« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
on any thing like equal terms, cither as it||10ose shell rock, which is generally of easy , TO THE Hon. The Common COUNCIL OY regards the cost of construction or expense excavation. On that portion of the line
THE CITY OF BUFFALO. of transportation. located upon the side hill, along the valley
Your Committee, to whom was referred The section of country between Auburn of the Nine Mile Creek for a distance of four | That, through the attention of the Hon!
the anpexed petition, * respectfully report, and Syracuse is probably as unfavorable for miles, Gypsum, or Plaster of Paris, is found Geo. P. Barker, they have procured from the effectiag a good location for a Railroad, as in the excavation,in considerable quantities. Comptrollers department, at Albany, an ofany equal portion of the route between Alba- Nearly all the solid rock which is required ficial copy of the dates at which ihe Erie ny and Buffalo. The streams, which are nu- to be excavated in forming the road bed,
Canal has been opened and navigated each
apmerous, all run northerly. The ridges and spears ihus far to be of that material. This spring at Buffalo and Albany, for the last
pine years, a copy of which will be found valleys of course lie in the same direction. is deemed very favorable, as the value of hereto annexed." Your Committe are also 'This peculiar formation of the country, as it the plaster, if disposed of at the usual pri- indebted to the politeness of Gen. H. B. precluded the possibility of following the ces, will cover the cost of its excavation.
Potter, for an accurate statement, (in the course of the valleys, (the direction of the The cost of constructing the road cannot the most implicit confidence,) of the dates
correctness of which your committee bave Railroad being nearly east and west,) add- | now be correctly stated. The general rise | at which Lake Erie has been navigable, and ed much to the difficulty of fixing upon in the value of labor, Railroad iron, provis-actually navigated, to and from the port of the best location. These difficulties, it is ions, &c., which has taken place during the Buffalo
, each spring, during the last nine believed, have all been surmounted in a past winter, will have a tendency to enhance years, all which will be found exhibited in
the annexed statistical table, the whole of manner to afford a Railroad which, when the expense.
which your committe trust 'will be found completed, will bear a favorable compari From the facts before me, it is probable strictly accurate and satisfactory :son with other portions of the line from Al- || that the cost of grading, masonry, &c., for bany to Buffalo.
a double track, together with that of the The descent upon the Railroad being to-superstructure complete for a single track, wards the east at a nearly upiform rate of 104 will not exceed 12 or 15 thousand dollars feet per mile, will favor the expense of trans- per mile. portation, the preponderance of the trade
It is contemplated to form the road bed being in that direction. If locomotive steamin a substantial and permanent manner. engines of the most improved description Lime stone is the material principally are used, similar to the best recently con- used in the various structures, and is ob
Poongoni structed for the Baltimore and Obio Rail-tained in any quantity, in the vicinity of road Company, a single engine, will be all parts of the line, of the best quality.competent to convey from Auburn to Syra- || The bridges are few in Dumber, and of very cuse in the space of two hours, a nett load | limited space. of 150 tons, and to return in the same time The total value of perishable material with a nett load of about one third of that used in forming the road bed, will not prob. amount.
ably exceed for the whole road the sum of - The difference between the average and $3500.. This, it is believed, will have ad maximum inclination of the Railroad being important and favorable influence in the but 194 feet, will not exceed (provided a cost of repairs. suitable reduction is made in the speed on In the location of the Railroad, throughthe heavier grades) the range of the power out its whole extent, particular regard was of the best engines.
had to the prospect of its becoming a por. This difference is no greater than upon || tion of the great line of rail way from Althe Utica and Schenectady Railroad, and bany to Buffalo, and all considerations of a is much less than the same difference on minor and merely local characier were on the Camden and Amboy, New Castle made to yield to this one paramount object. and Frenchtown, and Providence and Bos- | To the liberal and enlightened views of the ton Railroads. These roads bave their ex- | Board of Directors in this respect, the pubtremés ' nearly on the same level. The lic will hereafter be greatly indebted. maximum difference on the first is 45 feet, The road will be completed and may be on the second 30 feet, and on the last 37 || put in operation, it is confidently believed, seet per mile, the latter extending 5 miles. if no unexpected difficulties occur, previIt is less, likewise, than the same difference | ous to the month of September of next year, on that part of the Baltimore and Ohiolin time for the fall business. Railroad between Baltimore and the Parr
Respectfully submitted, ridge.
E. F. Johnson, Chief Engineer. The average inclination from Auburn to
Auburn, April, 1836. Syracuse, is the same with what is usually termed the level portion of the Mohawk and
We are obliged to the friend who furnish. Hudson Railroad, situated between the in
ed us with the following statement in relaclined planes. The greatest departure of
lion to the opening of Buffalo Harbor and the grade line in the latter case, from a line
the Erie Canal.
To the Editor of the Rail Road Journal. of uniform inclination, is 50 feet. Upon the Auburn and Syracuse road it does not lof the periods of opening the canal for
Sir-I enclose you a tabular statement
Showing that for the last nine years, the - exceed, as already stated, 24 feet.'
Erie Canal has been navigated at Buffalo the ten previous years, and also of Lake in five instances, to wit : 1827, 1828, 1831, The ground on a very considerable portion Erie. You will confer a favor by inserting|1893, and 1855, as early in the spring as at of the line of the Auburn and Syracuse Railthe same in your valuable journal for future road is exceedingly well adapted for form
*The petition referred to, was from the citizens of ing a firm and substantial road, being com
Buffalo, to the Common Council. It had ir rigin in
some remarks coutained in the Governor andon! posed principally of gravel and loam, and D.K. XOR,
meumage relating to this subjesha
May 7 May 10
: Canal opened
in Albany; and in four instances, 1829, 1830, || Brighton Railway, will have an area of at some space your
Magazine, and my 1832, and 1834, an average of four days ear-| least six hundred feet.
ject in now writing to you is to call the atlier each spring. Thus showing conclu
In order to explain to what extent the air tention of railway companies and engineers sively, that property destined east, via. the
in a tunnel is contaminated by a locomo- (particularly those of the continent of EuErie Canal, is not detained at Buffalo, though the ice” may obstruct Canal navi- tive engine passing through it, let us sup- rope and America,) to a wrought-iron pegation at Albany to a later period, also show- pose a tunnel one mile in length to be tra- destal or chair, patented by Harry Scrivner, ing, that for the last nine years, Lake Erie versed by a locomotive engine, and its train Esq., a gentleman connected with the Brithas been navigable and actually navigated of a gross weight of one hundred tons. ish Iron Company. That a wrought-iron to and from Buffalo in six instances, to wit:|| The experience of the Liverpool and Man-chair must be better than a cast-iron one, 1827, 1928, 1830, 1832, 1833, and 1834, from chester Railway has shown that the average no one, I presume, will deny. Why else eight to nineteen days earlier than property consumption of coke is considerably less adopt the wrought-iron rail in preference to could have arrived at this city from the city than half a pound per ton for euch mile it the cast-iron one ?
It cannot be simply of Albany, via the Erie Canal, and in three is carried on a railway ; but taking the con- owing to its extra length, and consequently erty could have arrived at this city from A1-sumption at half a pound, the whole weight causing fewer joints in a railway. The bany, vin. the Erie Canal from three to fif- of one hundred tons will require the con- superiority of wrought-iron chairs to cast teen days earlier than Lake Erie was nav-sumption of 50 lbs. of coke. It may be ones, must be to say the least, in proportion igable from this Harbor, giving in the ag- calculated that every 10 lbs. of coke will as wrought-iron is superior to cast-iron.gregate on the “ice" question an average evaporate a bic foot of water; so that What the coinparative strength of cast and advantage within the said nine years, the whole 50 lbs. will convert into steam 5 wrought-iron is, I cannot exactly say, as it of four and 2-9 days each spring, in fa- cubic feet of water in the distance of i
differs according to quality. But suppose vor of Lake navigation to and from Buffa.
mile. lo, over the Erie Canal arrivals from Alba
Now to convert into steam 1 cubic a wrought-iron chair of iOlbs. weight to ny. It will be observed by referring to the foot of water, requires 1,950, or say 2,000 lbe equal in strength to a cast-iron one 20 statistical table, that 8 days time is allowed |cubic feet of air, then 5 feet of water will lbs., and the cost to be the same in manufor the first arrival of canal boats at this port of course require 10,000 feet ; and this will facture, the advantage to the purchaser is from Albany on the opening of the canalin be the whole amount of contaminated air one-half in the conveying of the chairs from the spring, ivhich is withing the average as in one mile in length of tunnel. To deter
the iron-works to the place of destination; it is well known that from one to two days mine the proportion of such an amount of so that if a double railway one hundred more time is required in navigating the car foul air, and the whole air contained in the 20 lbs. each, 6,775 tons, it will take, in nai on the first opening of navigation, than is the case after the towing paths and banks tunnel, we may take for example a mode
wrought-iron chairs of 10 lbs. each, but become settled, and farther your committee | rate sized tunnel 30 feet high, and having 3,387 tons 10 cwt.; which is such a bave not made any estimate of the delays an area of 800 feet. One mile in length of incident upon breaches or obstructions in such a tunnel will contain 4,224,000 cubic would not be lost sight of, -especially by
saving in carriage, as one would think the canal, which in several instances have feet; hence the contaminated air will bear the purchaser for the foreign market
. Anoccurred previous to the first spring arrivals to the whole quantity in the tunnel the ratio other advantage of the wrought-iron chair of boats at this place from Albany, all which of 10,000 to 4,224,000; or it will be as 1
As is respectfully submitted. For the Com
to the cast-iron one is its durability. to 422. It will scarcely after this appear the oxydizing influence of the atmosphere mitte, W. F. PORTER Taylor, Ch'n.
any valid objection to tunnels, to assert is not so great on wrought-iron, as cast, Feb. 26, 1836. that an injurious effect must result from the
iron, the durability of the one, compared contaminated air, when we find that the with that of the other, must be in the ratio
quantity of this description of air, produced of corrosive liability.
Now, sir, as utility and economy must (From Mr. Gibb's Report upon the several proposed no more than 1ża part of the whole quantity | always be two leading considerations in all Lines for a Brighton Railway)
in the tunnel. An objection has been made generally
railway undertakings, the wrought-iron
Let us then venture to hope, that any chair must, in point of saving, alone have to all tunnelsnamely, that the air con- prejudices which may now exist against the ample recommendation. tained in them will be so contaminated by construction of tunnels upon railways will
Yours truly, the noxious gas produced by the locomo-|| be dispelled, when we find that no injurious
A SUBSCRIBER. tive engines in passing through them, as to consequences will ever result from the foul render it unfit for respiration. Whether air, or any other of the numerous evils which this objection has ever been advanced, or have been so forcibly dwelt upon by those at all supported, by any scientific man pos- who affect to perceive the most unhappy sessing sufficient chemical knowledge to consequences from their adoption.--[Lon- Engineers (reported in the Atheneum) it is
At a meeting of the institution of Civil enable him to judge correctly on the sub-don Mechanics' Magazine. ]
stated that a great increase in the power of ject, is doubtful. The probability, how
the engines in drawing loads after them ever, is, that the fear of any injurious effects From the London Mechanics' Magazine. arose from the use of wrought iron rails, from foul air has originated in those who SCRIVNER'S WROUGHT-IRON RAILWAY
and wheels hooped with wrought iron, have witnessed the effects produced by
instead of cast. The Planet engine was steam engines in passing through the small Sir-In reading your interesting and 130 tons.
instanced weighing 7 tons, and drawing tunnels on some of our canals; and if they|| valuable miscellany, I have been much grat- weight between the engine and the load,
The proportion or ordinary have for a moment imagined that any sim-lified and amused with the different articles might be called 1 to 7, ihough 1 to 11 was ilarity will be found in the effects in the on railways; it seems as though the scien- a fair representation of power of traction as two cases, their fears are quite justifiable.tific and mechanical world were all intent a maximum in favorable weather on a The tunnels on canals are commonly con
on the subject, for it appears to be calling level. Case-hardened iron had been prostructed of such limited dimensions, that it forth all the learning of the one and inge- posed for the rails, but had been abandoned would be highly dangerous to attempt the nuity of the other; and it must be allowed in consequence of the chills
, which answers same application of steam power as will be to be a subject of such importance, that the repetition of the process, so that the necessary on a railway ; for instance, in science and art cannot, at this time be more the tunnel constructed by Mr. Telford on usefully employed on any other. That
case hardening was not equally effected. the Hare Castle Canal, the area above the there is and will be difference of opinion on water in the canal is only about one hun. the subject is no more than is to be expect: carriage, having a very simple engine on a
NEW RAILWAY LOCOMOTINE. - A locomotive dred feet; and even the Thames and Med-ed; but amidst all the plans and sugges- | new principle, is nearly completed for the way in transverse dimensions, perhaps the tions that are, or may be advanced, the de- Greenwich Railway Company. The frame largest canal tunnel in England, has only scriminating and skilful engineer will know is constructed so that the wheels cannot dean area of four hundred and fifty feet; while what to choose and what to reject. The viate from the rails at any speed, and that she smallest tunnel contemplated on the subject of rails and chairs, has occupied their revolving motion can be instantly
ADHESION ON RAILWAYS.
S; by mul- practical purposes.
changed to a sliding motion ; thus the train ||of the circumference of a circle to its dibeing powerfully retarded by friction, is
will de 6.043 times its weight, for
once a second, its velocity per second is duced to a point, and that the diameter of
ed in falling through D-4 under the action || This imaginary point is not the centre of To the Editor of the Mechanics' Magazine.
of the centrifugal force, which by supposi- gravity of the bods. The rules for ascerSir,When a heavy body is made 10 ||tion is gravity. Now by the laws of gravi- caining it, in all cases, with mathematical revolve in a circle, it has a tendency to fly || 1y, a body falling through S, would acquire precision, are exceedingly complex, and not from the centre, and this tendency is called || a velccity of 25 per second, and the velocity within the design of your magazine ; but its centrifugal force. An ounce ball attach. | acquired is in proportion to the square root with your leave, Mr. Editor, I will in some ed to a string and whirled around horizon. of the space fallen through, therefore D.C||future communication, give the methods of tally, in the manner of a sling, may easily
ascertaining it in the simpler cases, and a be made to break the string, even though
: 2$ :: ✓
method of approximation sufficient for all it is strong enough to sustain the weight of
D four or five ounces; that is to say, the cen. we have D2.C? : 4$? : :
Respectfully yours, trifugal force may easily be made to exceed | Liplying extremes and means, we get S.
or five times the weight of the ball. || D2.CP=S?.D; dividing by D.S.C? gives The fundamental rule for comparing this D=
S_ 193 force under different circumstances, is the
BY HENRY COLMAN. 1. The centrifugal force of bodies, revolvHaving ascertained this circle, let D=
It is exceedingly curious and interesting ing in a circle, is in proportion to the weight diameter of any other circle in inches—1= of the body multiplied into the square of its time of the body's revolution in that circle-to observe how closely associated are all the velocity, and divided by the diameter of the G=force of gravity-to find F, the centri-interests of society, interlocking each other circle. lugal force of the body.
in every direction, like a thickly woven weh,
of the most complicated texture, and united In the comparison of bodies revolving in
By comparing this circle with the one
by a common, reciprocal, and indissoluble
whose diameter is 19.554, according to the dependence. How much it were to be decircles with an uniform velocity, the following rules hold good, and are easily deduci || third rule above stated, we have G: F: :sired that men could better understand this ble from the preceding one.
and see that the just prosperity of one branch to multiply extremes and means,
of business is in a degree the prosperity of 2. If the weight and velocity of the bo GD
all; that there can in fact be no long and dies and diameter of the circles be the same, and IF x 19.554, and since we make
permanent monopoly of the great advantathe force is the same in all points of the circle. gravity the unit of force, G=l, therefore tages of social life; that success and prosper3. The centrifugal force is in proportion D
ity in any particular department of busito the weight of the body multipled by the l22 x 19.534 =F, which expressed in wordsness have a tendency to diffuse themselves diameter of the circle, and divided by the
like the great elements of nature; and that gives the following rule. square of the periodical time: that is to say,
the gains of any one man in the various
6. Divide the diameter expressed in inch-connexions, fluctuations, and ever varying the square of the time taken to make one
es by 19.554 times the square of the peri-relations of society, become ultimately the revolution.
odical time expressed in seconds, and the gains of all. 4. The centrifugal force is in proportion || quotient will be the ceatrifugal force, gray There have been times, when men, under to the weight of the body, multiplied by the lity being one. For example, if a body re- the influence of mistaken views, possibly, in diameter of the circle, multiplied into the volve once in two seconds, in a circle whose some cases, under the influence of corrupt square of the number of revolutions made diameter is eight feet, its centrifugal force motives, have endeavored to excite animosin a given time.
ities and prejudices among the commercial, 5. The relation between the centrifugal will be 1.227 times its weight for
manufacturing, and agricultural classes and 27 X 19.554
interests. Now nothing could be more force of a body, iis velocity, and the diame- =1.227.
wrong in respect to each of them; and ter of the circle in which it revolves, is
By comparing the centrifugal forces in though government may sometimes adopt a such, that the body would acquire its velo-|| these two circles, according to the fourth partial policy, an unjust system of favoritcity, by falling, under the action of the rule above stated, we have the following: ism, granting peculiar privileges to some, force, through one fourth of the diameter of 7. Multiply the diameter of the circle into the prejudice or exclusion of other interthe circle.
inches, by the square of the number of revo-ests, yet it must be adınitted as a great and By the assistance of this principle, welutions per second, and divide the produci incontrovertible principle, extending itself can easily measure the centrifugal force of|| by 19.554, and the quotient will be the cen- | throughevery department of society through
all its multiplied ramifications, that the welbodies, provided we assume some known trifugal force, gravity being one. For ex- fare of one part is the welfare of all; the force as the unit of force, as in measuring ample, if a body revolve three times per prosperity enjoyed by any one portion, nedistance we assume some known unit of second in a circle of ten feet diameter, its cessarily reflects its light upon the rest; and length, a foot or a yard. The most conve-centrifugal force will be 55.93 times its that any long continued and exclusive apnient standard we can adopt, is the force of
120 X 39
weight, for =55.23. And from the propriation of any of the great advantages gravity at the earth's surface, because it is
of life is no more possible than a continued perfectly well known, and is in proportion first rule above stated, we adduce the fol- and exclusive appropriation of light, or air, to the weight or inertia of the body, as cen. lowing:
or water. trifugal force also is. It is required, then, 8. Divide the square of the number of
The mutual and reciprocal benefits to be to find the diameter of the circle in which a inches which the revolving body passes and from Manufactures by Agriculture, may
derived from Agriculture by Manufactures, body must revolve once in a second, in or-|| through in a second, by 193 times the diam- be illustrated by a recurrence to some of the der tha; its centrifugal force may be just | 2ter in inches. Thus, if a body revolve, in statistical details of some of the Lowell equal to gravity at the earth's surface. a circle of ten Inches diameter, at the rate Manufactures, as published in a tabular Let D-diameter required, C= thorntioll of nine fet a gocond, ita contrifugal force sheet on the let of January, 1886. We
skall recur to them by way of illustration, superintendence of a child. Operationslay claim to all this time, which machine premising only that our remarks must be which human power, singly applied, could ry saves ; bnt this does not necessarily folbrief ; and that we are without the means never effect, are here daily and hourly ef- low; for wages are not reduced; and though of illustrating the truths with which we set fected by the simple revolution of a wheel the meansoof subsistence are increased the out, so fully in detail,as we otherwise might or the pressure of a lever; and all this, with power of procuring it is proportionally exhave done.
an exactness and precision absolutely per- tended ; and unless men choose voluntariThe Manufactures at Lowell then, have fect, I may properly add, sublime. Of thely to surrender their time, they can save collected a population of nearly twenty increased value given by manufactures to much for rational enjoyment and improvethousand in a spot where formerly there the raw material
, and of the perfection to ment. I know, too, that there are ihose, were not twenty individuals, all of whom which the art is carried, I may be allowed who are disposed to tax human strength ió are more or less concerned in, and all of to quote an example from Dr. Ure, in his its utmost limits under the pretence that them to a great degree entirely dependent treatise on the cotton manufacture. Such, men would abuse their liberty if they had on, the success of these Manufactures for he says, is the exquisite nature of the ma- more leisure. Many, undoubtly, would emplopment, subsistence, and comfort. They chinery in Manchester, England, that a abuse it; but this is not a necessary conseare withdrawn from other pursuits, many of pound of cotton is capable of being spun quence of such a relaxation ; and while lithem froin Agricultural labor, and they are into 350 hanks ; in which case, the yarnbraries, public lectures, books of general and to be supported by the products of Agricul-produced by it would extend 294,000 yards, useful knowledge, are so much multiplied, ture; fur bread and meat must come from or 167 miles ; and that which, in à raw and means of improving, and innocent the earth. Being withdrawn from Agri-state, cost 38 8d, sterling, (this remember, amusement are also multiplied, the danger cultural·labor, they render that labor more after paying the planter, the merchant, the of such abuses is daily lessened. valuable; and congregating in this way, they | freighter, &c., &c., an ample profit,) after Let us remark in the next place, how, by consume more of ihe products of labor, than being thus manufactured, would be worth | means of improved machinery, ihe comif they were scaitered in the families to twenty-five guineas.
forts and innocent luxuries of life are difwhich they belonged. Besides this, they The prejudices existing against machine. fused. I am disposed to call elegance of have introduced a large amount of foreign lry are fast losing their hold upon all reflect- dress, for example, when it is such only as population, by whose extraordinary skilling minds; and its advantages upon thcir|befits our circumstances and means of exand labor we are greatly benefitted and vast condition are becoming far better understood penditure, an innocent luxury. We have public improvements are effected ; and by the common laborers. Whatever tends certainly high authority for regarding it whose subsistence of course creates a new to abridge the severity of human soil, and with favor; for what is more beatiful, gay, demand and market for the products of Ag. to abate the necessity of such an expendi- splendid, variegated, brilliant and gorgeous riculture. These effects are strongly per-| ture of human power, as is both wearing to than the fiowers of the field;, the scales ceptible in the immediate vicinity of Lowell; the spirits, and destructive to human life, of the reptile; the shells of the crustareous and a ready and high market is found there must be a general benefit. Whatever mul tribes; or the plumage of the birds? Now, for all kinds of Agricultural products. This tiplies to an almost universal diffusion, noi || how are these innocent luxuries multiplied is certainly great gain to the farming inter-only the comforts, but even the harmlesz lux- and placed within the reach of all the indusest; and valuable, not solely from the im- uries of life, whatever leave men more time to trious classes of the community; so that the mediate profits, which it now yields, but apply to the high purposes of intellectual most humble dwellings are often decorated from the inducement and stimulus, which improvement, or to innocent social enjoy with an elegance of furniture, which not it gives to improvements; and to a more ment, must be a blessing. If the man who many years since, the wealth of palaces extended and productive cultivation. There causes two blades of grass to grow where could not have purchased ; and the dress is another mode in which the cause of Ag- but one grew before, is to be pronounced a worn by many of the laborers in these esriculture here is indirectly but greatly ben-| public benefactor, certainly he is not less so, tablishments, and paid for too, by their honefitted. Much of the wages received by who will cause four to grow with no greatest industry, before it is worn, is such, as in the laborers in these factories is remitted to ler expense of labor than the production of 1 times not far gone by, princesses of the friends at home; perhaps to extingush mort-blade formerly cost. Threshing machines realm would have envied. A pair of silk gages or incumbrances on the family es-|| have been, in some cases, the victims of pop-stockings, presented by the French Ambastate, or to aid in improving the domicil. ular resentment and frenzy; but there would sador, to Queen Elizabeth, was a rare pos
Separate from the products of Agricul- have been equal reason' in tearing down session, to be brought out only on extraorculture consumed in the subsistence of the every blacksmith's shop in the kingdom and dinary occasions ; and deemed a magnifioperatives of those establishments, let us breaking to pieces every plough and spade ; || cent present. A taste for dress I know will look at some of the items of those articles for the plough and spade are equally ma-be condemned by many ascetic and severe which are used immediately in the process chines ; and as great advances upon the moralists. Pride of dress is, indeed, always of the manufacture. Of cotton, 13,676,600 earliest instruments of tillage, as the thresh- contemptible; and can only be excused lbs. Of wool, 1,600,000lbs. Of wood 4690|ing machine over the cominon flail. If the through want of understanding.
But a cords. Of starch, 510,000 lbs. Of flour, threshing machine debars some persons strict care of the person, and a particular for starch in the mills, printworks and bleach- from their accustomed business, it relieves care of the dress, alike in respect to its ing, per annum, 3,800 barrels. Of char- them from their accustomed toil; if it makes neatness, propriety, and elegance, will be coal, per annum, 500,000 bushels. 01 their labor less valuable, it renders their found not a mean auxiliary to purity of senTeasels, 3000,000. These amounts are bread less dear; if it closes one source of in-timent, decorum of manners, and innocence certainly enormous; and when added to come and subsistence, it leaves them time, of conduct. Vulgarity and slovenliness of the bread, meat, vegetables, hay, oats, corn, strength, and opportunity to make choicedress, and uiter disregard of personal apmilk, fruit, &c., &c., necessary for the con- of others. If the stick or the shell, or the pearance, especially in the young, is too ofsumption of the human machinery here improved machine, the spade, must be ten but an index to grosser neglects, and the employed, it is easy to see what demand: brought back to take the place of that ad- harbinger of moral delinquencies. Every are made upon agriculture for the supply mirable contrivance for saving human labor, | thing on the other hand, which contributes of them; and what quick and profitable the plough, then must nine tenths of the to promote self-respect, increases a sense of returns the supply of them brings back to land, now in tillage and productive, be the value of character; and a high sense the farmer.
thrown out of cultivation; the means of of the value of character is one of the greatThe power of machinery is another cir- human subsistence be in proportion dimin-est securities of virtuous conduct. cumstance that strikes one with astonish-ished, and the price of what is produced There is another good resulting from the ment on visiting these places. Operations enhanced. In time, as we have already re-modern improvements in machinery, which which it would require years to accomplish marked, an immense deal is gained; that is is not immediately obvious at first sight; by any other process, are here accomplish now accomplished in a single day, which but which is certain, and deserving great ed in a day.
Operations which the formerly, years of patient and severe consideration. Much has been said of the combined power of a thousand men, couldi toil could not have completed. I know division of labor; and the perfection to not effect, are here performed under the lihat cupidity and avarice may still which by means of it, the arts have been
SIAN SCHOOL SYSTEM.
carried. This has been illustrated by a ref-|| secular instruction, the state prescribes the system of education establishes certain erence to the manufacture of a rin, which| subjects and directs the modes of teaching fixed points of support, which leave room passes through various processes, each re-through a number of instructors, and a for universal and indefinite improvement, quiring or employing a different artizan. | body of inspectors appointed for this pur- and which brings every institution of sol'he same things occur in various other pose, and appointed simply for their quali- ciety in harmony with the rest. It eecures manufactures. The effect has heretoforefications in this respect without any of|permanent superintendents devoted to these been that one person has been confined for those distracting questions and jealousies abjects, previously well-qualified, and gainlife to a single
, minute operation; and that,| about party or sect which would embarrassing every year stores of experience for most probably, an uninteresting one; and our governments. But in regard to religion, themselves, and the minister of education, requiring in order to its expert practicealong it assumes only the right to decide, and to by their regular tones of inspection and and tedious apprenticeship. Such is, in insist, that instruction shall be given; leav-examination, and aided by the more detailmany cases, the improved character of the ing to the clergy of each church the entire ed reports of local inspeciors. It is in this machine employed in various operations, direction of the subjects and the manner of manner they furnish every child in the that the machinery itself, with a self-direct-instruction.
land with a complete and harmonious course ing and self-adjusting power, performs The laws, however, decide one point ab- of instruction of the best kind, and confer many operations at one and the same time ;| solutely, that religious instruction must no power on a subject
, without endeavoring and with a precision which the human hand take the first place in importance, and from/to instil the principles and form the habits or eye can scarcely be expected to attain a part of the business of this school daily, of thinking and feeling which shall direct and preserve.
This is particularly illus- for not less than one hour in six. It will him in using it aright. trated in the whip and card manufacturing;ll not permit that it should be confined to the The nature of the Government also enand this is a great gain to humanity and weekly catechetical instruction of the ables them to execute a law,—which howa general benefit; since many operations, || clergy, which is given with a regularity ever reasonable, might meet with resistance which were very trying to the health and and minuteness unknown to our clergy in elsewhere,—to secure by civil regulation spirits, which required long practice and general, and still less to the irregular and the attendance of every child on the inintense application, are now performed by uncertain instruction of parents, so many struction thus provided. machinery under ihe superintendence of a of whom cannot if they will, or will not child, after, it may be, a week's, or a if they can, attend properly to this part of apply such a system to countries differently
It would seem at first sight difficult to month's instruction.
H. C. their children's education. March, 1836.
In the application of these principles the the direction rests with the mass of the peo
situated. It is certain indeed, that where laws appear to secure every important point
. (ple, light must be more extensively difProvision is first made for the preparation | fused, and education better understood, From the Annals of Education for April.
and of Christian school masters, of the leading FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PRUS
denomination, by the establishment of dis more highly appreciated, before such meatinct seminaries for teachers, sustained by is not less true, however
, that if we admit
sures can be executed, or even adopted. It We have recently conversed with seve-government, but regulated and inspected the fundamental principles, that the State ral officers of the Prussian government in by the clergy of the respective churches. has as much right to claim the mental, as reference to their system of education. Where the parents in a school district are the bodily services of its citizens, and 10 To enter fully into this system and to un agreed in reilgious opinions, a teacher of require suitable preparations for it
, and that derstand completely any portion of it, it the same sect gives religious instruction, require suitable preparations for it, and that must be remembered that in this kingdon, under the direction of the pastor, and religious instruction is indispensable, as the the State, the Church, and the School, are everything goes on with regularity and in sobedience to the laws, and of genuine inseparably united by numerous and inti- harmony.
liberty, the plans adopted to carry them inmate bonds. The government is at the In places where each of two or more de- to effect, are the most simple and excellent head of the church and the school-if we nominations is sufficiently numerous to sus- which could be devised. may be allowed to use the latter term intain a school, the Government, although
Frankfort on Mayne, Nov. 27, 1835. the same general sense as the other, to connected of itself with the reformed, or include all the schools of the kingdom. It|| as it is now termed the evangelical church, assumes the right to prescribe that every consisting of the old Lutherans and Revillage must have its church and its school, Jormed united, establishes and sustains that every man shall have the means of schools for each. The Catholic Seminaries Kits puhl copper mine in the Tyrol fect. religious instruction—that every child shall || supply teachers for the Catholic schools,
2764 attend some school. It does this on the and even the Jewish children are furnished Sampson mine at Andreasberg, in the ground that its citizens should be prepared with an instructor of their own sect.
2230 to become good subjects, and that they can The most perplexing case is that in Valencia mine, (silver,) Guanaxuato, not be so without receiving both intellectual which the inhabitants of a small village or
2170 and religious instruction. Its right is un. district are so divided that no single sect is
Pearce's shaft, (copper,) consolidated disputed to preserve the bodies of its sub-sufficiently numerous to sustain a school.
1650 jecis from injury, and to have them trained Here the laws direct that a " simultaneous to military exercises, and military skill, that school” shall be established ; that is, -one Wheal Abraham mine, Cornwall,
Monkwearmouth colliery, Durham, 1600
1410 they may be prepared to serve and defendin which children of all sects are united for
Eiton mine, Staffordshire,
1380 : their country by physical power, and pre-the purpose of mere intellectual instruction. vented from becoming burdens for want of Still, the Government here insists, that re
The deep mines in the Tyrol, Hartz and it. It claims the same right to guard their ligious instruction shall be given in con- | Andes, above described, are all in high sitminds from debasement and corruptionnection with the school. Pastors are acuations—the bottom of the Mexican mine to require, that they should receive that|cordingly required to give instruction to the is six thousand feet higher than the top of instruction which will aid them in gaining children of their respective flocks, during the Cornwall shaft. The deepest perforaa subsistence, and being useful to their the week, and are subject to the supervi- tion beneath the level of the sea, and concountry; and that moral training, which || sion of the Inspector of Schools, in regard sequently the nearest approach to the earth's will make them good subjects.
to the faithful performance of this duty; centre, has been made at the MonkwearIt does not seem to enter into the con- whilst no interference is allowed as to the mouth colliery, which is fifteen hundred and ception of any officer of Stato, or church, opinions taught. There is so little jealousy thirteen feet below the surface of the Geror school here, that order can be secured between good men, even of different man ocean. Pearce's shaft (thirteen hunin a community without religion, or that mo- nominations, that the teacher of such schools | dred and thirty-eight feet below the level of rality can have any other sold basis than is sometimes of one sect, sometimes of ano- the sea,) was, until lately, the deepest in Christian instruction and Christian training, ther.
the world.--[Geology in 1836, (Mining in a Christian spirit. In reference to mere It is in this manner that the Prussian Review.)]
DEPTH OF MINES.