« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
ceived, and right glad shall I be to learn, liyoufwith this communication is, that these, We lately observed to have been laid bethat an engine weighing 84 tons will draw (as I think,) extravagant statements are fore Congress a report from Captain Wilo 50 tons freight upon an ascent of 25 feet more than any thing else, calculated to in. Liams, said to be a very able one, of a surper mile, 10 miles per hour, as the average jure the cause of internal improvement, byvey made by him for a ship canal around performance-just half the reputed perform- being ultimately productive of mortification the Falls of Niagara. The report also
embraces a plan of the work and an estiance of the Baltimore engines. How much and serious loss to those embarking in en
mate of its cost. The whole, together with have these extravagant statements done to terprises founded on such data, by under-/ the drawings, has been ordered to be printshake the public confidence in that noble mining the confidence of the public in the ed ; and some time or other we shall give undertaking which has scarcely advanced profession, and by leading inevitably to a our readers some further account of the 5 miles in as many years, and which is hasty and imperfect system of location, the report, &c. now indebted for its chance of ultimate natural consequence of the light manner in
" CHARLESTON AND Ohio RAILROAD. completion, to the spirit and energy with which these heavy grades are spoken of. Capt. Williams, of the United States topo. which similar and rival works are underta In conclusion I beg leave to state, that I graphical engineers, arrived here in the ken in other States, and from which Balti-shall be much pleased to be proved in error steamboat from Norfolk, on Saturday. The more has at length derived that confidence as to the power of locomotives, and should officers to be associated with him in the surin the Railway system, with which lier any of your numerous contributors under-vey of the proposed railroad, (viz. Lieuterown exertions had failed to inspire her. take the task, it will be received with the ants White, Dayton, and Reed, and Mr.
Mr. Campbell states, that one of “ Bald-spirit in which this is offered,-that of scek-Featherstonhaugh,) reached this place a win's engines will take frum, 70 to 80 tonsing the truth.
short time since, so that the brigade is now freight, 10 to 12 miles per hour, up an as.
Your obedient servant,
full, and we are gratified to learn that these
officers will enter immediately on the great cent of 45 feet per mile.” If this assertion
C. R. W.
work. Captain Williams, who is at the refer to an engine of about 8 tons weight,
head of this corps, is, we understand, a then does it far exceed what the B. and O. The Directors of the Detroit and St. Igentleman of distinguished talents, of much Company profess to do-1 say profess to Joseph's Railroad Company, have ordered, experience, and admirably qualified for condo, for the performances recorded by Mr. |from England, the Iron for 40 miles of the ducting the surveys about to be made ; and Seymour are mere fractions of the above,| road; being 720 tons, the cost of which all the officers under his command are genand, even the greatest (150 passengers) is will be about $60,000-$1500 a mile. tlemen of high reputation, well qualified for not more than į of what the engines are The grubbing and clearing on the part the important duties which will devolve upsaid to be capable of doing, and is rather put under contract has been commenced, on them. below the average performance of the Hud- and will probably be finished by the 20th We understand that Colonel Gadsden, son and Mohawk Railroad. On this Road, (of May, the time stipulated in the contracts. || and Captain Williams, as the chief, civil and English and American engines take 50 tons We presume the iron will be received early military engineers, will, with General Hayne
in the fall or the latter part of summer. chairman of the commissioners, constitute gross, 15 miles per hour, overcoming an in
The contracts for grubbing the first 15 a Board to arrange the measures to be adopclination of 26 jeet per inile, for about }|miles of the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad, sted for the early and successful completion the distance run. The engines weigh about were let last Monday.-[Detroit Journal of the necessary examination, surveys, and 71 to 8 tons, and their average performance, and Advertiser, May 3.]
estimates, to enable the Knoxville Convenas well as the extraordinary performance
tion, (which will assemble on the 4th of Juof Baldwin's engine mentioned above, are
We find the following article in the Na- ly next) to act efficiently upon the subject. both within the limits of locomotive power, tional Intelligencer, and as it relates to a Captain Williams will leave here with his
s stated in the beginuing of this communication, though the performances recorded subject of interest to many of our readers, party, (indeed, two of his officers have alby the two gentlemen quoted above, go we give it a place in our columns :
ready gone,) for the mountains in a day or
two, and will enter upon his work as soon as very far beyond them.
We republish the subjoined article from the necessary arrangements can be made. Of course, Baldwin, or any other good
the "Southern Patriot." When the ar- The best wishes of the citizens of Charlesmanufacturer, can make an engine which rangement for the survey of this great rail
. ton go with them, and we know that it is only will take 80 tons freight up aseents of 40
road was announced in the Columbia Tel- || necessary to give this intimation to our fel
escope, we were aware that there was some low citizens of the interior of the to 15 feet per mile, at the rate of 10 miles an misunderstanding in the case, as we knew of such visitors, to secure for them
approach hour, but it must be a very different thing the rule of service to be not to place the only a hospitable reception, but a cordial to one of Baldwin's ordinary engines, of chief of the party of U. S. engineers in welcome, and the most efficient aid." about 8 toas weight, to which the general subordination to the civil engineers of any reader naturally supposes M. C. refers ; and State or Company, but that when States I think it at least doubtful if on any road or Companies had chief engineers, and U. From the Journal of the Franklin Institute." the average performance of the engine is S. engineers were associated on the same equal to 40 tons freight, drawn 10 10 12 duty,thechief oʻthe latter was allowed to be miles up an ascent of 25 feet per mile, by a
placed only on terms of equality with the 7 to 8 tons locomotive. I need scarcely ob- tions from the State or Company, and, like
former, receiving, like the former, his direcserve that the average useful effect for the former, making his reports and returns to weeks and months together is that which the same authority.
STEAM ENGINES, AND FOR OTHER PUFis alone useful to the public, and on which The misunderstanding of these relations, the calculations of the capacity of engines in the associated service of private and U.
BALDWIN, CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, AU should be founded, for it is well known to S. engineers, and which had been inadver.
GUST 17, 1835. all who have any acquaintance with ma-tently adopted in the preliminary arrange The boxes in which the gudgeons used chinery, that nearly iwice the ordinary ments for the survey of this road, by the | about locomotive and other steam engines, amount of work can be turned off, for a authorities of the State of South Carolina, and machinery of various kinds, are received short time, without injury to the machine, is now, we perceive, happily corrected. and turn, have heretofore been fitted into though were this attempted to be kept up, Patriot," to Captain WILLIAMS, of the corps receive them, by filing, or other analogous
The compliment paid by the “Southern the plummer blocks, or pedestals, made to its durability would be comparatively tri- of topographical engineers, is, we under means, their ends being made either square fling, a most important consideration in stand, no more than the known science, or angular, and adapted to corresponding locomotives, the first cost of which is very great intelligence, experience, and industry parts in the plummer block, or pedestal, great. My immediate object in troubling of that officer justly entitle him to. prepared to receive them. My improved
SPECIFICATION OF A PATENT FOR A MODE
OF FITTING THE BOXES FOR GUDGEONS
mode of fitting them consists in turning or || the adjustment is made to operate upon two The prepared sticks were left on the boring the opening, or seat in the plummer sides, or edges, only. For this purpose, 1 ground in the open air six months, and then block, into which the boxes are to be fitted, make my slide bar flat on two sides, and again placed in the Rotten Pit, with other so as to make each of the cheeks cylindri-| the other two sides, or edges, half round, || end of two years the prepared timber was
pieces of well seasoned timber. At the cal segments. The boxes in which the or otherwise form them into two planes, found quite sound—the seasoned very rolgudgeon is to run, are then to be attached meeting each other along the middle there- || ten. to each other by screws, or otherwise, and of, by which means the rod will become six The Rotten Pit, at Woolwich Yard, is a turned by means of a slide rest, or worked sided, this latter form being preferred to the cave under ground, 80 feet long by 20 feet
, in any other manner, so as to make their rounding of the edges. The box within and built by order of government, for the ends cylindrical, and to cause them to fit which the bar slides, is provided with two purpose of testing the efficacy of the various exactly to the cylindrical cheeks, prepared brasses, or bearing pieces, with hollows, or proposed nostrums for preserving timber
The pit is lined, top, bottom and sides, with for their reception, in the plummer block. grooves, in them, adapted to the edges of In constructing the slides for the pistons the sliding bar, and fitting accurately be- of corruption-very damp and full of car
vegetable matter in the worst possible stage of locomotive and other steam engines, and|tween the parallel sides of the box ; -when, bonic acid gas-it is a perfect hot-bed-a for other purposes, the slide bar has usually therefore, the brasses, or bearings, are ad- candle will not burn in it a minute, so foul been made square, or four sided, and its justed to the edges of the rod by set screws is the air of this subterraneous chamber. angles usually right angles; and the brass- || acting against them, the rod is embraced In fact, no timber, although thoroughly which it slides, have been adjusted to it bydency to a lateral motion, as will appear by|of the Roten Pit. The specimens were es, or bearings, contained in the box within | by them so as effectually to check all ten- salted, docked, or seasoned, will resist three set screws operating upon three sides there an inspection of the drawings deposited in placed on the bottom of the pit, and half of. In my improved mode of construction, the Patent Office.
buried in the putrid vegetable matter with which the cave is kept supplied. This experiment seemed so conclusive, that Govern
ment immediately paid the inventor £10,000, ICE
and advised him to take out a patent. He was ordered to construct tanks at all the Dock Yards, and the government timber was immediately prepared in the above manner. Previous to ihis, individuals bad fitted tanks, and two whalemen were built
entirely of timber and plank prepared with I V
the solution. House builders are also using it very generally in London. The sleepers, or foundations for railways—siaves for oil casks, canvass, rope, and all vegetable matter, may be preserved by its use. It is
found that a cubic foot of oak, will absorb CL al
three pints of the liquid, which will cost at
the present price of quicksilver, 7 cents Figs. 1 and 2, cross sections of the box universally adopted in England, is of im- per cubic foot. A mere trifle compared with and slide bar, with angular and with circular portance to the public, you will confer a fa. || the immense advantage of having a mate
rial not liable to be destroyed by rot, worms, fittings.
vor by giving it an insertion.
The writer of this is personally acquainted or insects of any kind, The objection urged A, slide bar.
with the ingenious inventor-has attended against this material, is its poisonous naB, brasses, or bearings.
the lectures in London on the subject, and ture. But it has been proved by careful C, boxes. is satisfied of the efficacy of his plan.
experiment, that corrosive sublimate, when D, adjusting screws.
The material employed by the inventorit
combines with the sap of wood, forms a Fig. š, horizontal section of a plummeris Corrosive Sublimate, long known as a compound perfectly insoluble, and quite in block and boxes, through the centre of the great preservative of animal substances nocent in fact, a complete chemicalchange gudgeons.
from decay. The timber to be prepared akes place in the poisonous nature of the E, gudgeon.
must be placed in a tank or vessel, from 40| mixture by this combination.
to 80 feet long, 4 or 5 feet deep, and about The writer has seen experiments tried F, box.
the same width. A solution of the corro- upon canvass and rope, which was immersed G, cheeks of the plummer block.
sive sublimate is then thrown upon it until in the solu:ion, and placed four months in What I claim as my invention, and wish covered; the proportion, according to the a dung hill!he unprepared pieces were deto secure by letters patent, is the mode of inventor, is 1 lb. of corrosive sublimate to stroyed-while the texture of the prepared fitting the bɔxes of gudgeons into plummer 5 gallons of water-but individuals who specimens was not weakened in the slight
est degree-any one can try this by using blocks, pedestals, or other receptacles, by have tried it, say 1 lb. to 10 gallons of wa. boring, turning, or otherwise, so as to make ter. Pine plank are saturated in 48 hours. the above proportions.
Satisfactory accounts have been received the fittings cylindrical. I also claim the An oak stick, 40 feet long and 1 foot square,
requires three weeks-during which time by Messrs. B. Rotch and M. Enderby, og fitting of the slides for the pistous of loco it becomes effectually seasoned, and will not London, from the captains of the whale motive engines, for other purposes,
contract or shrink even on exposure to the ships consiructed at their instance, of timbrasses, or boxes, adjusted and operating highest temperature of a tropical climate. ber prepared as above--testifying that the in the manner hereinbefore set forth. The corrosive sublimate has a strong affin-crew were remarkably healthy, although Matthias W. BALDWIN. ity for the albumen or vegetable juices gen-| they slept actually in contact with the ceil.
ferally called sap, combines instantaneouslylling plank thus prepared, through all cli
with' it, and forms a new chemical com- males and changes of temperature. PREVENTIVE AGAINST DRY ROT. pound which is solid, insoluble, and will not It is well known to practical men that
attract moisture. The efficacy of this in- salt is not an effectual preservative-as We have been favored by an intelligent vention has been tested in the most extra. many ships salted on the stocks, have been ship master with the following communica
ordinary manner. Pieces of the timber found rotten the first voyage--one instance, tion relating to recent successful experi
prepared with a solution of the sublimate, the Enterprise of Nantucket. The Golconments in England in the means of preservand unprepared pieces, the latter well sea.da, of New-Bedford, has had a new winding ship timber against premature decay: I soned, were placed in the “ Rotten Pit," at lass three voyages in succession, and the which cannot fail to be of practical interest the King's Dock Yard, Woolwich, in 1828. lower masts of ships very quickly decay. and value to many of our readers.--[New. In 1831, i he writer of this was present when These parts of a ship it is impossible to salt. Bedford Mercury.]
they wire withdrawn. The prepared tim. In the British nayv, the use of salt has been Mr. Lindsey :- If you think the following ber was perfectly sound--the unprepared, discontinued, as it is found to eorpode the description of the method of proserving although of the beat English onk, was a Iron rapidly, and it also keep a ship in timber fram ror, insects and worme, now mass of you and decayed vegetable matier. vary damp stato
From Genesee Farmer.
MR. TUCKER-I noticed an article in the Monthly Genesee Farmer on the various uses and valuable properties of the sweet apple for fattening hogs, cattle, &c. I am impressed fully with the belief, that sweet apples for fattening hogs and cattle, are, when compared with the expense of cultivation, invaluable, though my experiments are quite limited as to the practical results. But the object of this communication is, to make some suggestions as it regards varieties, together with the seasons of ripening: It is remarked, I think, justly, that the early sweet Bough is worthy of particular attention, as being an excellent sweet apple, and as far as my knowledge extends, quite the best of the early varieties. There are two kinds of this Bough: the smaller kind is raised and much preferred in the county of Dutchess as being much the richest and most valuable, and quite as early—both excellent eating apples. The latter kind I have never seen in the western counties. The early Leicester Sweeting is also an apple of equal value, but about two weeks later. This is an excellent bearer, and will keep well to October. The Pound Sweeting comes along now, and is a good and profitable apple-also the Cabashire Sweeting, which is both large and fine. Then the Wing Sweeting, Tift Sweeting, Jersey Sweeting—also the Crow Egg. The Wing and Tift Sweetings are remarkably sweet, of a middling size, and very delicious for eating—also excellent bearers. Another remarkable quality is, they are fine for eating in October, and if
5 they are put up with care, they are equally as good in the months of April and May, after being kept over the winter. They are fine through the winter for store hogs. The length of their season, the richness of their flavor, and the crops yearly produced by each tree, render them worthy the particular attention of every farmer. The Jersey Sweet is no less worthy of culture as it regards its qualities. In its richness and deliciousness for eating, &c., it is not surpassed by any other sweet apple in the State. There are a few kinds which I find Applications of Chemistry to the Useful Arts, | proper that the manufacture of these two among the selections made by persons
being the substance of a Course of Lectures preparations should be understood. · grafting about the country that exceptions
delivered in Columbia College, New-York, might be taken to, among which I will
by James Renwick, Professor of Natural MANUFACTURE OF CHLORIDE OF LIME. mention the pumpkin Sweeting, Golden
Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry. Sweeting, &c. I am well acquainted with
AUTHORITY.-Dumas. Chimic appliquee aux arts. these fruits, and in my humble judgment
Chloride of lime in a dry form is manuthey are not worth cultivating. In the first|| APPLICATIONS OF CHLORINE.
factured in an apparatus invented by an place they are a very coarse apple and quite Chlorine may be applied in its gaseous English chemist, from whom the article is liable to be watery at the core, and they form, as obtained in the mode practised in often called Tennant's bleaching powder. will not keep any length of time ; and laboratories by action of manganese (pe-| It consists of a retort or still of lead, confurther, there are others to be obtained that, roxide of manganese) upon muriatic acid ; ||nected by a pipe with a brick chamber coto say the least, are much more valuable. or by the action of sulphuric acid on commented by a lute, which is not acted upon One remark respecting grafting : I dis- | mon salt and manganese ; or as evolved | by chlorine. The still is heated by steam cover, from a number of years' observa- from the chloride of lime. It may also be introduced into an envelope or jacket of tion, that the best time for grafting is as applied in solution, prepared by passing the cast iron. In the top of the still are two early as the weather in March will admit of gas through water, by steeping chloride of openings: one furnished with a stopper by their being set the best, as these early set lime in water, or in the form of the liquor which it is charged with manganese; to the generally grow much more thriftily and of Labaraque (chloride of soda) The use other a bent tube is applied for the intromuch larger the fisrt year than those set of chloride of lime in both cases, and of duction of the acid, a part of which remain-, late,
chloride of soda in the second, have super-ing in the tube serves as a valve to confine Respecifdly, &c
søded the piher methods. In consequence, the gas Within the still there is a reticuHAXAURUbefore explaining the use of chlorine li lnted ypaspleinst iron, which is attacked
to a rod passing through the top of the still. | are approached on the large scale by 61 lbs.llbe ascertained. No ready method fitted By means of this the materials are conti- of pure oxide of magnanese, or a propor. for the use of practical men has yet been nually stirred in, order to bring new surfaces tionate quantity of the common manganese proposed, by which this object can be into contact. The still is so large as to of commerce, and 40 lbs. of common mu- effected with certainty. The method in receive a charge of 200 lbs. of manganese, riatic acid. The result should be about common use is rather relative than absolute, and four are usually employed at once, for two cubic yards of the gas, weighing nearly and consists in inquiring into the quantity which reason the brick chamber is divided ten pounds, and capable of saturating of the solution of indigo in sulphuric acid, into four compartments.
nearly fifteen pounds of hydrate of lime. the solution of a given quantity of chloride The floor of the chamber is covered to It is, however, obvious that a part of the of lime is capable of discoloring. This the depth of three or four inches, with pow. chlorine has been lost by entering into com- method will give different results, both from dered lime, prepared by slaking. In some bination with metallic manganese, and re- the different qualities of indigo and different manufactories the hydrate of lime is dis-maining in solution in water. A better modes of manipulation. But by using the posed in wooden trays resting upon shelves process is therefore proposed by Dumas, same solution of indigo, and operating in within the chamber. Only half of these by which an equal quantity of chlorine may exactly the same manner, the comparative are filled at first. At the expiration of two be obtained at a far less expense of acid|value in reference to a standard parcel of days, the process is stopped, the chamber from a given quantity of common mangan-||chlorine of lime is capable of being ascerventilated, and the remainder of the trays ese.
His formula is 10 or 12 lbs. of com- tained with tolerable accuracy. are introduced, being placed on the alternate mon manganese, equivalent to 6 1-2 of the shelves. The gas being again admitted, the peroxide, 4 lbs. of sulphuric acich 4 lbs. of PREPARATION OF THE SOLUTION of Chlo
RIDE OF SODA OR LIQUOR OF LABARAQUE. process goes on for two days more, when the water, and 20 lbs. of muriatic acid. The first set of trays are removed and replaced by retort being first charged with the mangan The works on elementary chemistry give others charged with fresh hydrate of lime. ese, the water is introduced, then the sul- the mode proposed by Labaraque himself, In this way the chamber always contains a phuric, and finally the muriatic acid. The for forming this liquor, by passing chlorine portion of lime nearly saturated, and an-| mixture of the water and sulphuric acid in its gaseous form through a solution of other portion nearly free of chlorine, and produce sufficient heat to cause the separa-sub-carbonate of soda. It is therefore unthus the decreasing rate at which hydrate of|tion of the chlorine. No more fuel, there-i necessary to repeat it here. It may, howlime absorbs chlorine is compensated. fore, need be used than is sufficient to keep ever, be stated that the value of the liquor
A still better mode, which is employed up this temperature. In addition, the mix- is not increased by saturating the water with in a few instances, would be to keep the ture is less likely to rise in viscid bubbles, chlorine, but that it is in its best state when lime in a state of agitation. This has been and the chlorine is more free from water, the chlorine is condensed in the largest objected to on account of the expense of as the attraction of the sulphuric acid will quantity which can exist without causing the moving power, but in an establishment prevent that liquid from boiling until all the the escape of the carbonic acid ; and it is. furnished with a steam engine, this would chlorine is disengaged. Sulphate of man- usually inferred that the chlorine, decompobe of little importance.
ganese will remain in solution instead of sing a part of the sub-carbonate, causes its The apparatus most generally used will the chloride.
acid to unite with the remaining soda to be understood by reference to the annexed In some cases, however, the chloride of form the neutral carbonate of soda. If the plate.
manganese may be of value, as it is used quantity of chlorine exceed this proportion, Fig. 1, elevation of the apparatus.
in dyeing. Here of course the existing which is of course just half of what might A, leaden still.
process is to be preferred. When the be condensed, muriatic acid will form in the B, chamber in which the hydrate of manufacture of artificial soda is not a pro- solution, and chloride of sodium will be lime is placed.
fitable object of industry, muriatic acid may the final result. Fig. 12, section of still on a larger scale. be too expensive for the manufacture of The most convenient process for the a, opening by which the manganese is chloride of lime. In this case, the mate- preparation of chloride of soda on the large introdoced.
rials whence that acid is obtainod (sulphuric scale, is that invented by Payen, in which b, funnel and bent tube for the intro-acid and common salt,) may be used in its the chloride of lime is decomposed by subduction of the acid.
stead. The proportions in which they may carbonate of soda. The proportions in his ce, water valve by which the head of be employed are, to 10 or 12 lbs. of com- formula are : 100 parts chloride of lime, the still is adapted.
mon manganese, 12 of common salt, 20 of 188 of crystalized sub-carbonate of soda, ce, apparatus of cast iron for stirring sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal quantity and 1800 of water. The chloride of lime the materials.
of water. The residuum of the retort is a being dissolved, and the solid residuum Fig. 3, plan of the chamber in which the solution of the sulphates of soda and of the washed, the sub-carbonate of soda dissolved hydrate of lime is placed. protoxide of manganese.
in boiling water is added; the liquor is filaa, iron rods which move the scra Aliquid mixture of lime and water (milk oftered, and to the clear liquor 62 parts of
lime) will condense 60 per cent, more chlo-crystalized sub-carbonate of soda is added. In some manufactories on a small scale, rine than the dry hydrate. This preparationis
1. DISINFECTING. the hydrate of lime is placed in conical ves- not readily portable, but when the consumer Rationale.-Chlorine owes its powers of sels of stone ware, having a hole near the manufactures it for himself, might be em- destroying the offensive effluvia of puiresbottom, to which the pipe that conveys the ployed to great advantage. To make this cent animal and vegetable substances, and
from the retort is luted. At the end of liquid chloride, the milk of lime has been of rendering innocuous the matters which the process, the vessel is inverted, and the placed in a cylindric vessel of stone ware, convey the contagion of infectious diseases, lime falls out. That which is not charged lying horizontally, through the ends of which to its powerful affinity for hydrogen. with chlorine remains in powder, and is an axle is passed that carries a set of arms The gases which arise from putrescent therefore readily separated from that which like those of a barrel-churn. The use of animal matter are principally ammonia (a is converted into chloride, which is adhe- these is to agitate the mixture, and thus hydroguret of nitrogen) and carburets of sive.
bring fresh surfaces of chlerine in contact hydrogen; and although they are not the The direct mode of obtaining chlorine, with the chlorine.
substances which affect our nerves most is by the action of peroxide of manganese
From what has been stated above, it would offensively, they are certainly the vehicles on muriatic acid. This may, and is often, appear that hydrate of lime is capable of which convey ihose which do so to our orfollowed in the manufacture on a large condensing about two thirds of its weight gans of smell. The effluvia of decaying scale. The equivalents of the substances of chlorine. In the ordinary manufacture, vegetables are principally composed of car. which are employed in the laboratory, are, 1. this strength is rarely reached, and the arti- buretted hydrogen, and although our senses of peroxide of manganese to 4 of hydro- cle may also be injured by exposure. It cannot detect any other substance, yet chloric (muriatic) acid. The results are is therefore important that some mode should there can be no question that the ynd 50
of chlorino, a of water, and I of proto be painted out by which the actual quantiryprodused doca convoy a matter injurious to phimride i manganese, Tha proportlann for hlarina eondanepel by the lime should in human continlinn, for Whia the #48
manufactured for illumination may be animal and vegetable decomposition may| ordinary language is called soft. This is breathed, even in quantities sufficient to be in a great measure prevented. found in streams only at a distance from render the air highly offensive, without in In cases where it may be necessary to their source, and from a command of water jury, the same gas evolved from marshes touch persons affected with contagious dis- of this description, as well as from the exand stagnant waters is always unwhol- eases, the hands should be washed with tent of its meadow lands, Holland for a
The diseased animal matter which one of the solutions, and this will be effica- long time monopolized the bleaching of the composes the virus of cutaneous diseases, cious even after many minutes, unless the vir- greater part of Europe. The linens of such as small pox, and collects in the soresulent matter have been introduced through Ireland and Great Britain were sent thither of the plague, is also composed partly of a wound. By the use of these substances to be bleached, and, as the process was a hydrogen, and therefore capable of decom- several diseases that have hitherto been long one, it was seldom that ihe capital emposition by chlorine. These peccant sub scourges of the human race, have already ||ployed in the manufacture was turned more stances being capable of forming vapor, been diminished in extent, and might, if all than once a year. The successive wash. may thus be conveyed through the air, but were prudent enough to employ them, being, and exposures to the air requiring to in this state also, chlorine will act upon extinguished altogether.
be repeated fourteen or fifteen times, and them.
To show their important value, a French the latter being only practicable in fine Chlorine is destructive of animal life, and physician in the Levant (Parisot) was able weather. The acid used to neutralize the even when largely diluted immediately to inspire five other porsons with confi-| alkaline matter was sour milk, in which by kills small animals. Even then, if, as somedence in the efficiency of chlorine ; these fermentation acetic acid had been generated. have supposed, the malaria which causes were of varions ages and different consti The first improvement in the process was yellow fever and other analogous diseases tutions. Six suits in which persons had the substitution of dilute sulphuric acid for of less malignancy, is owing to the pre- died of the plague were purchased, steeped the sour milk. Still, there was no great sence of animalculæ, chlorine may be ap- in solution of chloride of soda, and dried. || saving in time, until Berthollet in France plied to destroy them.
Each person being furnished with a suit, proposed the application of the bleaching
wore it for several days. Application.-Chlorine may be applied
No one of the properties of chlorine. This substance was in its gaseous form to the disinfection of the six took the disease, while, had there been at first applied in its gaseous form to the air. The gas may be prepared as it is
no precaution, all former experience would articles, suspended while wet with water in needed, by the action of peroxide of man
have made it nearly certain that more than close chambers. Its solution in water was
two thirds of them must have been infect. next introduced. This has the defects of being ganese (common manganese of the shops) on muriatic acid. This action, however, ed, and a considerable proportion of these difficult of carriage, and of becoming charged would have died.
with muriatic acid by the decomposition of need not be aided by heat, as when the gas is prepared for chemical experients, sel in which yellow fever has occurred in it forms, the water, was charged with a carbo
In our own naval service, the only ves- the water. In order to neutralize the acid as inasmuch as the object is to produce a | the Gulf of Mexico, since fumigations with nated alkali or with magnesian earth. In constant and steady current, instead of * idden and copious supply. A bottle, fur
chlorine have been practised, was one where the use of the former it was discovered that nished with a glass plate ground to lie they were not einployed; and in one of the a chloride of the alkali was formed which upon its neck, is well suited for this purpose, || Tal vessels
loaded with soldiers and sailors, of the vegetable substance, and that in this
Spanish expeditions against Mexico, seve would be decomposed by the coloring matter and may be made of various sizes, according to circumstances, there being a form so
were exposed for months to the pestilential liquid chloride, more of the chlorine was resmall and so conveniently arranged, that it
air of the Terras Callientes without a sin- tained than in the same bulk of pure water. gle case of fever occurring:
This liquid chloride of Potassa has may be carried in the pocket. Chloride of lime may be decomposed, by conviction that it is impossible, that any of Javelle.
In fine, we cannot avoid expressing our been much used under the name of liquor the action of water. In order to obtain the disease truly contagious can be propagaied The use of magnesia led to the discovery gas, a portion of chloride of lime is plit into in air so charged with chlorine that its pe- of the dry chloride of that earth, and it a shallow basin and covered with water.culiar sme!l is sensible, nor any malady being found that a similar compound was As the evolution of the gas becomes feeble || arising from the presence of unwholsome formed with lime, the latter in consequence it may be rendered more rapid by adding a vegetable and animal matter. It will of of its inferior cost finally supersceded the small quantity of acid. Sulphuric acid
course be impossible to disinfect extensive former. By the use of chlorine in either very much diluted may be employed, but districts by artificial means, but so long as mode, the process which formerly occupied it is better, particularly when it is used in
a disorder is confined to a limited space, its several months, is now completed in a day families, to add common vinegar. further extension may be checked, and even or two.
In disinfecting chambers and buildings, a building in an infected district may be the doors and windows are to be closed, rendered safe to its inhabitants, provided which are the only substances of vegetable
Rationale.—Hemp, Flax, and Cotion, and the fumigation continued until the pe-| they do not quit its walls, by the aid of origin that are much employed in the culiar smell of chlorine can be perceived in chlorine.
manufacture of cloths, are more or less every part, and remains permanently when
Experiments seem to be wanting, whence colored with a brown or yellowish subits source is removed. In a sick room it we might judge whether chlorine is as effi-| stance. This coloring matter is partly will be expedient to continue the fumiga-||cient in checking the extension of cholera, || oleaginous, and partly resinous,
The tion as long as the sick person remains in as it certainly is in preventing the spread-oleaginous matter is rendered soluble in it, and for some hours after. All moist of-lling of other diseases; the impression of water by an alkali; but as any excess of fensive matters should be sprinkled with medical men, however, is that it is not. this would attack the vegetable fibre, it the dry chloride, and dry matters covered with its solution.
must be neutralized by an acid. The re
sinous part of the coloring matter, if moist, A solution of chlorine may be prepared History. The ancient progress of bleach- decomposes slowly on exposure to the sun by steeping chloride of lime in water in the ing vegetable matters is the same as that and air; hence the ancient mode of bleachproportion of eight ounces to each gallon employed for domestic purposes, with the ing. This resinous matter when no longer of water, and decanting it from the lime. addition of an agent to neutralize alkaline protected by the oil is rapidly decomposed This may be used for steeping the bedding matter which might otherwise injure the by chlorine ; hence the modern method. and clothes of persons affected with conta- vegetable fibre. The articles were repeatgious diseases, or to wet cloths in which|edly washed with alkaline leys, or with(A) BLEACHING OF COTTON YARN BY CHLO. putrescent matters may be wrapped ; but soap; they were then steeped in a weak the chloride of soda is a much more con- acid ; and, after being well rinsed in pure AUTHORITY-VIȚalis, Cours de Teinture. venient and cleanly preparation. By the water, were spread out on meadows in First operation. --Alkaline Bath.-- A quan. aid of it, human bodies far gone in putrefac- order to be exposed to the sun and air. Intity of good pearlash in powder. is mixed tion have been disinterred for examination; this position they were frequently sprinkled with half its weight of recently slacked and ly one or the other preparation, the dis- with water. The only water which is lime. To this is adder water in the prce agrogable and after dangerous effects pilladapted to this purpose is that which in portion of thirty times the weight of the