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300 feet in length. A number of troughs was made at the least expense of that any other which is an article of commerce. extend along the upper part of this build- substance.
of this salt there are two varieties : one ing, and froin holes in their lower surfaces, More recently, a method styled that of in small grains, (blown salt,) and of great a number of endless ropes proceed and pass solar evaporation, has been introduced. whiteness, the other in cubic crystals, around sleepers at the level of the ground. In this the salt is placed in shallow pans (ground salt.) The latter, however, is Beneath these is a reservoir for the brine. beneath moveable roofs, by which the sunless perfect in form, and the crystals of
Brine brought, in either of the modes we may be admitted and rain is excluded.liess size than are obtained by spontahave mentioned, to the density of 1.14, and It does not, however, appear probable ueous evaporation, hence it is of less then concentrated by boiling to 1.23, is in that this method can be as rapid or as value for curing fish, or for packing meat troduced, without being permitted io cool, economic as those we have mentioned in the dry way. into the troughs, and thence flows over the above. It must, in addition, occupy a vast Blown or stoved salt is made in Livor. cords. It is then pumped back and perextent of ground.
pool by the rapid evaporation of the so. mitted to flow down a second time; at each At the salt.lick on the Kenhaway, in lution of the rock salt of Cheshire in passige salt is deposited upon the cords, until Virginia, the brine is of great strength, the tide waters of the Mersey, in large ihe fluid assumes the viscid character of 70 gallons of the water yielding a bushei shallow pans of sheet iron. The original which we have spoken, when it is permit- of salt. This is 5 or 6 rimes as much as boiling point of the solution is 236° Fahr. ted to escape into the receptacle providei is usually furnished by the salt springs of the salt, as it forms, is drawn out and for the mother water. In this way, the crystalization of the salt, which occupies from immediate vicinity, and can be obtained After these have been permitted to drain seven to eight days in the method of slow | at a low price. When these springs were for a time, they are placed in a stove and boiling, may be completed in seventeen or first opened* the waters drawn from a dried. eighteen hours, and the salt is of superior small deptia was less rich, and the fuel The coarse or ground sult is prepared quality. There will form, also, in the re-used was wood. The evaporation was at by heating the solution only to 170°, at servoir beneath, large white crystals of salt. |first rapid, and performed in common which it is kept until the evaporation is The cords are about a third of an inch in potash keitles, To these succeeded shall completed. diameter, and when the thickness of the low pans, first of sheet, and finally of cast A variety, in still larger crystals, is deposit upon them brings the joint diameter iron, which are still emploved.
manufactured for the use of the fisheries to about 2 inches, the salt is removed by The water drawn from the tubes, which by evaporating at the constant temperature an instrument contrived for the purpose of|are sunk 80 or 30 feet into the rock, is of 100°. * breaking it off, and falling into the reser-first exposed for a few days to the sun In all the three cases the process ceases voir beneath, which inust, of course, be and air, by which the carbonic acid with when the solution becomes viscid ; the rethen empty, may be collected.
which it is charged is dissipated, and the mainder is rejected under the name of When the first part of the process onlycarbonates of lime and iron, held in so. bittern. is conducted by spontaneous evaporation, lution by excess of that acid, are deposit. no more than 9-10ths of the fuel which led, The clear liquor is then boiled to * See HENRY, on Salt. would be required to boil away the whole dryness, and the salt allowed to drain.
To be continued. of the water, need be used, and by the mode|| The salt thus obtained is of course in fine of crystalization upon ropes, even the half of grains. Salt in large crystals is also
AGRICULTURE, &c. this is saved, so that the saving is 19-20.hs made at the same place by heating the
It is a matter of wonder that so little is of the whole. Whenever, therefore, a cheap brine to a moderate temperature in large power for the purpose of raising the water, shallow palis, by means of tubes in which said and done with respect to breed in so in order that it shall perform its several waste steam from other operations circu- important an animal. We think any thing passages over the ropes, hurdles, or tables, | lates.
which throws light on so important a subcan be obtained, the advantages of these
ject, will be acceptable to our readers. methods are enormous.
But it would even be a saving to use steam for raising the wa
From the Baltimore Farmer and Gardener. Rock salt is sometimes so pure that is ter; for, the evaporation of a single cubic
be used without any preparation ex. foot of water in the boiler of a steam engine cept crushing. In order that it may be copied by request from the American Farmer, Vol. will raise eighty cubic feet to the necessary transported as an article of merchandise,
7, No. 22.] height; and the fire which raises the steam it is cut into masses of the figure of a bar. may be at the same time concentrating||rel, which are then enclosed in staves brine, if the boiler be filled with it instead || and hoops. The lesser pieces are used dollars value, offered by Robert OLIVER,
[The premium of a silver cup, of thirty of fresh water.
in the neighborhood of the mines. Such Esq., to the author of the best essay on the In the first attempts to make salt froin is the quality of the salt from the mines of natural history of the Mule, and its value the brine springs in the State of New-York, Wieliczka in Poland, and Cardona in for the general purposes of agriculture, in no other method than artifical evaporation Spain.
comparison with borses, was awarded by a was thought of. This was perforied in the
In other mines the rock-salt is mixed committee appointed by the Trustees of ihe iron vessels made for the manufacture of with earth
matter, whence it must be Maryland Agricultural Society, to the au. tash. A better boiler was subsequently separated by lixiviation ; and tha. of thor of the following Essay :) introduced, in which the smoke and heated|Cheshire in England contains liquid so. air was made to circulate in tubes. Thelutions of deliquescent salts, which make with the view of promoting an improvement
A DISSERTATION ON THE MULE, salt obtained in the earlier manufacture was it necessary to dissolve and re-crystalize. much impaired in quality by the deli. For the solution of the rock salt in Chesh.
in the breed ; and of demonstrating the quescent chloride of magnesium, and wasire the waters of salt springs which issue
utility of employing him as a substitute for
the horse, in the labor's of husbandry, canot free from the bitter taste given by it from the same formation are employed, nals, &c. By Samuel Wyllys POMEROY. and the sulphate of magnesia. In this or the rock-salt is carried to Liverpool, stage of the manufacture, Dr. McNiven where it is dissolved in sea.water.
-Opinion is the queen of the world; it gives In
motion to the springs and direction to the wheels of was requested to propose a remedy, which either of these ways the evaporation, power.”—John Quincy Adams. he found in adding 1.1000th part of its which is always by artificial heat, may weight of boiling water to the salt placed be performed at the least possible expense
“Knowledge is power."-Bacon. in bins, whose bottoms were inclined.- of fuel. The process is conducted with
Soon after the accession of Charles III. to This quantity of boiling water being just great skill, as is evident from the great hibited, by a severe edict, from wearing
The crown of Spain, his subjects were pro. sufficient to dissolve the impurities which purity of the salt it produces, which is apped hats and long cloaks; which caused a careful analysis showed to exist, and more free from other saline matter than an insurrection that obliged him to flee from the solubility of common salt being but
Madrid, after witnessing the massacre of little increased by boiling, the separation * Sea Silliman's Journal for 1834.
nearly one hundred of his Walloon guards;
and might have terminated in a revolution, || stance, nervous system, and what Malpighill with the speed of a high mettled race horse. but for a speedy revocation of the edict and calls the keel, (carina,) bottom, in spuriso | The Arabian came', with two protuberbanishment of his ministers. Av emninen men's larguage, is jaient in, and derived ances on luis back, is considerably larger, writer introduces the history of the occur-irom, the mare. But in its cortical sub- of much stronger form, travels at a pace rence, by observing that "it is easier 10 stance and oui ward form, in iis mane and seldom exceeding three miles an hour, and conquer half the world than to subduetail, resembles the ass. Beiween the felis capable of conveying such burdens, that a single prejudice or error, most na- male ass and the horse, the other kind oil the Arabs style bim, emphatically, the ship tions having a superstitious atiachment to mule is engendered, whose nature or nie- of the deseri ; yet they are of the same those habitudes which they derive from Quilary substance resembles that of the species-a cross between them breed and their ancestors, that seemed to come along ass; but its outward form and cortical constitute another variety, which inultiply, with thein into the world, and with which structure, or vascular system, that of the land according to Buffon, have the most they were nursed and brought up.”
vigor, and are preferred to all others. Perhaps it may be deemed by many quite
The latter kind was called Hinnus by the Ancient writers recognize tlıree or four as visionary or absurd, to attempt an iniro. ancients; hence the modern vane Hinny.distinct varieties of the ass. According to duction of ihe mule as a substitute for the They were not held in much estimation by the learned Dr. Harris, four different races horse, for the purposes of agriculture and the Romans, according 10 Pliny, who de- are indicated in the original Hebrew Scriphackney employment, as was the project of scribes them as difficult to manage, and so rures, viz. Para, Chamor, Alon, and Orud.* the Spanish monarch for compelling his slow that little service could be derived from The wild ass, (Para,) was a native of subjecis lu wear the French costume, io the idem. Buffon has noueed this animal, Arabia Deserla, and those countries which excius ionof one they had been so long ac- which, lie says, “is smaller than the mule, formed the great Babylonian empire. They customed to look upon as a distinction as it preserves the diminutive stature of the are now found in Southern Tartury, in the which was the birth-right of every true Hinnys were seldomi propagated; mountainous districts and saline plains of Spaniard," and, as we may suppose, so con but it is said that a number have lately Persia—are migratory in large berds, visitgenial to the indolent habits for which haideen bred in Spain, probably in conse-ing in winter the northern parts of India, pation had long been proverbial.
quence of the desiruction of mares in the land said to be so fleet that no horse can !! must be acknowledged that there are peninsular war, and are represented of good overtake them in the chase. This race are serious, though I trust in this age of im. size, and more beautiful than the mule; frequently alluded to by the inspired poets provement, not insurmountaole impedi-ihat is, they resemble the horse much and prophets ; and afford similies diametments-for we have to combat not only he- more. I understand a few have been bred rically opposite to those drawn from the relitary prejudices, or, 10 speak more cor. upon ihe Spanish Main, no doubt from a
domestic race. The sublime description of rectly, such as have proceedel from a defi- similar cause that led to the system in the former in the book of Job, exhibits such ciencyof means and wantof knowledge,lode- Spain; and if my informaiion is correct, a contrast, that I trust iis insertion in this velope the valuable properties and to subdue some have recently been shipped to the place will not be deemed improper. propensities of a contrary character in this West India Islands, but are by no means
" Who from the forest ass his co!lar broke, hybrid race, but we are met at the ihresh.esteemed so hardy, or valuable for serv.ce, Ani mnanuunized liis shuulder from the yoke? hold by the same species of pride which iBe as mules.
Wild tenant of the waste, I sent him there Spaniards manifested in regard to their cos. Notwithstanding mules have a disposition
Among the shrubs, tu breath in freedom's air.
Swift as an arrow in his speed he flies; tume, founded on the enthusiastic, I may aloo propagate,there have been but I woorthree
Sees from afar the smoky city rie; most say superstitious attachment to the well authenticaied instances recorded of Scorns the throng'd streei, where slavery drags her horse.
their having bred; and those productions load, It is believed that a vast portion of our were considered monsters. Buffon was
The loud voic'd driver and his uiging goad;
Where e'er the mouniain Waves iis iufiy wood, fellow-citizens, and I may with proprietylindefatigable in his researches on the sub
A boundless range, he seeke his verdant foud." add the people of Great Britain, from whom ject; and although he admits that it is pos.
(Scott's VERSION.) we have derived some io veterate prejudices, sible for both males and females to propaas well as those illustrious examples thailgate, he is confident that their parents are
We find, that at a very early period of have had such a powerful influence in lead- of a species distinct from each Other. He sacred history, the comojon domestic ass ing our country io the high destinies that says, “ The ass is not a horse degenerated,"||(Chamor,) was employed in all the menial a wait her, do not consider that a mule, es as some had supposed ; “he is neither a
Jabors of a patriarchal family, while a pecially a well bred one, would be in him. stranger, an intruder, 'nor a bastard-he nobler and more estimable animal (Alon), self and in their view, one of the best forarbas, like other animals, his family, his
was destined to carry the patriarcbs, the
spes ed and most distinguished of animals, i leirs, and his rank; his blood is pure and well torn, and those on whoni parks of disthey had never seen a horse-ihey must ad. unsaidied, and althougb his race is less no- liinction were to be conferred. They con. mit, however, that he holds the second rankole. yet it is equally good, equally ancient Istituted an important item in a schedule of instead of the first-and it is principally as that of the horse.” This profound na
the pastoral wealth of those times; of fro:n this circumstance that so line aren- turalist continues a very minute and elo- course, attracted particular attention and tion has been paid to him in hoch countries. quent comparison between the horse and
David, we are told, had an officer, Comparison is the chief cause of his degra. the ass—some of his expressions I have ia.
apparenily of high dignity, appointed ex. dation--they look at and give their opinion ken the liberiy to apply to the mule and the pressly to superintend his stud of high bred
asses, or Alonoth. not of himself, but comparatively with the horse in a preceding paragraph. horse. They seem not aware that he is a
There was another race that has been
it may promote the object in view to enter mule—that he has all the qualities of his extensively upon the history of the ass, and mentioned by Aristotle, and by Theoprastus, nature, all the gifts attached 10 the conneci we commence with the supposition, that
whom Pliny quotes, which they denominaing and final link of two distinct species, when men became so far civilized as to have ted the wild mules that bred (hemi.onos,) and think only of the figure and qualities of burdens to carry, or required to be carried and were found in Cappadocia and Africa. the horse which are wanting in bim, and themselves, this animal was the first domes. There can be but little doubı but this is the
Hemionus, or wild inule of the Mongalian that he ought not to have; for be possesses ticated for that purpose—and it is re:sson. those of more intrinsic value, which the Su-able to infor that those of the least spirit
Tartars, so particularly described by profespreme Author of nature has denied 10 both and most tractable, were put in requisition
sor Pallas ; and that it is not a hybrid, but in the first instance; when by breeding in actually
of the species of ass resembling a There are few subjects of animated nature and in, without any care in the selection of mule. This race is id ntified by Dr. Harris that have engaged the attention of the most sire or dam, became in process of time de with the Orud of Seripture.
The wild ass of Northern and Western eminent naturalists, more than the genus generated to a very interior grade. Be this Equus, to which the horse and ass, with their as it may, it is an unquestionable fact,, that
Africa, wliose fleshi was so much admired hybrid offspring, are assigned. Linnæus, different races of the ass now exist, pos-rår ked as another distinct race. Adanson,
by the Roinan epicures, muy, I believe, be With a view to establish; by new arguments in the species of camel. For instance, the a French naturalist
, who visited the river plants, which Spallanzani bad attempted to
Bactrain or single hunched camel, called overturn, illustrated their generation by
the dromedary, by far the most numerous * See the “Natural History of the Bible, by Thadpursuing the chain of nature from the ani. race, being lightly formed, exhibits great deus Mason Harris, D.D., 1 vol. 8vo., Wells and Lilly, mal to the vegetable kingdom; and has ta- activity, and is able to traverse vast tracts Boston." A work I would earnestly recommer.d io
those readers of the sacr d volume, who are desirous ken prominent examples from the two dif
to be better acquainted with many allusions to subjects ferent productions of mules.
* See “A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants," by of natural history, founded on their nature, habits, and "From the mare and male ass proceeds Sir Charles Linnæus,read before the Imperial Aca- characteristic qualities, developing beautiful- similier, the mule, properly s.) called, which in its and which obtained the premium of one hundred du-l them to judge more correctly of the proprie y of such nature, that is, in iis medullary sub-cals.
of his parents
Senegal more than half a century ago, de-|| races at the Olympic games, in the seven-ilin that country for near a century past, scribes those brought from the interior by lueth Olympiad, aboui tire hundred years scarle a line can be found devoted to the the Moors, as so esse
sentially different from before Christ. The Romanis, well knew' mule, excepi by Dr. Anderson, who, in his any he had seen in Europe, (probably those their value. Pliny informs us, from Varro, “* Recreations in Agriculture,” has made a of Spain, Savoy, or parts of France adjoin-| triat Q. Axius, a Roman senator, paid four few judicious remarks on the subject. ing,) it was with difficulty lie could recog. hundred thousand sesterces, upwards of Iu Sir George Staunton's account of Lord nize them to be the same species--neither thirteen thousand dollars, for a mule ass, Macartney's embassy to China, we are told do they answer the description of the wild for the propagation of mules. And he says that mules are valued in that economical use of
ia, of which we have been speak-further, that the profit of a female ass in empire, at a much higher price than horses. ing. But his account of them corresponds breeding stock for the same purpose, was In our own country, prior to the war of the with the diminutive domestic race introdu- l estimated in Celleberia, now the kingdom revolution, a few Jacks of an ordinary kind ced from Africa, particularly those from of Valencia, in Spain, at a like sum. We were imported—a small number of mules Senegal and the Cape de Verd Islands ; and may inter irom a passage in Tacitus, and bred; and all exported to the West Indies. from which the small race now in Europe in Plutarch's life of Marius, that mules were I have reserence to New England, as ! am and in this country, may with great prubia generally employed to transport the bug. not aware that any attention was paid to bility claim their origin.
gage of the Roman armies; and that it is the system in the Middle, or Southern The Arabian ass, like the lorse of that not improbable the superior officers rode States, though it is not improbable that country, is considered as the most estima. those of a high grade, having their horses valuable mules may have been raised by the ble of his species-and there are strong rea- led, except when they engaged an enemy. farmers and planters for their own use. sons for concluding that he is descended It seems that the dilletanliot Roine held When peace took place, the price of mules from the Hebrew Aion, so highly valued by them in great estimation; as we are in- in the West Indies excited attention to the Abraham and by the patriarchs, julges, torned that the mules of Nero and Poppea breeding of them, which was principally and kings, at subsequent periods of sacred were shod with gold and silver--not plates, contined 10 Connecticut; and several carbistory, and that the sanie race has been as iron shoes are now formed, but the goes of the small race of Jacks were im, preserved in the ancient landi of Uz, in whole hoof enclosed.
ported froin the Cape de Verd islands, and sonje degree of purity to the present tine. Columella, who in the reign of Emperor St. Michael's, one of the Azores. It should Indeed, there can be but little doubt on the Claudius published the most valuable tren. be observed that the exportation of Jacks subject, if we adınit the fact, that the habits, tise on the husbandry and economy of the front Spain, or any of her colonies, was manners, and pursuits of the descendants Romans that has been handed down to us, strictly prohibited, and continurd to be until of Ishmael have continued, with scarcely an has given very particular directions for alter tiie Peninsular war. There might iota of variation, from the day they took breeding asses and mules. Je was a native have been, however, a few smuggled fruiu rank among the nations of the earth. The lof Cadiz, and owned estates in Spain, the Spanish part of Hispaniola to Cape position is greatly strengthened by the in- where it appears that the finest mules were Francois, and from thence introduced, but torination I received soine years since, from then bred.
they were vasily inferior to the Spanish an intelligent traveHer of undoubted vera As it is not requisite to pursue our bis. Jacks. From this miserable stock a system city, who had visited Arabia on the south tory of the mule any farther among the of breeding mules commenced, the best cal. western side of the peninsula to Moeba; ancients, we shall drop their appellation of culated to deteriorate any race of animals and on the eastern, as far as the niouth of male and female ass, and adopt the modern that has been, or could be devised, since the Tigris. He represented the superior one of Jack and JENNT.
their creation. The purchaser of a Juck race of asses of ihat country as most beau. Spain has continued to support the repu. when about to commence mule dealer, made tiful--of perfect synimetry, great spirit, ac. tation for a superior race of mules to the liitle inquiry concerning him but of his cativity, and vigor. He had seen those that present period, and it is probable that the pacity to propagate a mule. He placed him could not be purchased for less than four or Arabian breed of Jacks were introduced by in a district where there was the greatest five thousand dollarsman enormous price, the Moors, when they held possession of ouniber of mares of qualities so inferior, considering the value of money among these that fine country, wbich, by crosses, and that their colls would not compensate their people.* | understand from him, that the the effects of climate and soil, have formed owners for the expense of taking them to a Arabs were as tenacious of preserving the two valuable races: which we shall notice horse, and contracted to purchase their pedigree of their horses, as the most careful in the sequel. The Portuguese race have mules at four months old. Those are kept breeder for the turf in England and now been generally considered as differing but in herds, with precarious shelter in winter, less so of their asses. The descent of some little from the Spanishı; those, however, having ample opportunities afforded them of thein they trace to those in the train of that have come within my view appear evi to mature and transfir that propensity for the queen of Slieba, when she visited Solo-dently inferior. It was not until near the kicking, which seems at firsi nerely play. mon-as they also do that of their horses to close of the sixteenili century, that coaches tul, into an habitual means of defroce, io the numerous stud of that wise and gallant were used in France; before which, it is be exercised when the biped or any other king.
said, the nobles rode to court, parliament, race of animals approach them. in this Dr. Harris supposes the wild ass (Para,) &c., on mules that were brought from the kicking seminary iley remain two years, to be the Onager of the ancients; and that vicinity of the Alps and Pyrenees. They and are then driven to inarket. Al subsethe Aton was of a different kind. My in. were usually black, of large size, well made, quent periods, a few Jacks of higher grades pressions coincide with the opinion of the and mostly bred from fine Spunish mares. were procured, fron, which a small number learned divine--but may not writers of dif Savoy has iong been noted for an excellent of good sized mules were bred, and a few ferent periods have confounded the wild ass breed of mules. None very extraordinary for them broke. The breed of Jacks baye with the Aton in their representations of are found in Italy, those used by the vei somewhat improvedl, and mule dealers are Onager? for it is not iniprobable, but that terino, are strong and ef a respeciable size, now locate in most of the New England the Aton was of the most improved breed but of a sluggish und debased spirit. Very States, and some parts of New York. But known, produced from crosses of a choice Itele can be said of those aniwals iu Great the system as above detailed, with few exselection of the domestic, the wild ass, and Britain. The Catholic prelates brought ceptions, has continued ; and it is from such the Heinionus, or wild 'mule—which last over a number of superb nules, prior to the a race of Jacks, and such a system of breed. professor Pallas reeommends to complete Reformation, but in the reign of Elizabeth ing and management, that ihe mules have the perfection of the species. This suppo- so little was known of them, that a writer been produced, with which the farmers and sition is supported by Buffon, who infers as of that peaiod says, “in Devonshire some planters of Maryland, Virginia, and the a certain fact, that by a cross of the re were produced by a Jack horought from Southern Stales, have been supplied from motest of different races of the ass, the most France, and were knoeked on the head by New England; and such have furnishad a beautiful productious are obtained. the people, who viewed them as monsters.” criterion for a great portion of our country,
Mules were in use and highly esteemed A superior race of mules were bred in wen to form an estimate of the value and at a remote period of' antiquity; and are Flanders, from Jacks introduced by the properties of this degraded animal, It af. mentioned in Scripture as of inportance in Spanish monarrlis while they beld donin. fiords great pleasure to be enabled, for e the equipage of princes. Herodotus, who ion in that cuitry. Filiy of thein were short time at least, to pursue our investigais styled the father of profane history. bronght to Engla dhy the Duke of Cumber-tions in a higher sphere. frequently speaks of them; and it is known land, presented him by the Empress Queen, Several of my friends who had viewed the that they were introduced in the charioland from their beautiful appearance en- Jacks and mules at Mount Vernon, in the life
gaged the attention of a few individuals ; time of Gen. Washington, gave such glowNeibuhr remarks,“ there are two sorts of asses in hui the spirit soon subsided. Arabia : the smaller, or lazy
Notwithling descriptions of them, and understanding which are grcally valued, and sell at a very high price; were warm in praise of their utility. George W. P. Custis, Esq., I was induced I preferred them to the horse." See Veibubr's Tra Among a voluminous mass of treatises onto address a few queries to him on this subvels in Arabia
agriculture and rural economy, published |ject ; this gentleman with his characteristic
urbanity, very promptly furnished replies, 11 perature, at one o'clock, P. M., of about 40 | wholly of well decayed leaves (but a small with liberty to make such use of them as I above freezing (32°). Considerable snow portion of common garden earth being add. pleased, and I cannot do better than 10 lies upon the ground, wbich fell in the ed), pots four inches in diameter at the top, transcribe them from a letter received nonth of December last. Preparations, and four deep, were filled with it: two or about three years since. Mr. Custis ob- nowever, have been made, to put the pit into three small pieces of broken pois we first serves :
operation. The soil which remained in the placed over ile hole in the bottom of each. “ The Royal Gift and KNIGHT OF Mall bed (about four inches in depih) being some The seeds were then sown, three in each Ta, were sent to General Washington about what frozen, the sashes have been placed pot, covering them about half an inch deep: the year 1787 ;-the Gift, with a JENNET, a on, and the front doors covered with straw ihe pois were then plunged uoder the cen. present from the King of Spain ; and said or hay: at night, the sashes have been cov. tre light, in the middle of the bed, bringing io have been selected from the royal studered with mais and hay, in order that the them up as nigh as possible to the glass, The Knight I believe was from the Marquis | hear from the sun during the day might be that they might receive all the benefit of de la Fayette, and shipped from Marseilles. retained. One or two squares of glass the air admitted into the bed. Thus preThe Gijt was a huge and ill shaped Jack, which were broken have been repaired, and pared, the sashes were shut tight, and at near sixteen hands higli, very large head, levery thing put in readiness to proceed with night covered up warm. This variety (the clumsy limbs, and to all appearance little the forcing. (We have memoranda taken Southgate) we have found to be the best, calculated for active service; he was of a from the year 1930 to the present time. The having tried it for several years: the seed grey colour, probably not young when im- reason why we select that of 1832, is, thai is rarely to be found of genuine quality ; poried, and died at Mount Vernon but little we were more successful in our inode utand, from this cause, it has been pronounced valued for his mules, which were unwieldy | cultivation than the two years previous inferior, by some growers; but we believe and dull The knight was of a moderate The quantity of fruit was considerably || no kind to be earlier, or give a greater quansize, clean limbed, great activity, the fire greater, and the vines much more luxuriani;|tity of fruit. Temperature of the bed, 65°; and ferocity of a tiger, a dark brown, near the forcing was also commenced nearly two of the soil, 75°. ly black colour, white belly and muzzle ; months sooner. Fro:n the laiter caus: 2014, 304, Sisi. Weather more mode. could only be managed by one groom, and alone, we have selected the above named) rate, with raill; the air in the bed has now that always at considerable personal risk. year, as the later forcing is commenci'd, the equired a greater heat, as also the soil. He lived to a great age, and was so infirm easier it is carried on,—the inclemency of February !si. The heat of the bed to. towards the last as to require listing. He our winters, the greai quanuity of snowday is very brisk. The bright sunshine died on my estate in New Kent, in the State which often falls, and the severe cold, ren- and the moderate temperature of the weath. of Virginia, about 1802 or 3. His mules dering it extremely difficult and u::certamer, combined, air is admitted in greater were all active, spirited, and serviceable; in the months of January and February : quantity. From the want of this, the plants and from slout mares attained considerable || and where the old hot bed system is pur- I which appeared above the soil in the pots size.
sued, the labor and uncertainty is still greai-this morning, are somewhat drawn up, and “ General Washington bred a favouriteer. In the following noies, extracted from show the greater necessity of giving air Jack called COMPOUND, from the cross of our Journal, we have occasionally added when the seeds are in the first state of vege. Spanish and Maltese. The Knight fupon some observations. But we think this me. tation, as well as when the plants are in a the inported Spanish Jennet. The Jack thod will be better understood, than if we more advanced and progressive age. It is was a very super.or animal; very long. made no reference to dates, and merely de- a striking instance of the want of air, ag bodied, well set, with all the qualities of tailed our mode of cultivation.]
well as light, to see the cotyledons, or seed the Knight, and the weight of the Spanish. Jan. 21st. The snow, which commenced leaves, of plants thickly sown, as soon as He was sire of some of the finest niules at falling last evening, and continued through they appear above the ground, stretch forMount Vernon, and died from accident. the night, covering the ground to the depih ward eagerly to cath the first glance of the The General bred mules from his best of about two and a half inches, has render- sun's reviving rays, each one seeming 10 coach mares, and found the value of the ed it somewhat inconvenient to add the ma. advance above the other, as if fearing it mule to bear a just proportion to the value nure to the pit to-day. Temperature in the would be deprived of an equal portion of of the dam. Four mules sold at the sale of open air, at sunrise, 33'.
bis refreshing power. Air was admitted his effects, for upwards of $800; and two
23d. This morning the mercury fell as a bour 11 o'clock in the forenoon, by tilling more pairs at upwards of $400 each pair ; low as 5o. The soil in the bed sull re-up the sashes at the back of the pit about one pair of these mules were nearly sixteen maius parıly frozen ; but the sun shining half an inch. If the air is sharp, a bass hands ligh. The only Jacks I know of at very bright, has thawed the surface. Ten mat should be laid over the apertures
, 10 present, of the genuine Mount Vernon barrows of manure, fresh, and in a good prevent the plants being too suddenly chill. stock, are, one sold by me to Judge John. state of fermentation, were added to-day. ed. A pan of soft water was placed in the son, of South Carolina, for five hundred The doors were closed tight, and bay and bed this morning, to become heated to the dollars, at two years old; one given by me
straw put against the crevices, and in front same temperature, in order to water the to William Fitzhugh, Esq., of Ravensworth, of them, by placing up square pieces of plants as soon as needed. The plants lookand one which I believe is possessed by my board. The sashes were covered at nighting thus flourishingly, if the weather con. uncle, George Calvert, Esq., Riversdale. " The Jack purchased by ludge Johnson, these, soft hay, to the thickness of three or pected. To give the temperature of the air
with one thickness of bass mats; on top or linues moderate, a good growib may be exI have understood, has a very high reputa- four inches, and on the hay, one more thick in the bed, as well as the soil, as taken tion in the south.
ness of mats. A few narrow strips of three times each day, would occupy conside"Upon losing my groom, (Peter) who | boards were then put on, to prevent the rabe room ; we have therefore concluded, was the first and last groom to the Mount wind from blowing the covering off, should from the want of space, 10 give the tempeVernon Jacks, I parted with my stock.
it blow violently during the night. rarure every three or four days (three times “ There are many Jacks that have come
24th. The weather 10-day moderate ; each day, viz., morning, noon and night), into the country of late years, but of their value and properties I am unable to speak : little misty. Added eight barrows more of time. We think this a better mode than
temperature, at sunrise, 29°; cloudy, and it varying very little in the intermediate though I rather presume that they are generally small, and only fitted to get mules for manure, and stirred the whole well together. to give a long table of figures for each
Covered up as on the previous evening. month. The dates will, also, only be given the cotton cultivation in the light lands of the south. Some very fine mules are rais.
25th. Rainy ; temperature 50°, aud to. when any thing of importance has occurred ; ed about Hagerstown, Maryland, from Jacks Jay the heat in the bed began to rise ; tem- as, often, for two or three days, nothing was of the old breed; they are bred from stout perature 59°, at sunrise. The sashes cov. done but to give air each day; 'watering the
ered, as mentioned the 24th, every night. plants, if requiring it, and covering up the
26th. (To be continued.)
Temperature, at sunrise, zero ;| sashes at night. The covering up of the
snow fell during last night, to the depth of sashes is very imporiant, as it tends greatly From the American Gardernor's Magazine for March.five inches. Temperature of the bed, ai to keep an even temperature. That which CULTIVATION AND FORCING OF THE CUCUMBER; suprise, 50°.
we have found to answer the best purpose,
27th. Temperature, 13° below zero. In and guard against the cold in the most effiAND EXHIBITING THE STATE OF THEIR PRO- consequence of the extreme cold, could nou cient manner, was a covering of mats and GRESS FROM JANUARY until SEPTEMBER. open the bed without the fear of losing hay, laid on as mentioned previously: this
much heat. Temperature of the bed, 54o. should be continued until April, on no aco
23th. Thermometer 80 below zero. Cuscount omitting a single night, however faJanuary 20th, 1832.—The weather, all the cumber seed planted to-day. The kind best vorable the weather may be at sunset ; for month, up to this date, has been very fine. | adapted to forcing being considered the true we have repeatedly known the thermomeand accompanied with but little severe cold, || Southgate, this kind was planted. The ter to stand at 32° at that time, and fall as the thermuineter indicating an average tem-soil in the beds being composed almostfflow as zero before daylight.
TAKEN FROM HORTICULTURAL MEMORANDA,
BY THE CONDUCTORS.
4th. Temperature of the air in the bed, jeight, the latter part of the month, and|| daily sprinkled with water warmed 10 the 64°, 75°, 66°; of the soil, 75°. Air was ad. I should be covered in the afternoon, as early liemiperaiure of the bed, and the sashes shut mitted in greater quantity to-day, the sashes as five o'clock in the former, and at haif past down early in the afiernoon, in order 10 being opened an inch at the back. Theive the latter part of the mouth. A quad-cause the sitam to rise, as this greatly replants were slightly watered. Three poistity of leaf mould and loam should, on the freshes the plants. There is no beiter sign more of cucumber seeds were sown 10-day, first opportunity, be collecied together, and that they are in a flourishing state, than in order to have a few plants to replace the in readiness to earth round the plants. No, when, un opening the sashes in the mornothers, should they meet with any accident kind of soil answers so well for cucumbers,|ing, small drops of water stand on the edges by which their growth would be retarded. during the first month of their growth, as of ihe leaves; when tbis is not perceived, We have sometimes had those of the first decayed leaves; indeed, we have seen it the air is not moist enough, and a slight sowing damp off when the weather had con- alone recommended as the best throughout sprinkling of water sbould be given, upon tinued cloudy for some days, especially the growth of the plants, from the sowing closing the sashes at night. The plants, when they were first hilled out, it being of the seed 10 the maturing of the fruit: we till the middle of the monıb, should be wavery difficult to prevent this; while those have, however, always found that the plantstered about ten o'clock in the morning. still growing in pots can be kept dry or run too much to vines in such a soil, and,|| Temperature, 68°, 80°, 68o. moist at pleasure ; and answer, as a re- although the fruit was the largest, of the 7th. A barrow full of soil (leaf mould source, in any case.
deepest tint of green, and in every way su- and loam) was added 10-day: the roots 7th. T'o-day, two barrows of fresh ma-perior, both as regards appearance and qual-again showing themselves on the surface of nure were added, the heat having subsided|ity, still we believe a small portion of light the hills, as soon as it became well warmed, a little. Temperature, 60°, 64°, 60° ; of the loam added to the above named soil, when it was drawn up over them; the plants look soil, 70°; this being too low for their suc- the plants have been hilled out a week or strong, and now require considerable water. cessful growth.
two, renders the vines more prolific of fruit, || Temperature, 66°, 68°, 66°. 10th. The plants of the last sowing, up and less luxuriant and rapid in their growth. 10th. To-day, three barrows of the old to-day; look healthier than the first, from We have measured leaves on our rines fif-manure were taken out, and three of fresla their longer time of vegetating. The iem- teen inches in diameter. We once had the added in the room. The plants have now perature of the open air being moderate, pleasure of showing our planıs, when in aattained a good size, and begin to show (above 32°,) and the weather fine, more air vigorous state of growth, to an excellent flower buds. More soil was drawn over was given; the plants acquiring more practical gardener, who had grown cucum. the surface of the hills, and the plants wastrength and vigor every day.
bers for many years; he appeared astonish-||tered more freely. Temperatuae, 62°, 78°, 14th. Added four barrows of manure toled at their luxuriance, and hinted that some 70°; of the soil, 80°. the pit to-day: Temperature, 64°, 65°, 63° ; extraordinary pains had been taken with 13th. Weather continues moderale; the of the soil, 75°. Cucumbers of the first them; the soil showed for itself, and pure heat of the bed very brisk, since the addisowing, show their rough leaves.
water alove had been made use of; but solltion of the last manure. More soil was 17th. Heat brisker, and more air admit-certain was our friend that they bad re-l added, to be in readiness to earth round the ted. Temperature, 66°, 660, 64o. The ceived stronger food, that, alıbough we most plants; it is very important that this should, plants being in a vigorous state of growth, positively averred such was not ihe fact, we as well as all soil that is added, be put in a barrow of soil, composed of two thirds could not convince him to the contrary, and three or four days before wanied for use ; leaf mould, and one third light loam, was he left us firm in his own suspicions. always placing it near the back of the bed, added to the bed, and placed under the cen. The plants were all topped at the first in order that it may be easier warmed, the fre of each light, that it might become joint, at this time; this is an operation up- sun shining with its full force upon it. The heated, and ready for billing the plants in-Ton which there is a variety of opinions ; moisture is sooner evaporated, than it woul? to, in a day or two.
some stating that it injures the vines, with-i be in the front of the bed ; and as, early in 201h. Plants hilled out to-day. The out attaining the end in view; others that the season, it often happens, that it cannot soil was raised up to within eight inches of they are benefitied in a great degree ; some, be procured only in a very wet state, it is the glass; a hole sufficiently large to re. that it is a matter of litile consequence, desirable to place it in this situation. Temceive the plants was made in each hill, and neither forwarding nor retarding the forc-perature, 66°, 820, 70°; of the soil, 85°: turning them from the pots, very carefully,ling; and others, ihat the period of produ 17th. Heat still continues rather brisk, so as not to disturb the soil, were placedcing fruit is materially shortened. The and the plants are growing very finely. The therein; the earth was drawn up round the object of the operation is to keep the plants | roots again showing themselves on ihe surstems of each, close to the seed leaves, as from running ioo much to vines,-thus fillo Sace of the hills, the soil was drawn over from the stems roots proceed; and the plants ling the bed without produting fruit -and them, which was placed in the bed three or grow much more stocky and strong, and to render them at once fruitfulby forcing four days since. The object in hilling up are less liable to damp off
. A light sprink-them to throw out, first, blossoms, and af- the planis from time to time, as well as the ling of water should be given, and the sashes | terwards, runners. We have tried both addition of soil to the bed at different periclosed, that a gentle steam may be genera- || methods, as well as the experiment of pinch-ods, rather than adding all at once, is to ted, which will greatly refresh the plants.ling off some plants at the first, some at the prevent dampness, and a diminution of hear
This operation should be performed in the second, and some at the third joint: as re- from the quantity of moisture which the middle of the afternoon of a fair day. gards the three latter modes, there is but alsoil would contain. The plants now require
24th. The sudden change of the weather slight difference; indeed, at the first or se- considerable water, which should be given, since yesterday, has caused a decline of the cond joint, none; but to let the plants grow from time to time, as soon as the sun's rays heat in the bed, and four barrows of fresh without stopping them at all, we have found leave the sashes. Temperature, 65°, 65°, manure were added to-day; the ends of the a very bad practice, and one which we can- 63° ; of the soil, 70°. roots of the plants having protruded through not too strongly guard the young practitioner 20th. The inclemency of the weather, the soil, and shown themselves on the sur-against pursuing. We would here suggest the last three days, has caused the heat of face, more earth was drawn up round the to those, who would wish to satisfy them- the bed to abate considerably, and, in con. bills, and the plants sparingly watered. selves fully upon this subject, the propriety | sequence, iwo barrows of old manure were T'emperature, 60°, 60°, 60° ; of the soil, 70°. ||of instituting a series of experimenis, which removed, and three of fresh added. We
27th. The second rough leaves of the may be thus performed :-Let four hills of would here mention, that, when fresh ma. plants begin to show themselves 10-day : plants be taken; pinch off the plants in one nure is added, it should be in a moist state: the heat of the bed having become very hill, at the first joint; in the second, at the to put it in, as it is frequently taken away brisk, since the addition of the last manure second joint; the third, at the third joint;||from the stable heap, in a dry heat, is a very the plants are growing rapidly; the weather and in the fourth, let the plants take their injudicious practice, and should be carefully being more moderate, considerable air was own course : when they come into blossom, || avoided. When, however, no other is at admitted. The pan for containing water let the time be noted down, as also, when hand, the barrow's full, as they are taken should be kept constatly filled, ready for use.Lhey come into fruit; this will give a cor 10 the bed, should bave two or three pails
March 1st. During the last month the reci and satisfactory view of the practice of water added to each, and the whole, covering was taken off of the bed, between || It is from such observation that we are en- when thrown into the pii, well forked to. nine and ten o'clock in the morning, accord. | abled to state actual results. There has gether. We have occasionally opened the ing to the severity of the weather; but of- been so much written upon this seemingly doors, and thrown in several pails of water, tener at the latter than at the former hour : l'rifing subject, and so much doubt still ex-||and after the whole was well forked up, the it was also covered up as soon as the sun's lists, with many gardeners, that we have heat would be brisk for four or five days. rays left the sashes. During this month. been thus particular in our remarks. Tem- This should not be forgotten, as it is a sathe sun shining with greater power, 11 perture, 68°, 720, 68°; of the soil, 75°. ving of considerable manure, where it is should be uncovered as early as nine o'clock 5th. The weather becoming more mild, not easily to be had, but is brought from in the morning, the former, and at half past the bed retains the heatis the plants are a considerable distance.