or the control of a general stitution is, they would collect a variety of for the good of his pupils, but to save him

board, in order to prevent local interests models, which they cannot now obtain.from starving, I cannot expect much good from holding too great an influence in the Therefore, in this country, where you have therefrom; when I have known, in the prin elections, and contracted views in the ma- three or four

branches of trade carried on, in cipal school for the mechanics of Paris, a man of the highest talent, M. Peyron, after under a well controlled representative sys- branch of trade, you would not confine it to

nagement; for I am greatly mistaken if, Manchester, and in some places almost every 25 or 30 years' exertions in the under pro- tem, the arts are not capable of disseminat- a school of design only, but make it one higher professorship by a friend of the Mi- ing knowledge in fifty ways that have never branch of what would be a drawing class;

yet been attempted, and I am also strongly those who have a taste for chemistry would nister, I find a total want of that principle impressed with the notion that they should be good preparers for the materials of printwhich free competition and proper elections tend to a general improvement of the morals ing, and so you would make it useful. would have carried out. The reason 1 of the people as well as of their intellect. Another way might also be easily accomthink superior taste and imagination more I have no doubt that, under a proper gene- plished, by placing museums under the diin England, is on account of the restriction ral board with local management

, they rection of men capable of communicating in France, where, being under the Minister would be highly capable of both. Some of instruction. of the Interior, all follow one system and

our manufactures far excel others in the routine. In England, competition is cre- merit of the designs, and this is usually in

(To be Continued.) ated by commerce, which frequently brings proportion to the difficulty of copying them, a man from the humbler branches of manu

as the injury of a deficient copyright is facture to the highest stage of art, such as

The wear of Rails of the Manchester and therein less felt

. I should instance, parti- Liverpool line was stated to be 1-2015 of an Martin, Muss, Bone, Bacon, and Banks.

cularly, the japan manufacture, where the inch in depth per annum. In fact, the French attempt to teach that which is probably not within the strict limits designs are more exquisite than any thing rarely come in contact with the rails ; one of teaching, and interfere a groat deal too

produced abroad. The excellence of a de- of the oldest wheels being taken off a car. much. The positive, the undeniable, fixed, sign is partly to be szívinted to the diffi

, viage, the marks of the turning tool war culty of copying, inasmuch as it is an im- found on the flenge,

APPLES FOR STOCK.

mer.

Before the introduction of paper currency,||assistance, when as a class they have We have from time to time published || it was a very rare occurrence for any man struck out no means by which they can par. accounts of experiments in fattening pork || to rise from a state of poverty to wealth || take of similar privileges. Capital, and with apples, which has been done with suc- and influence; those who were poor had facilities for raising loans, are as essential cess and profit. The use of apples as

food

erer to remain in that condition, and were to them as to merchants, yet no system has during winter for stock, has been abun- considered by the wealthy as, their slayish been adopted for their benefit. dantly successful during the past winter. tools.

I would suggest a system for agricultural Several of our acquaintance have used

Banks, when legitimately established, | banking, which may appear crude, but will them for this purpose, and consider them a valuable acquisition to their stores of fod- | may be considered as store-houses, wherein probably lead some master mind, having der. Mr. J. Bacon, of this town, informs those who have more money than they can more talent and leisure than myself, to im. us that he has fed them out daily to his use to advantage, deposit the surplus, to be prove upon, and carry out to a more perfect sheep, and has seldom had a flock of sheep loaned to enterprising individuals, who can system. do better during a winter. Several other use it profitably. If banks were restricted I would previously warn our farmers, if farmers, who have had two or three hun-||10 specie issues, there would be no banks they value the existence of our democrati. dred bushels, have used them with their hay established; for the rent' of buildings suffi-||cal form of government, to put an end to with good effect. Here then is another || ciently secure to keep safely the immense our present mode of banking by specific reason why farmers should not only pre- amount of specie 10 bank to any extent, in-charters; for so sure as this system is conserve their orchards, which they now have, cluding clerk-hire, transit of specie, &c. &c.,tinued, so sure will our legislative bodies with care, but also set out more, and such kinds as will keep well during the winter.

would absorb all their profits. It is, there become so corrupt, as to be the disgrace of An orchard may be considered as a fixture. | fore, on their paper the profits are obtained, the age in which we live, and to the total When the trees once arrive to the bearing and the government ought never to inter- prostration of our admirable form of gove age, they require but very little care to keep fere, excepting so far as to secure the publernment. The less a government interthem in a thrifty condition. They may be lic against loss.

feres with the circulating medium of a considered as a permanent crop, always It is an extraordinary fact, that no civil. country the better, as their interference planted out, and always ready for the sum-||ized nation has ever attained its liberty per. lever produces much embarrassment in mo

manently, unless subject to a system of pa- | netary matters. Banks should be permit

per credit; and so closely does the paper||ted to go into operation under general laws, AGRICULTURE, &c.

This no doubt system appear to be interwoven with this not by specific charters.

sacred cause, that it may safely be asserted I would have been effected long since, if very AGRICULTURAL Banks.--The following|no nation can long retain its liberty when many of those who have the power to grant communication of W. P., is worthy of at-|| paper credit is destroyed. Its operation, || charters were not corruptively interested in tention-especially from the agricultural||100, is so simple, that it appears to have the grants made. community. We are fully of the opinion, been overlooked by our long-sighted party Self-interest is so general, and so powerthat the Banking System should be regulated politicians. A great number of individuals,||ful a motive of action in man, that to exby a general law which will allow every whenever paper credit is established, arespect to have a pure legislative body, with citizen to participate in its benefits. constantly breaking through the line be the means of corruption ever before them,

Any individual, or number of individuals,||eween poverty and wealth, who are gradu-l is truly absurd. Let us then remove, as who desire, should be permitted to receive ally ascending the scale of society, and car- far as possible, all means of templation; money on deposit, and discount notes atrying through nearly all stages their demo- and as granting monied charters is one of such rates of interest as may be agreed on cratie feelings, at least until they arrive at the most fruitful sources of corruption, we by the parties.

the summit, when most of them become should begin by abolishing it. There should be an established rate of in- aristocratic. It is this class, who are con

Let a general law be passed permitting terest for all cases where the rate is no1 || stantly contending with the over-grown property owners to establislı banks predicaspecially agreed upon, and also, for all in- wealth and influence of old families, that lied on real estate. The main provisions of stitutions and companies having the privi- have neutralized the aristocratical power such a law should be, that every property lege of issuing bills, or paper, to an amount in England, sustaining the principle of lib-owner, who wishes to do so, should be per. exceeding their capital; and further, the

erty, and enforcing a liberal construction of mitted to deposit his deeds in the bank, and private property of stockholders should be the laws. Let their paper credit be destroy the bank have power to issue paper to the holden for the redemption of all issues.

ed, and the nation deprived of the influence amonnt of the value of all the estates so The plan here recommended by W. P., is of that portion of the democracy who are deposited. Every property owner, after deto us a novel one, and we should be pleased | rising from poverty to wealth, and those || positing his deeds, should have the privito have the opinion of others in relation who are now wealthy would soon combine lege of discounting his own notes to an to it.

and tyrannize as much as before paper amount not exceeding a given portion of the issues were established. A similar effect value of his estate. The profits of the would ensue in any other country.

bank to be equally divided among the de. It is unfortunately too evident, in every

Our agriculturists are deeply interested positers of deeds. Provisions against frauddebate on this subject

, that “preconceived in the monetary system, as much beyond ulent valuations, and many other regulaopinions usurp the place of facts, and spell any other clasa of citizens, as their annual ||tions to keep in check the overweening culations as unsubstantial as the baseless surplus is larger. As banks are now esta selfishness of indviduals, will have to be fabric of a vision,' are substituted for cor-blished, they confer very little benefit on

made. rect observation."

the farmer; and so far as their interest is It must be obvious to our agricultural. The opinion of the mass of our citizens, concerned, they could do quite as well with lists, that a great portion of those who buy that to grant monied charters is anti-demo- out them. It is truly surprising that the estates, have not sufficient funds remaincratical, has no doubt been given very hon. | agricultural interest of America has been ing to cultivate them effectively, and many estly; but they appear not to be sufficiently || so generally neglected by our State legisla. || thousands are kept poor for want of pecu, informed on the subject to know, that when || rures, and the United States government. In iary assistance to put their lands in good a given number of charters have been grant. But it is still more singular, that our farm-condition. With such a system of banking ed, restriction becomes aristocratieal, anders should coolly look on, and ses every oth chay could improve their farms to any rea. extension democratica),

er branch of industry seeking for monetary || sonable extent, and repay the loans as the

From the New York Farmer.

ON BANKING AND PAPER CURRENCY.

THE SEASON

produce in after years should remunerate that which is planted late. Our own, and Annexed we give an

account of the them for extra outlays.

the experience of many of the best farmers, || Lemon tree, to which we alluded in our Those who know any thing of farming, whom we have known, have satisfied us of last. must be aware, that few farms will allow the expediency of early planting.

To the Editor of the New York Farmor. of taking up money at seven per cent., with The present season has been so backward,

OYESTER BAY, March 31st, 1836, the additional expease of mortgaging. This and so much time has been lost, that in

In compliance with your request, I givo difficulty would be removed by such a sys- many things the farmer must do as he can, || you the particulars of my Lemon tree, as tem of banking, and as the profits would be not as he will. The cold winter and back-||accurately as my recollection will permit. divided among the depositers of deeds, the ward spring of 1780, were followed by an

The tree was planted by Daniel Youngs interest to be paid would be only the ex. abundant summer; and with this experi- Jr., deceased, in or about the year 1812. pense of the management, which need never ence, there is as yet nothing at present, to the orange from which the seed was taken exceed two per cent. Their paper, too,

forbid the hope that the coming season may was sent from South America, by Thomas would have good credit, it being known to be as fruitful.

H. C.
Flecet: the orange

stock was inoculated with be based on a value ever equal to the issues.

lemon in the year 1830. Since then about 30 W. P. This communication was received in time

of the lemons have canie to perfection.

There are four ripe ones upon it at present and should have appeared in the March

and about 20 green ones of various sizes, number of the Farmer, but was by accident | besides blossoms. The tree itself is about From the New-York Farmer.. FARMERS' WORK FOR SPRING.

omitted. Although late, we give it now, by eight feet high, and the body about two inchPloughing is the first great operation. way of apology for delay.

es in diameter. During the summer months

Our worthy friend, "A PRACTICAL Far. On this subject, so familiar 10 farmers, no

standing in the open air, and in winter in a doubt they will disdain to be instructed.mer,” will please accept our thanks for this

warm room.

Yours, &c. We have to say first, then,

letter and its contents. We have recently let your work

DAVID Youngs. be done as nearly and as evenly as possible. IA TEN DOLLAR note, accompanied by a val.

received many such tokens of good will. The appearance of this work well done,

From the New-York Farmer. instead of the slovenly manner in which is

uable communication for the Farmer, from is generally executed, besides the satisfac. each Its patrons, who appreciate its worth,

We have just closed a winter of most would soon restore that department of our tion which it gives the farmer bimself, renders the after cultivation much more easy.

business to its condition before the confia- extraordinary severity. The mercury, in As to the depth of ploughing, this must be gration.

some very rate instances, may, in other winFrom the New-York Farmer.

ters, have sunk to a lower degree-indeed, in a great measure regulated by the depth of the soil. We believe no advantage is

Rome, N. Y., Feb. 25, 1836.

the preceding winter, on the 4th January, gained, but much injury oftentimes occa.

MR. MINOR-SIR-I enclose ten dollars 1835, where we had an opportunity of masioned, by turning up a cold gravelly sub-| to pay arrearages, and in advance for the king observations, the mercury in Fahren.

heit stood, for an hour, at 32° below 0, while New-York Farmer. stratum and turning down a rich loam, out

the last winter, 1836, the same thermome.

As the season of the year will soon arof ihe reach of sun and air. Our experi. ence has satisfied us, likewise, that land rive for farmers to commence their opera. ter, in the same situation, never descended fresh ploughed is much more favorable collions on their farms, I should like to commu- below 18° below zero; but when the con vegetation than that which has been long nicate to the public,some experiments which tinuance, as well as the severity of the cold, turned and though the situation of the I have made on harrowing winter-wheat in is taken into view, no winter on record can work may be such as not to allow of any || lished, any thing of the kind I will state my the spring. And as I have never seen pub- be compared with the one through which

we have just passed. The winter of the postponement, it is desirable to sow and plant as soon after the ploughing as possi- manner of operation. As soon as the vear 1779-80, approaches nearest to it; then ble.

ground gets settled and dry on the surface, the snow continued, it is believed, even later The second great operation is manuring.

so that a team will not tread it up, I com. Ithan the present winter. The year 1673 was Too much manure may be given, but the

commence dragging my wheat with the drag likewise very remarkable for the intensity usual error, is that of giving too little. We

I usually use in draging in grain, (the of the cold. The winter just finished has are satisfied in this matter, that the nearer

square drag,) and let it lop half, and follow been remarkable for the abundance and un

immediately with a roller, to press the roots interrupted continuance of the spow; in manure is kept to the surface of the earth, | down if any are torn up. I always like to many parts of the country, on Connecticut so that it is covered or mixed with the earth, do it just before a storm, and if want to River, for example, at Greenfield and Brat, but barely to secure it from evaporation, so seed my land with clover, 1 sow my seedtleboro', the sleighing was uninterrupted much the better for the crop.

previous to dragging, and have had it catch for four months and a half; and the amount Planting, especially of Indian corn, ex- as well as when sown with spring grain.- of snow which fell, exceeded, by actual mea. cepting in wet places, can hardly be done and I think dragging has the same effect surement, any remembered, during an exact too early; the earlier the better; and if the as hoeing does on corn, and have never record of abovet wenty years. The spell,howground were prepared for it, we would al- || seen any injury. I have tried it several lever, is now (25th of April,) fairly broken ; ways put it in the last week in April, or a1|| years and find it increases the growth both and if we have suffered from a Russian farthest, the first of May. Though some of straw and head, and have seen one fourth winter, there is every promise of a Russian some of it may perish in the earth, such a difference by good judges at harvesting. spring. The ground has no where been contingency should be as far as possible

A PRACTICAL Farmer. deeply frozen, and the grass has been ready guarded against, by using an extra quantity P. S. I should like to receive some infor- for some time to start, as soon as the coverof seed-in this matter we are not in general|mation on the culture of turnips-the best ing should be taken off, and it could see dayhalf liberal enough; and also, where early kinds and the way of cultivating them. light. planting takes place, there is in general, in

Yours Respectfully. The grain, where we have seen it uncovcase of failure, the better opportunity of 07 Will some one of our readers, who || ered, looks hcalthy and well set. It has repairing the deficiency. The corn early can give the desired information in relation been generally supposed that, where the planted, may, after coming up, be cut down to the culture of turnips, do us the favor to ground continued covered with snow, it has by an early frost; but usually it will start furnish us a statement for cultivation? proved favorable for wheat, but not for rye, again, and have greatly the advantage of PROP, N, Y. FAA

We do not profess to understand the philos

up;

OHIO AGRICULTURE.

ophy of this; and experience, the only in-nary and perilous extreme, it has called outli(to me unaccountable,) the Potatoe does not fallible teacher, seems this year in a fair human labor to such an extent, and that flourish in this country. The most favoraway to correct this impression ; neither the labɔr has itself so much increased and im- ble seasons, and our best soil will not pro. rye nor the wheat appearing to have suffered proved the value of the products of the duce more than two thirds of what is con. at all from the season.

earth, has brought so much more land into sidered a good crop at the East. The winter has been dreadfully severe

cultivation, and rendered that, which has The root crops, such as Mangel, Wurtzel with the cattle; many, in different places,

been long since subdued, so much more Rutta Baga, or common Turnip is not raised having actually perished by staryation; and productive, that the actual wealth of the for stock, although I think our soil and cliothers coming out in a miserable condition.country, and, consequently, the means of mate both favorable to them. The common The prices which hay and grain have com

sustaining public credit, have greatly ex-turnip, for table use, sells from 25 cents to manded, induced many farmers, early intended, and are daily extending themselves one dollar per bushel, in our market. The the

H. C.

in a most extraordinary manner. season, to sell, to their own serious in

sweet-potatoe grows very well in this part

25th April, 1836. jury; having through the desire of accumula

of the country, yet I think they are inferior

to those that I was accustomed to eat at the tion, been led to stint their own flocks. The

East. We have a very great assortment of winter has been so much longer continued, and so much more severe, than any calcu.

We are happy to lay before our readers apples, which are sold in town, in the fall of lations or expectations made it, that this the following letter from an intelligent cor- the year, at 50 cents per barrel, of the first

quality. Fifteen years ago there was a great has proved a fatal error to many. High respondent on Western Agriculture.

From the New York Farmer. prices occasioned by severity, are no evi.

many good peaches in these parts, but they

CHILLICOthe, Ohio, Jan. 27th, 1836. dence of prosperity. It is only a specula.

are now scarce ; pears do not do well. The tion upon the necessities and sufferings of

Rev. H. COLMAN_Dear Sir-Yours of fire-l light seems to destroy all the trees as the community; and where farmers are

5th came in good season, but as there was soon as they are of a size to bear. We obliged to buy of other farmers, who, per

no particular haste required, I have delayed have a great abundance of plums of differhaps, have been a little more provident or answering until the present time.

ent kinds. fortunate, it is only evidence of general dis- will have upon the Agricultural community, ||ter is pure, though hard. . It is all more of

The high prices of produce this season, You ask if the water is good ? Our wa. tress, and not of prosperity; the community

a good effect to stimulate them to greaterless affected with the lime-stone gravel, certainly become no richer by this process ; ||exertions, to realize more from their land through which it has to pass, in coming to and for all the animals that perish or suffer||chan they have hitherto dared to hope for. | 10 the surface. Our springs are equally afthrough want, they are rendered the poorer. It has raised the price of land throughout fected with the wells.

We have but little A strictly domestic trade, and a mere inter- the country, and with it the ambition of land of the fever and ague, although we are by change among each other, however high || holders. Some of our farmers are so much || no means clear of it; as our country grows the prices may be, adds nothing to the gen. lelated with the prospect, that they confident- older, we have less.

Our streams are eral stock of wealth. The basis of wealth rests entirely upon production, and the im. Bushels of corn per acre ; and one of our tivation, and stock to consume the vegeta

ly expect to average one hundred and fifty | more open-waste fields are opened for culproved value for sustenance, convenience or

greatest feeders of stock told me a few days tion, which has made a great alteration with. utility given to those products by skill and since, that he has a field of 20 acres that in a few years. We have more or less of labor. We do not mean to say, however, he should cultivato in corn ; that he was the billious fever every season, but we con. that it is other than a time of general pros- confident that he would, if a good season, sider it a healthy country. For my own perity in the agricultural community. In average two hundred bushels per acre. He

part,

I all the great markets all the products of the intends to drill in the corn after the plan re-Eastern States, than I have here for the last

never enjoyed better health in the earth command extravagant price. Beef, commended in the “Cultivator’ some months | six years. As it respects stock cattle, there in New-York Carile Market, from 10 to 12 since, (I have forgotten the page.) I was is very little difference between the common dollars per hundred. Pork, cheese, butter, | yesterday informed that a feeder a few miles native stock here, and with you. We have flour, Indian corn, rye, wheat, &c., bearbelow town, has sold his corn (in the shock) to pay a higher price for improved cattle most extraordinary prices. Brooin-corn

on the field, for ikirly-six dollars per acre, here than with you, but there is not suffi. brush, which for years was sold as low as to a Drover. The land on which it was cient difference to justify the expense of a 2 cents per lb., now commands 14 to 15-grown could, last spring, have been pur- trip to the East, unless a person wanted a and the wool market affords every promise chased for twenty dollars per acre. of remaining firm. The advantages, how

large number. Good sheep are very scarce,

The average crop of wheat in this vicini. and consequently high, althouglı our com. ever, in this case, are not all on one side.lty, take one season with another, is about mon sheep are to be purchased for from 75 If it is a good time to sell, it is rather a twenty bushels, yet there has been as high cents, to $1 per

head. hard time to buy. All the articles of liv.||as forty-five bushels to•the acre in this viing, beyond what the farmer produces,

I think some of taking a tour the coming and

cinity. With the prices heretofore paid for spring through Indiana and the northern many of them have become the actual ne- work-hands, it has been considered that the part of Illinois. From what I can learn of cessaries of life, are dear in proportion ; || cost of cultivating an acre of whent, and put that country, I have no doubt but that there and labor never received a more ample re- ting in stack, was about five dollars per acre, lis great openings for Agriculturalists, for compense. Various causes of a fictitious which at the present price of wheat, ($1.) those too whose means are limited, nature, have no doubt contributed to these would yield the farmer about $15 nett profit effects, the results of which ho human foie

Any inquiries you may wish to make per acre. sight can calculate. We refer particularly, ||except for hogs, which are turned into the feel a pleasure in attending to, and any ser.

There is but little rye cultivated, respecting this part of the country, I shall as every one sees, to the immense extension field before it becomes hard, and they are vice that I can render you, I shall be happy of bank capital, and the flooding of the suffered to run upon it untill corn is hard in doing.

Respectfully. community with paper money, which, as enough to feed to them. It is generally long as public confidence is secure, works || sown early in the season, and is considered admirably; but which would work very || the best pasture during the fall and winter perversely, if that confidence should be for cows and calves.

From the New York Farmer, shaken. "I'here is, however, one great con. Buck-wheat and Barley there is but little

SIIK, solation if a currency based wholly upon attention paid to raising, as they are not con Mr, Samuel Whitmarsh, of Northampton, eredit, han extended itself to an extraordi-h-idered profitable crops. Fromsome gaus, who went out the last autuma with a view

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