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West Point—say 85 miles—there to unite the expense, yet it is often better to do this of a machine (in the Railroad Journal,) for with the road now in progress from Mont. than to curve around them, if the radius is making bricks by pressure, so that when gomery, Alabama-say 90 miles. The likely to be short, and the grades light. they came out of the mould, they were ready whole length of all these roads from Savan-But where the curves can be made with a to go into the kiln. If you know any thing nah to the latter place will be four hundred || large radii, and the grades are heavy, engi- about the practical success of the machine, miles.

neers should, by all means, avoid these jut- please give it in the Journal. Have the Our city is central in the State, and will ting points by curving around them. This bricks been found on the whole to be better receive this season eighty thousand bales of increases the distance, but this objection is than those made in the common way?" cotton-an increase over last year of twenty overbalanced by lessening the cost, and also thousand, and a prospect of a further in-| lessening the grades. This engineers are of

AVERY'S ROTARY ENGINE. crease. Under all the circumstances it seems ten compelled to do in this country, and on to me a most favorable location for a foun-the route of the New.York and Erie Railroad, | from the pen of a friend who should have

We give the following communication dry and factory for Railroad and engine ap- great pains bave been taken to avoid curves been an ENGINEER, rather than of that proparatus ; th northern cities are full to over- of small radii

, so much so that in many infession heretofore considered almost the running, and here nothing of the kind doing ; stances the expense has been greatly in-only path to eminence, the Law. And the whole country fully ripe for the har.creased to effect this object. Speaking for vest. All the engineers in this country are í myself, I have not located one foot of ground To the Editor of the Railroad Journal : from the northern climate, and will bear ine with a radius of less than 955 feet, and think

SIR, - It is some time since the attention out in saying, that from the middle section of to have one cotinnued line of over 60 miles of the public has been invited, through your the State upwards, is as pleasant and as with a curve of no less radius, although valuable Journal, to the Re-acting Rotary healthy as in any part of the United States. I with a radius of from 400 to 600 feet, I could Engine of Mr. Avery, of Syracuse, but the We have here to this place steamboat navi- have wound round hills, and kept the grade merits of the invention do not seem to be gation, one steam mill in operation, and an near the surface, whilst, with the radius of duly appreciated, except, perhaps, by those other building. The excavation and em 955 feet, the grade line must often pass so who have an engine of his construction in bankment on the Monroe Railroad is almost as to make the cutting much greater and actual use. I have been informed, however, entirely earth, but part heavy for this counthe embankment much more heavy. that in every instance where one of this try. This city, in point of population and Equal pains have also beer taken to les. kind of engines has been put up, it has commerce, is now improving at the ratio ofsen the grades by keeping well upon the proved itself superior to the high pressure seventy-five per cent. per annum.

side hills,-by crossing deep ravines,--and piston engine. It is quite probable that most L. L. Griffin.

by causing excavations of ten, fifteen, twen. engineers have fallen into an error in theory

ty, and sometimes over thirty feet,~whilst, ||in calculating upon the power of Mr. Ave. Macon, March 30th, 1836.

if a sharp grade were no detriment, wery's engine, by misapplying one of the first

could follow near the streams, and would principles of mechanics--" that action and RADUI Of curves, ACCLIVITY OF GRADES, lessen the expense; but the grades in these re-action are equal." Starting with this theo

instances, would, at times, be quite easy, rem, which is admitted to be true, one would

and in other places very heavy. The engi- very readily be led into an erroneous conTo the Editor of the Railroad Journal :

neers have chosen and acted upon the clusion by reasoning in this manner :-"ACSir,–It was not until very recently, that course of making the grades as regular as tion and re-action being equal, and the most I discovered in your Journal of February || possible, which course will stand the test that can be obtained by a fluid impinging up13th, a communication signed S. D., in re of review. Knowing, or at least believing, on the vanes of a wheel, is an effect equal to lution to the report of James Seymour, re.. that many will view this magnificent work one third of the power applied, therefore the specting the radii of curves, acclivity of the largest and most noble of the kind in effect in the re-acting engine is only one third grades, rates of speed, &c., of the different the United States,) its engineers would in of the power of the steam used," from which Railroads between Washington and New- all time to come, regret that it should not must be deducted the usual discount for York, and the Roads in the vicinity of the be completed in a workmanlike manner, or

friction, &c. This conclusion is plausible, latter city. I entirely agree with S. D. in that permanent injury should result to the but erroneous, as can be shown by comsaying that the natural features of the coun. Company or the public, from their incapacity, paring the different circumstances under try must govern the course of the route, especially with one so eminent in his pro

which the power is applied in the two cases. nor would I be understood to say that the fession as Judge Wright at the head. In the case of a fluid impinging by direct radii of curves were no detriment to such a

As S. D. says his motive in adverting to action upon vanes or paddles, if any motion work as the New-York and Erie Railroad ; Mr. Seymour's letter, is a desire to see the whatever is produced, the vanes must nebut on the contrary, I consider these things Lake Erie Railroad finished, as regards cessarily more in the same direction with serious obstacles in the way of Internal Im-route and details, as perfect as circum- the impelling fluid, and the velocity of this provement, and might be carried to such an stances will permit

, the Company are motion must be deducted from that of the extent as to work a complete failure of the doubtless obliged to him for his friendly feel stream, so that the greater the velocity of purposes intended by them. If the surface ing towards their Road, and in behalf of the the wheel the less is the impulse. In the should prove to be a perfect plane, as s. D. Engineers I invite him to an inspection of reacting engine there is no loss from this says, I consess there would be but little to the same as soon as they shall have so source. The motion may be greater or contend against, and in such case the ser much of it completed as he may consider less, and not affect the impelling pressure, vice of an engineer would hardly be re- ll worthy his attention.

because the power moves with the revolv. quired. But he admits that this is not often

ONE OF THE ENGINEER CORPS OF THE ing arms, and whatever may be their velocity the case, and that the surface is more or


the enclosed steam and those arms are rela. less broken-that the topography of the

tively at rest, and the pressure upon the country is undulating, with vallies and

side opposite the orifice is precisely the

QUERIES. ridges often running contrary to the course

same when in the most rapid motion as that we would wish them. It is frequently We shall be obliged to any one who will when standing still. the case that spurs run out so that engi. answer the following queries, both to oblige It is upon this principle that the rocket neers are obliged to cut through them, and the gentleman who inquires, and for our ascends with astonishing velocity, the replace the earth in the vallies or low groundown gratification :

acting pressure not being in the least di. contiguous. This, of course, must enhance

" I saw, perhaps two years since, a notice minished by the ascending motion.


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If I am correct in the rationale of the re- | any other principle than by confining the one in question would extend to two years; acting engine, we need not be surprised that steam to increase its elasticity to a great a length of life, greater than has usually it should perform at least as much with the degree. My rotary tube was three feet fallen to the lot of rotary engines ; it still

long, the elastic power of the steam about lives, however, maugre our anticipations, | same fuel as the common high pressure 56 lbs. to the inch ; it revolved with a ve. and all the reports which we have received engine, which at best falls far short of the locity of about 700 to 1000 times a minute. relating to it, jend to show that it has aot actual initial power of the steam employed. The aperature by which the steam issued yet exhibited the first symptoms of decline.


about of an inch in diameter; it exerted | Although we still adhere to the opinion, more than the power of two men, and that upon a full comparison, the economy

would answer to turn lathes, grindstones, of a good reciprocating, will be greater than REMARKS AND INQUIRIES RESPECTING MR. &c., when fuel is cheap. I have specified that of any rotary engine that has been, or

and explained it in the Patent Office." Un-| will hereafter be, made, we most cheerfully AVERY'S PANENT STEAM ENGINE.

fortunately, there is no date to this work confess that we have a much better opinion To the Editor of the Journal of the Franklin Institute of Mr. Evans, but I presume it can be rea- || of Mr. Avery's, than we at first entertained ;

Sir,-You have doubtless seen, in a late|dily ascertained in Philadelphia, when it and, as to our wishes, they are that, by the number of the New York Mechanics' Mag. was published, and probably when the spe- operation of this, and a hundred other conazine, (the one for September, I think,) ancifications were entered at the Patent Or- || trivances, which we have esteemed of like engraved drawing of “ Avery's Rotary | fice. But that it was done long before Mr.value, we may be put entirely in the wrong ; Steam Eagine,” accompanied by a descrip- || Avery's engine was thought of, I think let the fact be well established, and we tion. It is generally believed that this en- | there can be little room for doubt, as it ap- would be the first to inake it public. Withgine has been secured 10 Mr. Avery by pa. || pears from another part of the same workout putting in an undue claim to the suavitent. I have always supposed the main ob- of Mr. Evans, page 96, that he matured hister in modo ; we have sometimes thought ject of the patent law to be, the protection experiments upon the application of steam that the tendency of our animadversions of original inventors in the enjoyment of to a wheel, in the year 1784, which, as he upon patented inventions was to place us in whatever pecuniary advantages they may || states, he described in the Patent Office. the situation of " The best good-natured fairly derive from their useful inventions.

Under these circumstances, I cannot see man, with the worst ill-natured muse;" it That Mr. Avery's engine, or one con- what possible clain Mr. Avery can have must be recollected, however, that we stand structed upon the same principle of action, to a patent for this invention; as to the drum between the claimants of exclusive privi. Though perhaps somewhat different in de which incloses the arms as represented in || leges and the public. tail, will be found in some situations a con-|| the drawing ot his engine before referred to, With respect to the amount of novelty venient and economical machine, I do not understand it is claimed as having been necessary to security, as a foundation for a doubt. Indeed, I know some persons who first applied to it, by a Mr. Clark, of some patent, we think that the fair test of this would like to make use of such engines, western town in this State.

is the utility of the improvement; if it renbut who are, some of them, unable, and all By giving the foregoing an early insertion ders that valuable which was of little com. unwilling, to pay Mr. Avery for the privi- in your Magazine, you will, sir, essentially| parative worth, it is enough, although it be lege of doing that which they feel them- oblige several of the friends and readers as no more than the addition of a screw, or of selves equally at liberty to do with himself. well as promote the cause of justice. Should a peg. The views which we have adopted My reasons for doubting the validity of his you be willing to express your own opinion upon this subject, may be found at large in patent, may be found, first, by referring to as to the merits of ihis question, it would | Vol. 8, p. 411 of this journal. The article the September number of the New-York | be deemed particularly valuable.

is a borrowed one, and well worth perusal. Mechanics' Magazine for 1833, in which is

Fair Play. The main object of the patent law is the given a drawing and description of the beau-Remarks on the foregoing communication, protection of original inventors in the enjoytiful contrivance of Hiero, the first account

by the Editor.

ment of whatever pecuninary advantages of which is said to have been published in It so happens that “ Fair Play, and oth-ventions, and in atiaining this end, it is

they may fairly derive from their useful inthe year 1571. The principle upon which Mr. Avery's ||of Foster and Avery's Re-acting Steam E..weights, or to measure them by any estab.

ers, who desire information on the subject not possible to test them by, comparative engine acts, will, I think, be seen at a gine, (commonly called Avery's) will, in | lished scale; absolute quantiiy, however glance, to be the same as that of Hiero's. ihe present number, have a full opportunity | small, is all that can be required. Secondly, in a work by Oliver Evans, enti; of seeing what constitutes the claim of these tled the" Young Steam Engineer's Guide,” | gentlemen to a patent for an improvement published by Carey & Lea, page 93, the bi- in this machine. They were fully informed decision OF THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE ographer of Mr. Watt, speaking of his first respecting what had been

attempted with UNITED STATES, FOR THE EASTERN DISattempt to produce a direct circular mo• tion by steam, sayş," he (that is, Mr. Want previously to their obtaining a patent; and engines similar in construction to their own,

RICT OF NEW-YORK, IN A PATENT CASE then iried Parent's or Dr. Barker's Mill, inclosing the arms in a metal druin which their claim to improvement within very

it will be seen that they have confined was immersed in cold water; the steam narrow limits, and so far as we are informrushed rapidly along the pipe which wased, their claim is a valid one. It may be UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURT. the axis, and it was hoped that a great re- said that their improvement is trifling; that, action would have been exerted at the ends however, is their own concern, as those of the arms, but it was almost nothing, the who do not need it are at full liberty to use

Henry Stanley vs. Henry Hewitt. reason seems to be that the greatest part of the machine in any of the various forms This was an action founded upon a pathe steam was condensed in the cold arms. which had been previously given to it, ortent granted to the plaintiff, Henry Stanley, hot, but the impulse was now very small in 10 devise others which are new, without by the United States, the 17th December, comparison with the expense of steam.

buying from them what may be deemed un-1832, upon a specification and application important.

made to the patent office the 11th of OctoUpon this experiment Mr. Evans remarked as follows: It is evident, from this ac- l specting the comparative results obtained stove. We are not sufficiently well informed re.ber, 1832, for an improved rotary cooking

The plaintiff, by several witnesses, count, that Mr. Watt has used weak steam, from Avery's and the reciprocating, or Ave- proved the originality of the invention in denser ; had he in his experiment with|ry's and other rotary engines, to make up | him, its importance and usefulness, and

our minds respecting its real value ; be- that the defendant had, from patterns taken Doctor Barier's Mill, lessened the apera iween four and five years, however, have from the plaintiff's stove, made and caused tures by which the steam issued, so as to

elapsed since this engine was patented, and to be made, and sold a large number of confine the steam until the power in the it has been at work at Syracuse, and vari- stoves, and was still pursuing the business. boiler was equal to 100 lbs. tv the inch, he would have been astonished to see it re-time, so that those who have seen it, and patent was void, called Elisha Town and

ous other places, during the whole of that the defendant, to show that the plaintiff's volve about 1000 times a minute, supposing who possess a competent knowledge of the his son, and others, to prove that in 1823 length; have tried the same experiment, subject, have had time enough to investi- and 1824, he invented, and procured to be but without the least hope of success, on gate it. Before the patent was obtained, cast, a rotary stove, and that the plaintiff's

we expressed to Mr. Avery, our general | stove revolved like it also a Mr. Gould, 19

want of confidence in the real value of such prove that the plaintiff took the collars and * Descriptions of Barker's Mill may be found by engines, and our doubts respecting the im-Hues in the cap of his stove from said samwe Mochanio, and almost every reputable wark portance of the improvemenis claimed and Gould's stove, and also other withpiseuto on lochaniou now in uso,

we did not suppose that the career of the lahew that the plaintiff A Well Mathore



had used the collars and Aues long before I no bearing upon its merits. And in this they had been sold by him. If this witness, the plaintiff's improved cooking stove was view of the subject, it is of no consequence therefore, is worthy of credit, (and be invented ; and also, that the defendant at: whether the plaintiff

, Mr. Stanley, has, or stands entirely unimpeached in every restempted to show that the ptaintiff had sold bas not, accumulated a fortune, as the fruits || pect,) there can be no doubt that the plainhis stoves, and given his invention to the of his invention. If, by his own talents, || tiff's right have been violated by the de. public before he applied for his patent. industry, and perseverance, he has produced fendant, if, in fact, it shall appear that he

The plaintiff, in reply, called numerous a machine, useful in itself, and approved has any which the law can protect. witnesses to show that Town's stove, what-of by the public, he is entitled to the pro But the great question is, whether he has ever it was, was useless, and had been rection of ihe law, so far as he has rights any such rights, and the solution of that abandoned as such; and that the plaintiff to be preserved and guarded. And if, on question is to be found in the paient itself. had no knowledge of it when he made his the other hand, he has interposed claims. And here I may remark, that much has invention and improvement, and that his which cannot be the subject of legal sanc- | been proved and said in relation to the instove, in all the important improvements tion, he must abide by the consequences of |ventions of Town and Gould. The evi. by him claimed, was wholly unlike Town's his fault, or misfortune.

dence upon these points is only important stove, and that collars and flues were not I state to you, gentlemen, in the outset, in one point of view, and in that it will te claimed by him as his invention, independ that this is not a case free from difficulties. here considered. It shows that the materi. epily of his rotary plate in which they were But I have the consolation of knowing thai|als, or component parts, or Stanley's store attached, and that when they were put my decision of the matter need not be final, |are not in themselves nero ; and if the plain. I upon the Gould stove, it was done at the and that any mistakes committed here, may tiff claims a combination of things, he has plaintiff's suggestion. And that all the be reviewed and corrected by another iri- ||evidently taken old materials to form his stoves delivered out before the application bunal, where I, too, shall have an oppor- | machine with, whatever it may be. for the patept, were delivered to be used on unity of considering the subject with nore In relation to this part of the case, !I trial, and with a view to test the utiliiy of care.

would observe, that the particular words its improvements. The trial was a very In my view of the case, much evidence used in the specification and summary of labored one, and occupied five or six days; bas been introduced upon both sides, which this patent are of nu importance. The but finally resulted in a question of law,llis entirely irrelevant. The plaintiff's rights, office of words is to convey ideas, and our growing out of the wording of the specifi-| whatever they are, depend upon his patent, province is to determine what the party in. cation ; which appeared to have been drawn and if he has any by his patent, and hasiended to express by the language employup by the plaintiff without proper legal ad- | not abandoned them to the public, he is en-ed. Did the patentee intend to claim the vice.

titled to protection. I confess to you, that discovery of a principle, in the abstract or On the part of the plaintiff, it was insist-||my own preposessions lean towards useful philosophical sense of that term? or did he ed that the claim, in his summary, was for improvements, and I would construe the intend to describe a contrivance, or maa combination of certain improvements hepatent act with a liberal spirit, and expand-||chine, new and dseful in reference to the had made in the cooking stove, connected ||ed views. It is a beneficial law, having its purpose for which it was produced ? He together and attached to the top or cap of foundations in public policy. lis object is, claims in his summary, “the revolving top his stove, put in motion; and that it was to encourage the enierprise of ingenious plate," as a constituent part of his inven. the combination which he claimed, and not men, that the results of their labors, being iion, and the first inquiry is, whether, bethe parts forming the combination separare- || brought into view, may be first enjoyed by fore the use of Stanley's stove, a contrivance ly, and that his specification would bear the inventors for a limited period, and then had been used by which the utensils to be that construction.

dedicated to the public benefit forever after-| beated had been brought over the fire, by On the part of the defendant, it was in- | wards. Nevertheless, I do not mean to say means of a top revolving upon its centre. sisted that the plaintiff had so worded his that all patents are to be protected at all. If the patentee claims this revolving motion specification, that it would not bear that events, but those only are to be sustained || as his own discovery, in its application to construction, and that ii really claimed the which have the sanction of law. It is a la cooking stove, he evidently includes in different parts comprising the top or cap of well known fact that patents are granted his patent that which is not his own disthe stove separately, and independently of at the Patent Office, noi after an examina-covery; fur Town's stove had a revolving any combination, and that his specification tion into their merits, but upon ex parte top, or drum, intended to accomplish the was otherwise defective.

statements, and hence their real claims may same object, by means somewhat similar. Judge Thompson, in the progress of the be afterwards investigated with proper It is very possible that Town could not cause, gave his opinion that putting the strictness in a coart of law.

maintain a patent for that invention, bestoves out on trial, and for the purpose of There are some general rules always to cause he long ago gave it up, and abandoned experiment and improvement, was not such be observed while considering this subject. it to the public. He did not, however, a public use of them as would be consider- In the first place, to entitle a patentee to abandon it to the plaintiff, and all other ed as a dedication to the public-hat the maintain an action for a supposed violation persons might use it as well as he. If plaintiff was justified and had a right 10 of his rights, his invention must be both Town's discovery was abandoned, the only test the utility of his invention, and see useful and new; not that its usefulness is claim to it which Stanley can maintain, is what improvements might be made before to be scanned with a critical eye, to ascer: the use of the thing as a part of his comhe applied for his patent, and that this wastain a given amount of benefit to be derived || bination; and here we must determine an article which would be tested by being from it, but the invention must be useful, as what Town's invention was. put into several families, where it might contradistinguished from that which is fri. It is evident that he invented a revolving be differently used by different housekeep-1 volous, or wholly worthless. If not frivo-| drum or top of a stove, to convey vessels

lous, or entirely seless, the requirements of to and from the fire by a rotary motion, and In charging the jury, Judge Thompson, the law in this particular are complied with. concentrate the heat around them wben after stating the case and the difficulties With regard to the invention before us, it placed there. This contrivance he gave up, arising from the obscurity of the language is clearly useful ; this is proved by the testi-or abandoned, because it was useless, that is, employed in the summary of the specifi-| mony of witnesses on all sides. It is proved, useless in its then combination, though not cation, remarked that in all cases, where also, by the great extent of the plaintiff's in the abstract--for the principle or conconsequences of great importance to the sales, by the favor of the public, which has trivance, as to the revolution, remains. As parties were involved, the jury must expect been liberally bestowed upon it, and by the a cooking machine, the stove of Towd was that the views of each would be presented palpable imitations of the plaintiff's models good for nothing; but its revolving motion with great earnestness and zeal. Nor is it in the case under consideration.

night be made useful when brought in consurprising (said he) that in such controver If the plaintiff has legal rights here, there nexion with other constituents properly sies, matters not materially connected with can be no doubt that they have been violated adapted to the objects in view. the merits of the issue, should be brought by the defendant. There is no substantial The same remarks are applicable to the before the Court and Jury during the pro- difference between the stove made by the raised cones, or collars, and the flues. Each gress of the trial.

defendant, and that invented by the plain-||of these was old, and each had before been These remarks are applicable to the casetiff; the one is a copy of the other. And used either by itself or in other combi now under consideration. It evidently in-| as to the extent of the violations, there is nations. Stanley himself had used the colvolves matters of importance to the parties as little doubt. If you believe the testimony lars in his own stove, as far back as the concerned, and has been accompanied by of Mr. Randal, the defendant sold a hundred year 1828. So bad Wilson--and this pri circumstances having no material bearing stoves before the commencement of this of the machine is confessedly old. So wab upon

the questions in issue. We, however, suit, if his own declarations are to be regard to the flues. If Stanley was the inAre 19 examine the controversy, and detercredited, for he told the witness, in express ventor of these, he had abandoned them to mlae it, by the law and the evidence, with. terms, not only that a hundred proves like the publlo long before the date of his patepli Que sofersaag to extrionio matters, having there had been sold in Vermont, but that and he cannot, therefore, now claim there


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as the subject of a patent. But the question made. The regulations upon this road are|| was found necessary to despatch a company is, whether Stanley does claim these ma- | such as to obtain credit from all parties. In of the fine Volunteer Militia of this city to terials or constituents as his invention ?then claim as his own the discoveries of several of the finest and most comfortable and put in confinement to answer for the for if he does his patent is void. He would connexion with this road are to be found Iquell the disturbance. Three of the ring. others, or endeavor to maintain that which sails upon our waters.

offence. No further difficulty is apprehe had, by use, dedicated to the public.

hended. If, on the other hand, the patentee claims

NEW-YORK. a combination here, and nothing more, then I have no hestiation in saying that his

Tunnel under the Hudson River.- The rights are secured. If he goes for the ele- bill to incorporate the Albany Tunnel Com.

Richmond, March 29. ments or constituents of his machine, hispany, has passed both branches of the Legis. Travelling facilities are now complete patent is void, but if he merely claims alature, and become a law; the amendments from this city in every direction. The Railnew combination of old materials, his rights of the House having been finally, and very way cars set out daily for the Rivanda rimay be protected. The patent itself is satisfactorily disposed of yesterday. ver, on the Fredericksburg route, and the somewhat obscurely drawn, but the inven.

The bill provides that the Tunnel, for a steamboat Thomas Jefferson leaves here tion is useful and meritorious, and I am distance of 300 feet from and east of iheevery Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday, for disposed to give it all the protection which pier, shall be twelve feet below the lowest Norfolk, connecting with the bay boats, for the law will allow. A liberal construction low water mark, as defined by the United | Baltimore and Washington. The brightshould be given to these instruments, nor States survey; and that the crown of the lening weather and the spring business will should a severe criticism be bestowed


arch shall be eighteen inches below the bed soon give an impulse to locomotion. language used, for the most part by the in- of the river. It will of course pass, by a ventors themselves, who are, in many cases, gradual elevation, from the place of the altogether unskilled in the use of technical greatest depih, to the shore at either termi. Expedition between Richmond and Newterms. We are always to ask ourselves on nation. The clear inner width of the Tun- | York.–We understand that the President these occasions, what was the intention of nel will be about 24 feet, and the height 12 anil Directors of the Richmond, Fredericksthe writers, and if that be discovered, the feet. The site is of course not yet decided burg and Potoniac Railroad Company, are particular word; used are altogether unim- upon; but the general impression seems to making arrangements which will enable portant.

be that its entrance into Market-street will travellers leaving New-York in the morn. With these views, and under these con- || be through Maiden-lane, which, having been ing, to be in Richmond the next day to siderations, I proceed now to give you my recently widened, is admirably adapted to dinner; and on the other hand, will enable notions as to what this patent contains. It the purpose.

them to leave Richmond after breakfast and concludes with a summary in the following

The directors named in the bill are Joel be in New York the next evening. words :-" the principle for which I claim B. Noit, Stephen Van Rensselaer, jr., James It is anticipated that a line leaving Newthe invention, and for which I ask letters Stevenson, James Vanderpoel and John York in the morning, will come to Philapatent," is "ibe revolving top plate or fis- Townsend.

delphia, and then reach Baltimore about ture into or on which are placed the princi Facts and estimates, we have reason to eight in the evening; that after the arrival pal utensils used in cooking,” &c.

believe, will soon be presented to the public, of the line at Baltimore, a train of cars will By the pateni law, the party is required showing its entire practicability, at an ex. leave that city for Washington, and arrive to describe that which he makes, that the pense that will warrant the undertaking, in the latter place about eleven; that the public may understand the thing, and be upon a scale commensurate with the mag. steamboat will then leave Washington for able to construct the like after the patent nitude and importance of the object.

Potomac Creek, and by means of the conshall have expired; and hence there is a This is one of the greatest and most nection with the stages and Railroad, tranecessity for a proper observance of this valuable charters ever granted by the Legis. vellers will get 10 Richmond at the time requirement of the act. In this case, the lature of this State. It is also one of ihe above mentioned. plaintiff claims the specific thing set forth most liberal. It is in perpetuity, and with So travellers leaving Richmond after in the summary, and we must turn to the out a reservation of the power to modify || breakfast will get to Washington by three specification in order to understand what or repeal. Very liberal time is granted also next morning, thence to Baltimore by six, that thing is. The term used in the sum- in relation to the period of completion. and to New-York in the evening. mary is principle,” but a reasonable in. Upon the whole, the passage of this bill Under this arrangement a person leaving terpretation must be given to it, or no sensi- may be regarded as a measure of the high.Richmond between breakfast and dinner ble exposition of the parties' meaning can est importance to the company.

would reach New-York as 800n as the mail be obtained. He evidently did not intend It is due to the representatives of the city which should have left Richmond the pre. lo claim the discovery of an abstract thing, of Troy, to say that their course in relation vious evening, that is, if the hours for the or entity, but some tangible mechanical to the progress of the bill, has been charac- mail should remain unchanged.-(Comcontrivance, described in the specification.terized by great liberality; and that, pot-piler.] By “principle,” he evidently intended a con- withstanding the supposed rivalry existing trivance or thing described ; and as there between the two cities in some respects, is no magic in words, we may fairly give they promptly and honorably facilitated its

The following gentlemen have been elect. this interpretation to the term used. passage.--[Argus.)

ed Directors of the Central Railroad and The plaiotiff then patents thisrevolving top plaie,” with its collars and flues, but in


Banking Company of Georgia, for the of. stead of describing his invention as it really A Railroad is about to be constructed be

fice at Macon. is, a combination, he describes the constir tween Burlington and Mount Holly. The

J. Cowles, tuent parts. His improvement consists of a combination, and he should so have des- charter authorises $70,000 stock; the esti

J. GODDARD, cribed it, and I have no doubt that a speci.mated cost is $35,000 for the seven miles

R. COLLINS, fication may be drawn which will secure all of road. his rights. If the plaintiff had properly

D. Ralston, described his invention as it actually exists, The ground is said to be very favorable,

F. H. WELMAN, his parent would have been good, for the nc inequalities of consequence occuring on

WM. SOLOMON, the combination would have appeared. the line.

R. A. Beall.
The money received by the stage owners
RAILROAD AND CANAL on this line for passengers only amounted

to $3,100 for the last year. This alone will List of Acts passed at the last Session of the

pay more than 6 per cent., without taking General Assembly.-General State InBOSTON AND PROVIDENCE RAILROAD AND into account the transportation of goods, provements by Canal or Slackwater, STEAMBOATS,

To provide for the extension and com.

PENNSYLVANIA. We ind from the eastern papers that

pletion of the Miami Canal north of Day.

A number of the laborers on the Susque-|| ion; to improve the pavigation of the since the commencement of the travel this hanna Railroad having: struck for higher Muskingum rivers to provide for the con. opring, every arrangement caloulated to wages, and evinced a disposition to Inter, struction of the Hooking Oanali 19 improve Blve satisfaction to the publie hoe been fore with those who continued at work, the navigation of Winlo Grooke i to im






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prove the navigation of the Walhonding mercial places in the Union. We mean || fields a considerable order for figured silks and Mohican waters; to provide for the the projected Railroad to the lead mines of for America, where, of course, they must completion of the Warren County Canal, Washington and Franklin Counties, and meet the French under no circumstances of and the adjustment of the claims of the com- iron mines in the same region of country: ||protecting duty. If, then, the beauty of pany. To Incorporate Companies.--To Construct Kickapoo country. A country of immense terially improved, from our manufacturers

agricultural counties in what is called the English manufactured silk goods is so mathe following Railroads.

extent, with the richest mines in the world, having the opportunity of seeing the French, 'The Chillicothe and Cincinnati Rail- may, by this means, be brought to our doors. there is a still greater capability of improveroad; the Fort Wayne and Piqua Railroad ; We hope, that the committee appointed on ment, if more means of improvement were the Olio, Maumi and Wabash Railroad | || this subject, will not let the matter rest, bui placed within their reach. I think a matter the Vermillion and Birmingham Railroad | will at once set about procuring the infor- of the first importance would be to give to the Ashtabula,, Warren, and East Liver- mation necessary to enable their fellow pool Railroad; the Cuyahoga and Erie citizens to act understandingly upon it.- in the patterns for such a length of time as

the parties who originate patterns a property Railroad; the Hanging rock and Lawrence (Republican.] Furnance Railroad ; the Cleveland and

would repay the outlay and encourage the Warren Railroad; the Toledo and Sandusky

production of patterns. The Committee is

: From the London Mechanics' Magazine. Railroad ; the Ohio Railroad; the Colum

aware that such a protection is given to the bus, Delaware, Marion and Upper Sandusky Select COMMITTEE OF HOUSE (printer. When a pattern is framed on printRailroad; the Cleveland and Pittsburgh

OF COMMONS ON ARTS AND MANU-||ed cotton, the party is protected by the law Railroad ; the Columbus, London and

in the exclusive right of the pattern for three Springfield Railroad; the Newark and Mr. Vernon Railroad ; the Mansfield and New.

months, and I would suggest that protection

(Continued from page 5.) Haven Railroad ; the Bridgport Cadiz, and

should also be given to patterns framed in

MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. Sandusky Railroad ; the Cuya hoga Falls

the loom. It will be in the recollection of Branch Railroad; the Circleville, Wash Thomas James, Esq., examined :

the Committee, that some years ago an Inington, Wilmingion and Cincinnati Railroad; the Maumee and Kalamazoo Rail.

The fabrics that I am best acquainted with dia handkerchief was almost the distinguishroad; the Wellsville and Fairport Railroad; in our house are silk manufactures ; with ing mark of a gentleman; every gentleman

had one in his pocket. India-printed handthe Melmore and Republic Railroad; the respect to color, ever since the introduction Cincinnati and Western Railroad ;' the of French goods, I think we have had a sold at from 78. to 108. a-piece ; now the

kercheifs of very common patterns were Little Miami Railroad; the Muskingum very considerable improvement in the coand Columbus Railroad; the New.Haven lors, and in the patterns of the English silk great consumption of India handkerchiefs is and Monroeville Railroad ; the Akron and manufacture, particularly in the colors--not by the importation of the unprinted cloth, Perrysburgh Railroad; the Urbana and only in the plainer, which may

and they are printed in this country with En

be called Columbus Railroad ; ihe Columbus and Marysville Railroad'; the Stillwater and prismatic colors, but in those colors which glish patterns, but the cloths printed in India Maumee Railroad; the Covneaut and are creations of fancy, the shades have been are now principally sold by hawkers to the

lower class of consumers. In our figured Beaver Railroad; the Cleveland, Columbus much more brilliant than we used to have and Cincinnati Railroad.

them. The importation of French silks patterns we borrow very largely from the has almost entirely ceased in

French. It is very desirable that we should To Construct the following Canals.

consequence of this improvement. The power of pro- behind the French in ribbons and shawls ;

create an original taste here ; we are still 'The Franklin Canal; the Sandusky Ca- ducing finer colors on the part of our manunal and Slackwater ; the Chippeway Canal ;| facturers has increased,the Belleville and Bolivar Canal; the Mi. been an increased degree of good taste in advantage that we have from China silk,

,-as also there has

we borrow our figured patterns from France,

in a principal degree. From the decided Vernon Lateral Canal.

appreciating the colors. This improvement and our application of China silk, I do

has been perceptible since the more free inThe Railroad from Bayou Columbus tochester and Macclesfield, the time the countercourse with France. Referring to Man- | not fear that we shall decidedly beat the

French in figured as in plain goods. I this place, is now completed, or is so far

bave heard that the French

government done, as to enable Cars to cross from one try manufacturers came to London, to at

sent a mission some few years ago into the depot to the other, and is open for ibe trans- tend the periodical sales of silk at the East portation of merchandise. India House, it was their custom to come Cachmere goods, and also to speculate on

region of Cachmere, both to introduce Heavy shipments of goods have been or- to our house and other houses of our class, the production of Cachmere shawls. dered from New York, New Orleans, and and obtain from us patterns of the shades elsewhere to this city, by the interior mer- of different French goods that we had chants, and contrary to the expectations of bought or imported, and the imitation 'on

Mr. Thomas Field Gibson, examined:

I am a silk-manufacturer in Spitalfields. of the spring and summer business will be these goods and patterns has led to these The description of figured silks which we trapsacted here.

improvements, or at least has been co-ex-are now making in Spitalfields are of a very We also learn that the steaners Reindeer, istent with it. From the excellence and small and insignificant kind; they are not Hiperion, and several others on the river, beauty of our fabric, if silk was still to ad- of the large class of patterns. That is, the are to commence their trips from the depot vance and become dearer, the public would general class of patterns that are now mato Columbas in a few day, and will discon- | always repay that by an increased consump- king. They are almost entirely copies or This Railroad was the last one chartered | of color, whenever it does occur, is in-|| but a very small degree of talent employed tinue their trips to Appalachicola entirely; tion. The difficulty of selling a bad shade variations from French patterns; there is by the Legislative Council, and is the first creased considerably on account of the ge- in Spitalfields in the

production of patterns. in operation in the Territory. The enterprize has proved entirely successful, and neral appreciation of good colors. Until We are almost destitute of original taste in there is nothing in human power that can the last two or three years, the production that particular department. The French destroy its prosperity and future greatness. and consumption of figured British silks was patterns are generally given to the pattern- St. Joseph's Telegraph.)

a mere trifle, but within the last year the makers by the manufacturers, and they production and consumption of British fig- either copy precisely, or make variations, as

ured silks has been very considerable. The the manufacturer's or their own taste may St. Louis, March 8, 1836. figures are smaller, and I think more beau-| suggest. I am not acquainted with any The Railroad meeling on Saturday last tiful in form than formerly. Combining the drawer of patterns who is an educated artist. was composed of the most substantial class beauty of design with a certain degree of A good pattern-drawer may obtain from of our citizens--those who have the capital, neatness as well in tint as in color, the silk | 1001. to 2001. a year; but the remunera. and in whom the disposition exists, to for- manufactured in England has materially tion varies with the description of pattern. ward the work without delay, Another project received the attention of ile meeting, improved. Formerly they were most ap-|| It is also mixed up with a remuneration which is of great interest to our city, and prehensive of the figured silks from France, given for reducing the design to the mould, if suagersfully entertained will make it oneard the contest in them was thought hope or cutting the card, which is necessary of the greatent manufacturing and pomohless, but there is now executing in Spitallthe weaving it in the looms,




for I think that

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