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AND ON THE PRODUCTS FORMED BY EXPO
CHEMISTRY IN THE N. Y. COLLEGE OF
in mountains there are always gentle de- || dressed to Taylor & Son, Henderson, Ky., The intention is to prevent a needless loss civities met with, which (when gained by will meet with prompt attention.
of capital in improvements not likely to be an ascension of a lock, or two, as the case Knowing that a Railway from Charleston beneficial either to the stockholders or the may be) can be easily graded, and at a to Cincinnati is in contemplation, and an. trifting expense, comparatively speaking; ticipating a meeting of Commissioners and public. whereas, by making inclined planes, those Engineers sometime this spring, I have all well enough, but we see from the gentle ascents are lost by being merged in been induced to make this communication, manner in which they handle Railroads, ihe general inclination ; 4ihly, it will enable in order that the subject might undergo a that they are much behind us, not only in you to dispense with the use of stationary timely consideration, as it may be the engines, (which will be found to be no small means of causing a survey of more direct regard to the experience, but as to their geitem,) as the machinery of the locks will routes, and also be a great saving of ex-neral views of the subject-ipmany instan. always be propelled by the locomotives, pense in the making and keeping up the ces we think most singularly inaccurate. without requiring them to be detached from road. I have not been at home since the 4th the train of cars, the whole train being of Nov., and am quite ignorant of what is
From the Mechanics' Magazine. elevated at the same time with the locomo-going on upon the subject of the road. tive; whereas, on inclined planes, the lo The United States Frigate Potomac, of ON THE USES OF ZINC FOR ROOFING OF comotives are always detached from the 1600 tons burthen, was raised by the screw BUILDINGS, CULINARY VESSELS, ETC., train, and if there be many cars, they are dock in New-York, 22 feel in the space of brought up in detached parcels, thereby oc- 40 minutes. There were 90 men at work
SURE OF THE METAL TO THE ACTION OF casioning a delay of time; 5thly, the use to propel the screws. The weight of that
BY L. D. GALE, M. of locks will enable you to do the business vessel is supposed to be equal to 1000 or 1200
D., PROF, GEOLOGY with a less number of locomotives, as the tons. Now, if it were necessary that such same locomotive will carry the cars through a vessel should be raised daily, or even
N. Y. UNIVERSITY, AND PROF. the whole road, without requiring to be de-weekly, there is no doubt, but that it would tached from the cars; whereas, the locomo- have been constructed so as to be propelled tives in the use of inclined planes, are al. by steam. This I think is a clear and satis Metallic zinc has been applied to various ways stopped at the end of the plane, and factory proof of the practicability of the uses in the Arts in Europe, since 1740 or must there remain until a returning train lock.
1750. Though it had been known and will require its use; and lastly, there is not
wrought for a long time previous by the the slightest danger to be apprehended in
RAILROAD AND CANAL Chinese and East Indians. ascending or descending by locks, whereas there is always great danger to be appre
The abundance and cheapness of this hended in passing inclined planes. 1
metal, early attracted the attention of specthink enough has already been said to
ulators to employ it in the useful arts, and show that locks are decidedly preferable
it is stated in the Philosophical Transacto inclined planes, provided their prac:|| Messrs. Rothschild have taken 4000 shares,
The Swabian Mercury announces that tions for 1747, that it casts and bores quite ticability can be shown, (or proved,) and this can clearly be done by mathematical of 1000 florins each, in the Iron Railroad to as well as brass, and it is proposed that it be established between Galicia and some
should be used for various culinary vessels calculations. I have gone into the calcula. tions, and proven it to my entire satisfaction other points of the Austrian States. The as a substitute for iron and other metals, as to power, &c. The plan of this inipor
works of this road will be begun in the that were then, and still continue in use tant machinery has been derived from the spring, and will be executed by about 30,000 for such purposes. The use of this metal screw docks, the ability of which to elevate soldiers.
for culinary vessels, attempted to be made, weight to an almost incalculable extent is When the Messrs. Rothschild deal so both in England and France, was of short not to be doubted, as sufficient tests of its largly in Railroad stocks, it is a fair pre-duration, for it was soon ascertained that powers have already been given in New-sumption that the investment is a good the various acils that are contained in York and Baltimore. The only difference
a considerable proportion of our articles between the two machines is, that the lock
used as a vegetable diet, act upon the by its peculiar construction, is capable of
A most important application of the Jac- zinc, and that the compounds formed from being connected with and propelled by the locomotives, which being placed in the lock, Iguard loom has just been made. It is now the union of the metal with these acids, with their train of cars, may be instantly at-The figures are in relief on the surface of poisonous. Besides, it is found that the
being used in raising figures on bed-quilts. are both disgusting to the taste, and tached to the machinery of the lock, and the cloth, and are as firmly bound as on metal is rapidly acted upon, by contact and the cars at the same time. The eleva-counterpanes made the usual way. The in: with moist air, or alternate wetting and tion is gained by means of screws, the has given great satisfaction. The effect on drying, and that when corroded, it is soluble same as those of the dock. The screws of the prices of these articles will be astonish- in water, (as we shall state when speaking the dock are propelled by the application of
ing. manual labor, whereas those of the lock loom, may be had raw for 18s.; whilst one terious solution, and rendering the water
A quilt, 13.41hs, by the Jacquard of the oxide of zinc,) forming a very deleare propelled by means of machinery, and made in the usual manner costs 30s. in wholly unfit for ordinary domestic purposes. that by steam. It is confidently believed that locks may wages only.-[Herald.]
Within a few years an attempt has been be made to ascend and descend thirty feet
Much useful information as to the sur-made to introduce the use of this metal for in the space of five minutes from the time prising improvement of these looms will be culinary vessels into the United States, and the locomotive is attached to it.
found in the evidence before the Select it was especially recommended as having Mr. Taylor has given me an estimate of Committee of the House of Comnions.
the peculiar property of preserving the the expense of a lock of 130 feet in length,
sweetness of milk for a much longer time say sufficient to elevate a locomotive and
M. Bernet, an engineer at Lyons, has in- | than the ir.aterials generally used for such ten produce cars, the whole weight of invented a machine he calls 'a Balayeuse, purposes, but unfortunately the anticipawhich, together with that of the cradle on by which, with the employment of only one tions were not verified in the trials, and the which they stand, may be considered equal horse, the mud in the streets, squares, and use of the metal for such purposes is now to 160 tons, to be raised thirty feet; this be highways, is collected and thrown into a almost totally abandoned. says will be readily done by an engine of cart with extraordinary regularity, giving -* horse power. The expenses, agreea- 100 strokes on a surface of about six yards lif exposed to a warm atmosphere, soon
If milk be kept in a zinc vessel, it will, bly to this estimate, will be $8135 ; but in order to make the estimate safe, he added square, and thus doing the work of 200 scavengers in the same space of time.
begin to undergo a change. An acid is $1965 for contingences, making a total of $10,000. Mr. Taylor has had a brass model
We wish some engineer in New-York formed, which attacks the inetal vessel and hibit at any time when called on, and 1 ayeuse, he certainly would not come into rious to the system. The metal cannos, of the machinery made, which he will ex- would invent and put into operation a Bal dissolves a portion of it, forming a salt which
is both disagreeable to the taste, and delete: think will be fully able to dispel all doubts bad odor. on the subject, Auy communication ad. Much debate is going on in the House of|pose with safety.
therefore, ever be used for the above pur, *Here the figures denoting the quantity of horse
Commons on the subject of Railroads, par. More recently, it has been proposed to power are defaced by the seal,
ticularly those in and near London, use the metal for covering the roofs of build,
EMBOSSING ON WOOD.
ings, as a substitute for slate, copper,
and Nothing is perhaps more certain thanserwise, the use of rain water which runs other materials, that have been for a long the fact, that this metal can never be used from it must be partially or entirely discon. time in general use; and unfortunately for advantageously for covering roofs. In the tinued. the public, large sums have already been first place, the expansion of the metal is so expended for zinc roofs, which is worse great by slight changes of temperature,
From the London Mechanics' Magazine. than useless, when we take into considera- | that the junctures are exceeding liable to tion the trouble and expense of removing get out of place from expansion and con
Why cannot our artists attempt somethe material, and supplying its place with traction, hence in the present manner of thing of this kind ? some other. One could hardly see how it is putting on the metal, the buildings are conpossible that the public should be so deceiv- stantly liable to leak. In the second place, ed in the use of an article that has been so the metal is very brittle, so that two sheets
Sir,-I have been shown some very thoroughly tried and condemned, both in I cannot be put together by folding, but must beautiful specimens of embossing upon France and England. be joined in a sort of double coil, thus : veneer, principally floral and arabesque de
signs, upon rosewood, maple, mahogany, elm, and other hard woods. The relief is almost allo, and has quite the appearance
of carving. I understand the invention is And though this roof, when new, will shed || ness in the open air, it takes fire and burns
patented, but that the inventor, M. Caccia, rain tolerably well, it can never be made with intense brilliancy, forming an exceeding it into extensive operation from the pri
an Italian, has been prevented from bring. to resist the action of melting snow, as has ingly light, white substance, which is a marily expensive nature of the machinery, been proved to the satisfaction, I trust, of compound of the metal with a portion of marily expensive nature of the machinery, a considerable number of our citizens, during the oxygen of the air. It is therefore an declare that it would supersede carving and the past winter. The reason of the leak-oxide of zinc, and generally denominated inlaying, and so spoil their business. The age is quite evident to any one who has the flowers of zinc. This is the only comstudied ihe principles of capillary attrac-pound of zinc and oxygen described in most will be brought out in different colors; it is
process may be so varied that the relief tion and the laws of Auids. Suppose, for of the books ; it is a white powder so light also applicable to the embossing of cloths, example, that a roof covered with zinc con-as readily to float in the atmosphere, and tains a depth of six inches of snow, and is perfectly insoluble in water.
kerseymeres, waist-coat pieces, paper-hangthat the snow melts rapidly and becomes If zinc be exposed to moist atmosphere,
ings, and things of a like nature. saturated with water to the depth of three it becomes covered with a gray coating, know, in which designs have been impress
This is the first instance, as far as I inches: this would have precisely the same which is described as a mixture of the effect in proving the roof as if its whole white oxide and the metal; but as the gray enough upon card, paper, calico, and such
upon wood-embossing is surface were actually covered with water compound is soluble in water, and neither to the same depth. The capillary attrac-| of the others possess the same property,
fabrics; and unless there be some imtion exerted by the water in the small opinion advanced in the books can hardly provement in the process, I do not know spaces between the coils, together with the be correct. Berzelius, who first described
that the patent will hold good. Making weight of a column of water three inches the gray compound, considers it as a sub- the parts in relief come up of different in depth upon the same, is sufficient to aloxide, though he does not mention the fact colors, I believe to be new; this low water enough to pass through any that it is soluble in water. This last pro- possibly the patent rests. roof thus covered to inundate the building perty is one that renders the metal highly
Embossed hard fancy woods might be It will be seen that the above objections|| objectionable as a roofing, for the sub-oxide very extensively and very beautifully apapply equally to all metal roofs put together formed by the action of alternate wet and plied to the ornamenting of cabinets, workin the same manner.
If we would keep dry weather, is dissolved off by the rains, boxes, &c., and to the panels of doors and our buildings dry, the snow must not be and carried into the cisterns, deteriorating wainscoting. Herewith I send you some allowed to accumulate on them, or the metal the water, and rendering it almost entirely specimens, that in the effect produced, you used to cover the roofs must be made water unfit for all doinestic purposes. It thus ac- may judge for yourself. tight by soldering. The past winter has |quires a styplic, coppery taste, and if taken
I am, &c. tested, in the severest manner, roofing ma-l into the stomach, produces nausea and vo
P. B. T. terials; heavy snows, followed by heavy miting. It decomposes soap, and produces November, 1835. rains and rapid thaws, have continually that property in water called hardness, alternated during the whole season, and which renders it unfit for washing. the damage done to buildings, furniture, If the water which has dissolved the
From the London Mechanic's Magazine. and goods, will be felt for a long time. sub-oxide of zinc be freely exposed to the
The brittleness of zinc renders it highly air, oxygen will be absorbed, and the subobjectionable. This property is increased oxide will be gradually converted into the in a tenfold proportion, by diminishing its white oxide or flowers of zinc, which being
Sir,—There are some instances where temperature. At the freezing point of wa-insoluble in water, falls to the bottom as vehicles are obliged to run in the same ter it is almost as brittle as glass; and fast as formed in the state of a white pow-track or rut, either owing to the sloping hence if any heavy body fall upon the coils der, and thus the water at length becomes sides of road, its inequality, or to faciliwhich project above the roof, they are very nearly pure again. This etfect is quite tate the journey of the horses on account of liable to be broken, and when broken it is || perceptible after a dry season, when the its being boggy. exceedingly difficult to repair them. water constantly becomes better, until it is
In the first case, they run on the crown The third objection to the use of zinc for again deteriorated by a fresh fall of rain, of the road, consequently in the same rut; roofing is, that it is dissolved in the water which dissolves more of the metal. Now, and as the traffic increases, the rut becomes which runs over the roof, and thus renders since rain water is so valuable an article in greater. The inequalities of a road are a it unfit for all domestic purposes. This fact all large towns and cities, any agent that great evil; and when the road is boggy as seems to be one that has not yet attracted would deteriorate it must be got rid of, well, the sides are still more avoided, as the attention of the public. Having uneven if it be at a considerable expense. Be the water in running over the sloping sides fortunately resided under a zinc roof, and sides, rain water, after being filtered through is absorbed in the yielding substance, and shared largely in its deleterious effects, Isand and charcoal, is now coming into use renders passage over them impossible. have been led to examine the qualities com- | for drinking, and substituted for the spring Ruts cease to exist if the roads are worn municated to the water by means of the water
, which has bet n formerly universally equally in every part ; therefore, if the roads zinc.
used for this and for all culinary purposes. are perfectly level, or nearly fat, every veThere are two distinct compounds form- It is, therefore, quite certain, that the use of hicle will take a separate track.
The first ed by exposing to ihe action of the air this zind as a roofing for dwelling houses, at thing to be considered in the construction metal. If the metal be heated to white. Il east, must be entirely abandoned, or oth of bog-roads, after the ground is well draine
REMARKS ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF
ed, is the making the surface perfectly level; || invention was first put into operation, ob- || be well enough conceived from the sectionand after that has been effected, if concrete,tained full and free access to all informational sketch on the margin. similar to what is used in securing the regarding the results of trials of the inven The whole of the materials put into the foundations of buildings, and mixed with tions in those works, on the large scale of furnace, resolved themselves into gaseous broken stone, were thrown in, and exposed manufacture, I cannot help thinking that an products, and into liquid products. The for a considerable time, it would be supe-| authentic notice of these results, together gaseous products, escaping invisible at the rior to any other method previously adopt- with an attempt to explain the cause of top, included all the carbonaceous matter of ed. When hardened sufficiently for con-them, will prove acceptable to the Royal the coke, probably in the form of carbonic stant use and friction, time alone would|Society of Edinburgh.And that these re-acid, except only the small portion of carsoon prove whether it would not be more sults, as well as the cause of them, may be bon retained by the cast-iron. The liquid serviceable and efficacious than either the set forth with clearness, I shall advert products were collected in the cylindrical method of " laying branches of trees on the 1st. To the process of making iron, as reservoir, constituting the bottom of the level of the strata,” or “ firm heathy sods.” | formerly practised.
furnace, and there divided themselves into When such roads are situated near any 2d. To Mr. Neilson's alteration on that|two portions, the lower and heavier being place from whence lime may be obtained, process.
the melted cast-iron, and the upper and or gravel could be had in abundance, addi 3d. To the effect of that alteration. lighter being the melted slag, resulting from tional facilities would be offered for effect 4th. To the cause of that effect. the action of the fixed portion of the flux ing this method, which, as it becomes by I. In proceeding to advert to the process upon the fixed impurities of the fuel and of exposure as firm as a rock, would certainly of making cast-iron, as formerly practised, the ore. be found beneficial. The additional ex-it cannot here be necessary to enter into II. Thus much being understood in repense attending the construction of such a much detail in explanation of a process, gard to the process of making cast-iron, as road, if the work is properly performed, long practised and extensively known, as formerly practised, we are now prepared would also be compensated by the perma- this has been ; nor, indeed, shall I enter for the statement of Mr. Neilson's imnent and substantial road which would be into detail, farther than, to the general provement. the result. Yours, &c.
scientific reader, may be proper to eluci This improvement consists essentially FREDERICK LUSH. date Mr. Neilson's invention.
in heating the air in its passage from the Charles-square, Hoxton, Nov. 20, 1835.
In making cast-iron, then, the materials blowing apparatus to the furnace. The made use of were three
heating has hitherto been effected by mak[Some useful hints as to the improve
ing the air pass through cast-iron vessels, ment of our common roads, in similar situ
kept at a red heat. In the specification of ations, may be drawn from the foregoing
the patent, Mr. Neilson states, that no pararticle.Ed. M. M.]
The ore was clay iron-stone, that is to|ticular form of heating apparatus is essensay, carbonate of iron, mixed, in variable tial to obtaining the beneficial effect of his
proportions, with carbonates of lime, and of invention ; and, out of many forms that The following article gives the best ge- magnesia, as well as with aluminous and have been tried, experience does not seem siliceous matter.
to have yet decided which is best. neral description we have seen of the “ Ap
The fuel made use of at Clyde Iron Clyde Iron Works, the most beneficial of plication of the Hot Blast.” It is well Works, and in Scotland generally, was the results that I shall have occasion to worth reading.
coke, derived from splint coal. During its state, were obtained by the obvious expe
conversion into coke, this coal underwent dient of keeping red-hot the cast-iron cylinFrom the London Mechanic's Magazine. a loss of 55 parts in the 100, leaving 45 of drical pipes, conveying the air from the ON THE APPLICATION OF THE HOT BLAST coke. The advantage of this previous con-| blowing apparatus to the furnace.
IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CAST-Iron. version consisted in the higher temperature III. Such being the simple nature of Mr. BY THOMAS CLARKE, M. D., PROFESSOR
produced by the combustion of the coke, Neilson's invention, I now proceed to state OF CHEMISTRY IN MARISCHALL COLLEGE,
in consequence of none of the resulting heat the effect of its application.
arising from the coal, during its conversion 1829, when all the cast-iron in Clyde Iron (Road before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, March, || into coke.
Works was made by means of the cold 1835.)
The flux was common lime-stone, which blast, a single ton of cast-iron required for Among persons interesting themselves was employed to act upon the aluminous fuel to reduce it, 8 tons 14 cwt. of coal, in the progress of British manufactures, it and siliceous impurities of the ore, so as to converted into coke. During the first six can scarce fail to be known, that Mr. Neil || produce a mixture more easy to melt than months of the following year, while the air son of Glasgow, manager of the Gas- any of the materials of which it was made was heated to near 3000 Fahr., one ton of Works in that city, has taken out a patent up, just as an alloy of tin and lead serves || cast-iron required 5 tons 34 cwt. of coal, for an important improvement in the work- || as a solder, the resulting alloy being more converted into coke. ing of such furnaces as, in the language of|| easy to melt than either the lead or the tin - The saving amounts to 2 tons 18 cwt. on the patent, are supplied with air by means apart.
the making of one ton of cast-iron ; but of bellows, or other blowing apparatus.” These three materials—the ore, the fuel, from that saving comes to be deducted the In Scotland Mr. Neilson's invention has and the Aux-were put into the furnace, coals used in heating the air, which were been extensively applied to the making of|| near the top, in a state of mixture. The nearly 8 cwt. The nett saving thus was cast-iron, insomuch that there is only oneonly other material supplied was air, which 24 tons of coal on a single ton of cast-iror. Scotch iron-work where the invention is was driven into the furnace by pipes from But during that year, 1930, the air was not in use, and in that work apparatus is blowing apparatus, and it entered the fur- || heated no higher than 300° Fahr. The under construction to put the invention intonace by nozzles, sometimes on two opposite great success, however, of those trials, enoperation. Apart from the obvious im- sides of the furnace, sometimes on three, couraged Mr. Dunlop, and other iron-mas. portance of any considerable improvement and sometimes, but rarely, on four. The ters, to try the effect of a still higher temin the manufacture of so valuable a product air supplied in this manner, entered near || perature. Nor were their expectations disas cast-iron, the invention of Mr. Neilson the bottom of the furnace, at about 40 feet appointed. The saving of coal was greatly would merit attention, were it only for the || from the top, where the solid materials were increased, insomuch, that about the beginsingular extent of the improvement effected,|| put in. The furnace, in shape, consisted, ning of 1831, Mr. Dixon, proprietor of Čalcompared with the apparent simplicity-1 at the middle part, of the frustrums of two der Iron Works, felt himself encouraged to had almost said inadequacy—of the means cones, having a horizontal base common to attempt the substitution of raw coal for the employed. Having, therefore, by the libe-both, and the other and smaller ends of each coke before in use. Proceeding on the as. rallity of Mr. Dunlop, proprietor of the prolonged into cylinders, which constituted | certained advantages of the hot blast, the Clyde Iron Works, where Mr. Neilson's the top and bottom of the furnace, as may attempt was entirely successful ; and, since
that period, the use of raw coal has extend
Tons. ed so far as to be adopted in the majority of
In 1829, from 3 furnaces, 111 Iron from 403 Coke, from 888 Coal. the Scotch iron works. The temperature
In 1830, from 3 furnaces, 162 Iron from 376 Coke, from 836 Coal. of the air under blast had now been raised In 1833, from 4 furnaces, 245 Iron
from 554 Coal. 80 as to melt lead, and sometimes zinc, and therefore was above 600° Fahr., instead of Comparing the product of 1829 with the || Works, that one furnace requires of hot being only 300°, as in the year 1830.
product of 1833, it will be observed that air from 2,500 to 3,000 cubical foet in a The furnace had now become so much the blast, in consequence of being heat-| minute. I shall here assume 2,867 cubical elevated in temperature, as to require, ed, has reduced more than double the feet to be the quantity; a number that I around the nozzle of the blow-pipes, a pre- quantity of iron. The fuel consumed in adopt for the sake of simplicity. inasmuch caution borrowed from the finery-furnaces, these two periods we cannot compare, since, as, calculated at an avoirdupois ounce and wherein cast-iron is converted into malle in the former coke was burned, and in the a quarter, which is the weight of a cubical able, but seldom or never employed where latter coal. But on comparing the con- foot air at 50° Fahr., these correspond precast-iron is made by means of the cold sumpt of coke in the years 1829 and 1830, cisely with 2 cwt. of air a minute, or six blast. What is called the tweer, is the we find that although the product of iron intons an hour. Two tons of solid material opening in the furnace to admit the nozzle the latter period was increased, yet the con- an hour, put in at the top of the furnace, can of the blow-pipe. This opening is of a sumpt of coke was rather diminished. I scarce hurtfully affect the temperature of round funnel shape, tapering inwards, and Hence the increased efficacy of the blast the furnace, at least in the hottest part of it used always to have a cast-iron lining, to appears to be not greater than was to be ex-it, which must be far down, and where the protect the other building materials, and to pected, from the diminished fuel that hadiron, besides being reduced to the state of afford them support. This cast-iron lining become necessary to smelt a given quantity metal, is melted, and the slag too produced. was just a tapering tube, nearly of the of iron.
When the fuel put in at the top is coal, I shape of the blow-pipe, but large enough
On the whole, then, the application of have no doubt that, before it comes to this to admit it freely. Now, under the changes the hot blast has caused the same fuel to far-down part of the furnace—the place of I have been describing, the temperature of reduce three times as much iron as before, its useful activity—the coal has been enthe furnace became so hot near the nozzles, and the same blast twice as much as be-| tirely coked; so that, in regard to the fuel,
fore. as to risk the melting of the cast-iron lin
the new process differs from the old much ing, which, being essential to the tweer, is
The proportion of the flux required to more in appearance than in essence and itself commonly called by that name. To reducc a given weight of the ore, has also reality. But if two tons of solid material prevent such an accident, an old invention, || been diminished. The amount of this di- an hour, put in at the top, are not likely to called the water-tweer, was made available. minution, and other particulars, interesting affect the temperature of the hottest part of The peculiarity of this tweer consists in to practical persons, will appear on refer- the furnace, can we say the same of six the cast-iron lining already described being ence to a tabular statement supplied by Mr. tons of air an hour, forced in at the bottom cast hollow instead of solid, so as to con
Dunlop, and printed as an appendix to this near that hottest part ? The air supplied tain water within, and water is kept there paper. Not further to dwell on such de- is intended, no doubt, and answers to supcontinually changing as it heats, by means
tails, I proceed to the last division of this port the combustion ; but this beneficial of one pipe to admit the water cold, and paper, which is,
effect is, in the case of the cold blast, incianother to let the water escape when
IV. To attempt an explanation of the dentally counteracted by the cooling power heated.* foregoing extraordinary results.
of six tons of air an hour, or 2 cwt. a minDuring the first six months of the year
Subsidiary to this attempt, it is necessary ute, which, when forced in at the ordinary 1833, when all these changes had been to discriminate between the quantity of fuel temperature of the air, cannot be conceived fully brought into operatien, one ton of cast-consumed, and the temperature produced. otherwise than as a prodigious refrigeratory iron was made by means of 2 tons 54 cwt. For instance, we may conceive a stove to passing through the hottest part of the furof coal, which had not previously to be con- | be kept at the temperature of 500° Fahr., nace, and repressing its temperature. The verted into coke. Adding to this 8 cwt. of and lead to be put into such a stove for the expedient of previously heating the blast coal for heating, we have 2 tons 134 cwt. purpose of being melted. Then, since the obviously removes this refrigeratory, leavof coal required to make a ton of iron; melting point of lead is more than 100° high-ing the air to act in promoting combustion, whereas, in 1829, when the cold blast was er, it is evident that whatever fuel might be without robbing the combustion of any porin operation, 8 tons 14 cwt. of coal had to consumed in keeping that stove at the tem-tion of the heat it produces. be used. This being almost exactly three perature of 500°, the fuel is all consumed Such, I conceive, is the palpable, the times as much, we have, from the change to no purpose, so far as regards the melting adequate, and very simple explanation of the of the cold blast to the hot, combined with of lead, in consequence of deficiency in the extraordinary advantages derived in the the use of coal instead of coke, three times temperature. In the manufacture of cast- manufacture of cast-iron, from heating the as much iron made from any given weight iron likewise, experience has taught us, that | air in its passage from the blowing apparaof splint coal. a certain temperature is required in order to tus to the furnace.
Marischall College, Aberdeen, During the three successive periods that work the furnace favorably, and all the fuel
Jan. 10, 1835. have been specified, the same blowing ap- consumed, so as to produce any lower deparatus was in use; and not the least re-gree of temperature, is fuel consumed in
APPENDIX. markable effect of Mr. Neilson's invention,
vain. And how the hot blast serves to in The blowing-engine has a steam-cylinder has been the increased efficacy of a given
crease the temperature of a blast furnace, of 40 inches diameter, and a blowing-cylinquantity of air in the production of iron. I will appear on adverting to the relative der of 8 feet deep and 80 inches diameter, The furnaces at Clyde Iron Works, which weights of the solid and of the gaseous and goes 18 strokes a minute. The whole were at first three, have been increased to materials made use of in the reduction of power of the engine was exerted in blowing four, and, the blast machinery being still iron.
the three furnaces, as well as in blowing the same, the following were the successive
As nearly as may be, a furnace, as wrought the four, and in both cases there were two weekly products of iron during the peri- | at Clyde Iron Works in 1833, had two tons tweers of 3 inches diameter to each furods already named, and the successive of solid materials an hour put in at the top, nace. The pressure of the blast was 24 weekly consumpt of fuel put into the fur- and this supply of two tons an hour was lb. to the square inch. The fourth furnace nace, apart from what was used in heating
continued for 23 hours a-day, one half hour was put into operation after the waterthe blast:
every morning, and another every evening, tweers were introduced, and the open spaces
being consumed in letting off the iron made.round the blow-pipes were closed up by An incidental advantage attended the adoption of
But the gaseous material—the hot air-luting. The engine then went less than 18 the water-tweers, inasmuch as those made it practica. what might be the weight of it? This can strokes a minute, in consequence of the too bilo tolu te up the space between the blow-pipe nozzle easily be ascertained thus ; I find, by com- great resistance of the materials contained that formerly escaped by that spaco, and kept up a bel. paring the quantities of air consumed at in the three furnaces to the blast in its pas, lowing hiss, which, happily, is now no longer heard. Clydo Iron Works, and at Calder Iron sage upwards,
COKE AND COLD AIR.
COKE AND HEATED AIR.
COAL AND HEATED AIR
2 2 0
16 267 23 270 30 250
18 2 8 9 13 19 16 12 8 2
8 18 7 9 3 10
2 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 1 0
0 0 2 0 2 0
10 2 2
13 202 20 257 27 264
er en mererererererererererererererererer
0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2
15 22 29
0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 0
14 7 6 4 13 12 15 17 1
12 93 19 113
Materials constituting a Charge. 1830-Coke,
5 0 0 | and Aux require 1 lb. of fuel with hot air, Roasted Ironstone, 5
0 and 2.5 lbs. require the same fuel with heatcwt. qrs. Ibs.
1 1 16 ed air. At Wasseralfingen, the increase of 1829_Coke, 5 0 0 1833—Coal,
5 0 0 the mineral charge, when hot air is used, is Roasted Ironstone, 3 1 14
5 0 0 1.43 to 1, and at Riouperoux, 1.42 to 1. Limestone, 0 3 16 Limestone,
1 0 0 When iron for forging only is made, and
fuel is scarce, it is thought that the hot air
blast will be of but little advantage; the Table showing the Weight of Cast-Iron produced, and the Average Weight of Coals company who use the patent for this blast
made use of, in producing a ton of Cast-Iron, at Clyde Iron Works, during the years have stipulated for the Creusot furnace, not 1829, 1830, and 1833, the Blowing-enginc being the same.
to pay for the construction of the heating apparatus, in case no real advantage is de rived from its use.
In those furnaces which use the hot air
blast, and where the mineral part of the Weekly pro. Average of Weekly pro- Average of Weekly pro- Average of duct of Cast. Coals used duct of Cast. Coals used
charge has been increased, the charges 1829
duct of Cast. Coals used
are, of course, fewer charges in a given time,
but so much more ore passes in the same C. Q. T. C. Q.
C. Q. T. C: Q.
T. C. Q T. C. Q. Jan. 7 137 1 Jan. 6 176 10 2 Jan. 9 375
time that the run of iron is much increased 14 148
This increase is greater when the iron is 21 148
20 172 28 138
made of the quality for forging than when Feb. 4 125 7 12 1 Feb. 3 164
0 Feb. 6 265
made for casting. At Vienna, where iron 11 136 10 172 12
of the second mentioned quality is manu7 11
17 163 25 105 24 170
factured, the daily yield has increased in the Mar. 4 101 7 17 2M r. 3 151 19
3 Mar. 6 234
ratio of 1.22 to 1, while at Janon, where 11 111 10 154 16
7 18 114 10 17 151 18
that of the first named quality is used, the 25 110 94 0 24 163 17 27 217
ratio is 1.6 to 1. At La Voulte, they proApr. ] 111
duce in twenty-four hours 8 or 9 tons of 8 107 0 Apr. 7 147 10
17 iron for forging, and it is stated that with an
increase of the blast, the yield could be in91 29 J48 12
0 May 1 245 May 6 2 May 5 162 10
creased to 11 or 12 tons without injuring
17 13 94
the quality of the iron.
The greatest advantage from the hot air 15 91 0 26 165
blast is undoubtedly to be found in the dimi29 104 2
nution in the enormous quantity of fuel Aug. 5 106
21 16 164
(coal) used in some of the English works.
The results obtained in the works of the:
south of France are the following. At Vi2878 4215 0 134
enne, where they chiefly make iron for castAverage 110 14
ing, they tried the Clyde form of heating apparatus, but abandoned it for that of Calder,
by which they heat the air above the melt
From the Journal of the Franklin Institute. The correspondent by whom we have
ing point of lead. The economy of coke been obligingly favored with the preceding REPORT USE OF THE HOT AIR has been in the ratio of 1.37 to 2.50.
And paper, makes himself the following remarks
the daily yield has increased from 41 to 5 on the subject of which it treats. - Ep.
BY A. GUEYVEAU, ENGINEER AND
or 6 tons of iron. The daily product of the M. M.
PROFESSOR IN THE ROYAL SCHOOL OF
two furnaces at Janon, where Taylor's heat“ The best application of the hot blast that I have yet seen, is at the Wilsonton (Translated for this Journal, by Professor A. D. Bache.) for forging, by the consumption per ton of
ing apparatus is used, is 8 or 9 tons of iron Iron Works, near Lanark and Whitburn.
(Continued from page 199.)
1.20 to 1.40 of coke. This does not inAt these works the heated air is never at a The following details confirm the abstract clude the fuel required to heat the iron. lower temperature than the melting point of results just given.
Each of the three furnaces of La Voulte of lead (612°.) This is readily tested by 1st. Furnaces using coke or coal.
turn out 9 tons of iron for forging, while, inserting a small bar of lead into an opening The results as to economy by using the with the cold blast, they made but 71 to 8 in the pipe for the purpose, a little way be- hot air blast are stated in the Scottish works, tons of the best quality, under the most fafore it enters the furnace; the lead is in- as nearly 3 to 2. At Vienna, the same stantly melted. When in good working quantity of coke which was used for 1.075 of coke is now 1.25 to 1.30 tons for each
vorable circumstances. The consumption order, zinc is fused (700°) in the same of ore and flux in the charge,
now used way. The air is heated in passing through for 1.51. At La Voulte, where the air is ton of iron, besides about 600 lbs. per ton, a series of iron pipes of small diameter, fixed heated only to 320° in the manufacture of
which is required to heat the blast; the forupright in a brick oven, and kept at a red iron for forging, 1 part of coke is now used
mer consumption was 2.10 to 2.30 tons of
fuel for one of iron. The experiments made heat ; the heated air entering the furnace to 2.1 parts of ore and flux. At the fur
in France with crude coal and the hot air by four tweers. The Condie pipes,'—so nace of Terre-Noire, 1 lb. of coke is used | blast, have not been conclusive in regard to called from Mr. John Condie, the manager to 1.82 of the mixed ore and Aux. of the Wilsonton Iron Works, and late of At Torteron, where a mixture of coke its advantages, compared with the cold blast. the Calder-last much longer than the ill-/(1-3) and charcoal (2-3) is used as fuel, 1 coal (2-3) and coke (1-3) are used, the con
At the new Torteron furnace, where chararranged heating apparatus (with pipes of lb. of the fuel is used to 2.83 lbs. of the large diameter) at the Clyde Iron Works, mixed charge, with the hot air blast. While sumption of fuel is about the same for the
two kinds of blast. With the hot air blast, and effeet a much greater saving in fuel. at the furnace of Guerche, where they use however, they make excellent pig iron for
" The raw coal when used as the fuel, the same ore, flux and fuel, but with the has the disadvantage of soon filling the fur-cold air blast, 1 lb. of the fuel is used for
castings without any difficulty.
2. On the use of raw coal in smelting nace, and is also found to produce an infe- 2.98 lbs. of the mixed ore and flux.
furnaces. rior quality of iron, to that made by use of At Ancy-le-Franc, where charcoal is coke. It is, therefore, not unlikely to be used in the proportion of 2-3 oak charcoal doubtless the source of the very great eco
The substitution of raw coal for coke is soon, generally, given up."
and 1-3 of white wood, 2, 1 lbs, of the ore