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AGRICULTURE, &c.

culture was formed in the Convention, and i Col. Humphrey, Gen. Derby, Consul Jarvis

under their protection the amelioration of and others, the country was supplied with SHEEP HUSBANDRY-YO, III.

the Merino flocks happily progressed. From Merino sheep. The Emigrant Merino.- There does not this originated the celebrated Rambouilet Manufactories were now established, and appear to be among those who write and flock. From this, the writer says a num- the production of fine wool promised to be a converse on the Saxony and Merino sleep, ber of rams and ewes are annually sold, af- lucrative business.

But these prospects # distinct and definite understanding of the ter the finest are picked out to keep up the were soon dissipated, and upset, by the versubject. By most people they are regard-original stock. And notwithstanding the satility of our own government. And the ed as distinct races of sheep; and desig-lannual sales from the national flocks, the choice Merino buckfell from the exalted mited by many imaginary distinctions. price of rams is daily increasing."

sale of $1,400 to the degraded estimate of To whatever region the Spanish Merino

So particular have the governments of 2 or 3 dollars. In the year 1813 1 paid $150 has emigraied, he is to be identified with Saxony and France been, to preserve these for a Paulaur buck, and $100 each for six the original, like the greyhound. Thenceflocks from degenerating, and to effect eve In the year 1827 I bought the remarises the inquiry, where bas he been pre-ry possible improvement, that they have at nants of some choice Escurial Hocks, which served in the greatest purity? held in the different times sent experienced shepherds had formerly been purchased at $200 each, highest estimation and cultivated with the into Spain, to select froin their choice focks for $2.50 each. And such was the depressmost care ? in Saxony, France or America ? | superior individual rams, for which, in some|ed price of wool, that I purchased in the And when we talk about old fashioned Meri-ins ances, they have paid enormous prices, year 1826, cash payment at auction, a pack. no sheep, it must at the same time be un

to preserve the necessary change without age of full blood Merino wool, at 25 cents derstood, that one variety of the parent breeding in and in.

per lb., and after keeping it two months, I stock is four times as valuable as others, Iu such high consideration was this sub- sold it on a credit of 90 days, for 24 cents and that this necessarily influences thellject held by the successive administrations per

lb. emigrant, and determines his value. Then of the French government, that a commis This extreme vascillation of public senticomes the consideration of individual pe- lsion was issued 10 the institute, to appoint a meni, prostrated the whole interest. Many culiarity and excellence, which forms the committee to prepare a treatise on sheep; | individuals were involved in total ruin ; and basis of improvement, and the preservation which was executed, and distributed gra- small proprietors abandoned the concern. of his purity.

iu tously, with that characteristic liberality | A few, relying on the sufficiency of their The first emigration of the Spanish me of the great nation, which has done so much owo pecuniary resources, on the intrinsic rino with which we have any acquaintance, in science, and in arousing the dormant worth of the animal, iné estimate of the was to Saxony; whose history has been energies of the human mind, to a positive whole civilized world, for centuries, of its partially narrated in the first number. exaltation of character.

value, only awaited a more protracted exit. The second was to France, in both in

Mr. Gilbert, a member of the French nn. From all ihis, it is plain that there was als stances under circunstances of sovereigntional instituie, in describing the Rambou- most an entire abandonment if the Merino or state patronage.

This second I shallilet Auck, says, “but which ceriainly does in this country. furnish principally from a transcript of the not yield in any circumstance to the most The result of scientific investigation is, writings of others.

beautiful in point of size, form and strength; that a conclusion cannot be come al with“When France became a manufacturing, or in fineness, length, softness, strength, out the whole sheet of facis, embracing the as well as an agricultural nation, it was

and abundance of fleece. The manufac-subject in all its connexions. perceived how great an injury she sustain-turers and dealers in wool, who came in The esiablishment of facts by experiments ed by being dependent on foreigners for all numbers, to Ranıbouilet this year (1796) to involves almost infinite nicely; requiring the fine wool which she employed, and it purchase, unanimously agreed to this fact, the whole amouut of human discrimination was well understood how great would be at the very time that they were combining |---unshackled by subsisting theories, prethe advantages which she would derive to keep down the price.” He further states, || conceived notions, and pride of popularity. from the production of it within herself.

that the average weight of the fleeces of the An opinion is a mere nullity, separated from “This subject occupied the serious at-bucks, when washed and scoured, ex- the considerations necessary for its formatention of Colbert, whom nothing escaped ciusive of tags and belly wool, was six lbs. tion. And the experience of every day exwhich might tend to the advantage and in this country, for the market, we do not|hibits the imperfection and fallacy of expegreatness of his country-he projected a scour; only wash, and roll up the whole || riments and opinions. Not only the prechange in the system which prevailed. Neece. Succeeding ministers attempted without ef-dependent on feed. He says,

The amount of fleece is very much ceding narrative, but the most scrupulous

" the comfect to put his designs in execution. parison I have made with the most scrupu.ment of the subsequent statement,

investigation, will concur in the establish“It was not until the year 1766, that|ious attention between this wool, and the Daniel Charles de 'Trudaine, an able minis- highest priced, of that drawn from Spain, || nished the best material for the fabrication

The Spanish Merino has hitherto furter, employed the surest means of succeed. authorizes me to declare that of Rambouilet of fine woollen clothing; and as a natural ing, and thus freeing the kingdom from the

superior." tribule which it paid to procure fine wool. The Electoral flock of Saxony, and the dered all Europe tributary to her produc-. After his death, his place was supplied by Rambouilet flock of France, are of the same his son, who followed the plan laid down rank and degree-selected improved Meri

lion. by him. Daniel Charles de Trudaine had

This sheep being transported to Saxony

How is it then, when Saxony wool addressed himself, not land, whom narrow views and prejudices the market, that Rambouilet does not come ciated, nursed with care, preserved in its pu: to cultivators of takes the precedence of Spanish wool inland France, and there received as an acqui.

sition, iis peculiar character duly appreare too npt to deter from adopting whatever in competition with Saxony ? Spain and they have not seen practised by their fore. Saxony are pre-eminently fine wool grow

rity, proved in its excellence-must stand fathers, but to Daubentou, an able narural.ing regions; but neither of them extensive

pre-eminent. ist, who instantly perceived the possibility | ly manufacturing; they grow for exporta: mal, the prey of wolves and dogs, and sub

Sheep are a defenceless and delicate ani. of what was proposed, and proved it by sat. tion.

France, on the other hand, grows jects of disease ; therefore in a domesticated isfactory experiments."

prime wool, which is consumed by her own " It having been ascertained by a variety || unrivalled machinery.

state, requiring the protecting and fostering of experiments patronized by the adıniois

And in following the destiIn the third instance, he crossed the At. care of man. tration, and conducted by enlightened agri-lantic for the new world, and landed on our

nies of their itinerant master, are necessaculturists, that the Merino sheep might be shore. Here he was greeted with an enthurily subjects of acclimation. acclimated in France without any change in sias.n bordering on distraction, and which

The Spanish Merinos, with their gradatheir wool; application was made by Lewis can now hardly be realized. In the year ions, have passed this ordeal in our coun: sixteenth to the King of Spain for per: 1802, the Hon. Robert R. Livingston of this ry: The Saxony Merino have not in point mission to export from thence a number of State, with a discriminating patriotisın me.

of time been allowed the same courtesy and Merinos. This was not only granted, but riting national reminiscence and gratitude, || indulgence. orders were given by the Spanish monarch sent from Spain two couple of select Span.

Who then, permit me to ask, who, in de that they should be selected from the finestish Merino sheep, the first ever brought to fiance of the light of science, and the expeflocks in Spain. In the year 1788 four bun. his country.* Subsequently by hiniself, rience of the world for a century, will be dred rams and ewes arrived in France un.

disposed to retrograde? Now what shall we der the care of Spanish shepherds.

For.

*We beg leave here to stale, that the First Spanish | do with this chimney corner and barn yard tunately for France, the improvement in sheep were sent to this country in 1801, by M. Deles phrase, old fashioned Merino ?" I am as sheep, begun under Lewis the sixteenth, sert, of Paris, one only of which, Don Pedro, figured fond of antiquity as any one else, but I am was continued through the revolution, in reach land. Don Pedre was kepe some time in Wister unwilling to indulge this taste, at the which almost every other useful institution County, and afterwards hy Mr. Dupont, in the State of sacrifice of a distinctive perception of things. was involved in rutin. A connittee of agri.! Delaware.

F.

no.

Wool, the coat of the sheep, will be ihes to the time of their calving, that it is thought after it is planted again in the soil. And subject of the vext No.

improper to milk them any longer. hence the absurdity of the practice, which P. S.-Permit me to commend the letter * Take an ounce of powdered alumn; boil has been recommended by some writers, of of Leonard Jarvis, Esq., in the last Culii- it in two quarts of milk till it turns into cutting off most of the small fibrous roots, vator, from the New.York Farmer, written whey ; then take a large handful of sage, because they cannot be easily replaced in with much ability and great fairness. It is and boil it in the whey till you reduce it to cheir natural position in the soil. from such sources that we are to take in-one quart; rub her udder with a liitle of it, formation. For scientific examination and and give her the rest by way of drink ; || roots should never be suffered to become

2. In order to prevent evaporation, the investigation cannot be profitably prose- milk her clean before you give it to her: |dry, but as soon as removed from the ground, cuted in an obstinate and controversial and as you see need requires it, repeat it. they should be enveloped in some damp way.

Draw a little milk fronı her every second or substance; weited stiaw serves well for a “But man we find the only creature

third day, lest her udder be overcharged.” Who, led by folly, combats nature;

The same writer asserts, that those lemporary protection. But when intended Who, when she loudly cries, forbear cows which give the greatest quantity of probability of their being several days out

to be conveyed to a distance, and there is a With obstinacy fixes there."

Swift. milk are most profitable for suckling calves, of the ground, damp moss should be em.

for rich milk is not so proper food for calves ployed in packing about the roots, as straw

as milk which is less valuable for dairy
From the New-England Farmer.

purposes.
Milk which contains a large Previously to packing them in the moss, it

is liable to ferment, if kept in a wet state. ATTENTION TO STOCK.

proportion of cream is apt to clog the sto. I is an excellent practice to immerse the roots Care and skill are as indispensable as in-nachs of calves; obstructions put a stop to in soft mud or a mixture of the soil and dustry to success in the pursuits of the hus their thriving, and sometimes prove fatal. bandman; and diligence will be of little use, For this reason, calves should be fed with water, so as to coat their surfaces, after if not directed by knowledge and good sense. the milk which first comes from the cow,

which dust or dry sand is sprinkled copi. An apparently trivial mistake, or want of which is not so rich as that which is lasiously over them to complete the coating. attention to little but indispeusable things, drawn."

The holes for receiving the trees should may rob labor of a great part of its efficacy,

We have had the testimony of a very ju-be dug large-not less than five or six feet and seem to show ihat there is some mis- dicious practical cultivator to confirm ile in diameter, at the very least, and eighteen take in the wise saying that the hand of assertions in the paragraph last above inches deep. The hard and sterile subsoil the diligent maketh rich.” In fact, it is vain quoted, who informs us thai he has ascer. I should be thrown out, and its place supto work hard unless we wurk it right. This tained by actual and repeated experiment, pliod with rich mould or muck. Where is the reason that the stuck of some hard that those cows which give the poorest the holes are dug in ground in grass, the working farmers always appear in poor milk for the dairy are the best for suckling turf which is removed froin the surface may

be inverted in the bottoms. If manure is condition, notwithstanding they may be li-calves. berally supplied with fodder of the best

No, calf, lamb, or other animal,” says placed in ihen, it should be well rotted, quality.

Mr. Leslie, “ should ever be caught by the and should never be allowed to come in conCatile must not only be well fed, but must tail, as it strains and inflames the loins and tact with the roots, bui should be placed in have their food in due season ; and like kidneya.'

The boltom, at the surface, and in ihe more wise good water at command, and dry lody

The first calf of a heifer is said to be the remote parts. The tree should in general ing. "Nothing," says an old English wri.

best for rearing; and the reason assigned | be set a little deeper than itoriginally stood, ter, “in winter, beais out cows and oxen, lis, that the dam is not reduced by milking but not more than two inches; the roots or makes them pitch [fall away] more, than her while she is with calf.

should be spread out horizontally in all die their being WET ON THEIR BACK AND LOINS;

rections, so as firmly 10 brace the trees for cattle carrying their hides wet, day af

From the Genesee Farmer.

when tbey become large; moderately moist ter day, is as bad to them as it would be to

and finely pulverized earth should ihen be

TRANSPlanting Fruit Trees.- This is gently shaken in about them,so as pot to disus to wear wet clothes. The same injury arises tu poor straw fed cattle, working in difficult operations in the culture of fruit is filled.

commonly considered as one of the most iurb the position of the abies, until the whole wet weailier; one day's work in such case

Care should be taken that all the injuring them more than three of equal rarely attended with any difficulty or risk. led, so as noi to leave the smallest cavities;

trees; but it properly performed is very inierstices among the roots are perfectly filllabor in dry weather.” “Cattle well summered,” says Mr. Lisle,

li is a very common opinion that a trans- and throwing in the earth in large quanti“are half wintered; that is to say, cattlely stationary in its growih for a year or i wo avoided. In order that the soil, may be

planted tree must of necessiiy continue vear-liies should for this reason be especially going to their winter's quarters in bieb.con: after the operation, or at best make but com: genuly packed on every side of a !l the roots, out the winter; whereas such as have been paratively little progress. A tree, however, it is very useful, when the soil is inclining fed upon short commons during the sum

properly iransplanted, will experience very lo dryness, to pour in a quaurity of water nier, and go to hay in a weak condition, little check in its growth, and often appa: as soon as the roots are covered, and then are liable to become worse or even to drop rently none; Hence, the very great impor- the remainder of the earth shovelled in, off in the winter, particularly if it be unfa ance of the operation being well under which latter prevents the surface from bevorable. Very young cattle and old cows

stood. Much has been written in explana- coming hard by baking. After the operaare the most dangerous stock under these ion of the theory of successful transplant-tion is tinished, a stake should be set in the circumstances." Mr. Lawrence, in com- ing; but we merely intended here to give ground leaning towards the tree, to which menting on this paragraph, says, “to the a brief description of the practice which ex.

it should be tied by a band of matting or of above well grounded position may be ad-perience has proved to be uniformly attended straw, to brace it årmly in an uprighi posided : Cattle well wintered are half sum

with success, and the most obvious princi- | lion. mered; they are able to encounter either ples on which it is founded.

Placing the tree leaning a live towards extreine of rank and surfeiting, or low sum.

There are two great points to be observed ihe south or southwest, or with the most mer keeping with greater safety than weak in removing trees from the soil; first, to projecting branches in that direction, will half-starved cattle."

preserve the spongioles uninjured ; and sell prevent the trunk being injured by the acIt is very proprr, and indeed almost indiscondly, to prevent evaporation, by which || lion of the rays of the sun in hot summer pensable, that every farmer should keep an

the tree becomes dry, and is carried to es. afternoons, an evil which is sometimes so account of the tiine when his cows are dri-|cess, beyond recovery.

serious as to cause the death of the tree. ven to the male. Mr. Lawrence says—"The 1. Preservation of the Spongioles. These Autumn is ordinarily the best time for reperiod of gestation with the cow having a are the minute spongy extremities of the moving trees; more time is then afforded bull calf is, according to my own account, linest fibrous or branching thread-like roots. || than in the hurrying season of spring-betwo hundred and eighty-seven days, or forty-through which, as mouths, the tree receives sides which the earth becomes more settled one weeks, with the variation of a fe'w Auids and other nourishment from the soil, || about the roots, and new spongioles are days, either way; a cow calf comes in about and not through the surface and sides of produced in place of those which may have a week's less time.” Mr. Lisle says, that all the roots, as is sometimes supposed. As been destroyed, especially if the operation " cow should be dried within two months these spongioles are exceedingly delicate in is not performed till late in autumn. Betof her calving, as to milk longer most ne their organization, a very slight degree ofter trees also may be obtained in autumn cessarily impoverishes both cow and calf to violence injures or destroys them. Thethan in spring after nurseries have been a greater amount than the value of the milk."|| more carefully, therefore, trees are removed culled. But if tender kinds be transplanted

Monk's Agricultural Dictionary, an Eng. from the soil, and the more entire the fibrous in the fall, and particularly if they be relish work of reputation, gives the following | roots, the greater will be the number of unmoved to a colder section of the country, recipe for drying cows, which it is intended injured spongioles remaining, and better they will, from their mutilated state, be to fatten, or which have approached so niyhill will the tree be supplied with neurnishmenel'more liablc to injury from frost. To those,

Almost all the Rail.

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therefore, who live remote, and are unable ||5d. to 25. per yard; and in metal, from 2s. PATENT RAILROAD, SHIP AND to obtain such trees for early planung in d. 10 3s.6d. per yard, according to the pat

BOAT SPIKES. the spring, or those who live in the colderiern.0:-(Mr. Laxion ; Archit. Mag.]

Tne Tiny Iron an! Nail Factory keeps constantly regions of the country, we would recom.

lor sale a very extensive a sortment of Wrought Spikes mend to procure their irees in autumn, and

Emancipaten Slaves.- A few days since, scriber's Patent Machinery, which after five years suc.

and Nils, fro il 3 to 10 inches, manufactured by the sult bury the roots and a part of the stem and an aged gentleman from Pawhaitan county, United States, quas well as England, where the subscriber branches in a trench dug for the purpose, Va., arrived at Rochester, accompanied by olmained a patent,) are found superior to any ever ofercd the roots being packed closely together, and ten negroes, from six to forty years of age, in market, the branches resing in an inclined position formerly his slaves, whom he had volunia Railroad Companies may he supplied with Spikes bav.

ing countersink heads suitable to the holes in iron rails, upon the earth; which operation is fechni-rily discharged from servitude, and was

to any amount and on 8 ort notice. cally termed by nurserymen, laying in by conveying to a farm he had purchased for roads now in pr“gress in the United States are fastened

with Spikes made at the above named lacuity- for which the heel. In this way they may be eflectu-them in the neighborhood of Butialo, on

purpose they are found invaluable, as their adhesion is ally protected from injury from the frosis of which he in ended to settle them,

more than double any common spikes made by the bam. winter.

< All orders directed to the Agent, Try, N. Y., will Nothing is more cominonthanioloose trees

PROPOSALS

be punctually allended to. FOR THE REPUBLICATION OF THE

HENRY BURDEN, Agent. by transplanting; but there is no necessity for such a failure; if trees are transplaniei REPORTS OF THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO Troy, N. Y., July, 1931,

RAILROAD COMPANY;

Lo Spikes are kept for sale, at factory prices, by I. & with proper care, there will be an almost

Condensed so as to include, together with other!. lowusend, Albany, and the principal Iron Merchants absolute certainty of their living. If, when matter added threto, all that is known at the present in Albany and Troy; L. 1. Brower, 222 Water street, Newthey are taken from the earth, care is taken day of the lotation and the application of Motive York: A. M. Jones, Philadel hia; T, Janviers, 'Balti

more ; Degrand & Smith, Boston. to remove the roots entire-10 keep them Power and Machinery thereupon, accompanied with

P, S.---Railroad Companies would do well to forward explanatory drawings. The whole being intended to fresh-and in replacing them in the soil, to

their orders as early as practicable, as the sub criber iş serve as a Vannal of the Railroad System, for the use desirous of extending the manufacturing so as to keep pace pack finely pulverized earth well aboui ihe of Civil Engineers, to which is pretired a hiswry of with the daily increasing deinard for this Spikes. roots, preserving them in their patural posi- the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company.

H. KURDEN. tion, there can be little danger of success. The work, whose repo ts it is thus intended to re

RAILWAY IRON. But it is not only necessary the trees publish, was the first of any extent commenced in this

country for the purposes of general transportation; should live, but they should thrive also ; and and its early history is but a series of experiments, || 200

285 tons.of 1 inch by melio

, 1

Flat Bars in lengths

of 14 10 15 feet, counter for this object, it is indispensably requisire costly to the Company which had it in charge, but 40 do 15 do. do. sunk holes, ends cut at that they should have a large deep bed of furnishing results of the greatest value and importance 800 do. 2 do. do. an angle of 45 degrees, loose soil for the roots to penetrate.

do. 24 do. do. If the which the rond passed, involved every species of ex

with splicing plates and

soon expected. nails to sui!, ground is of a hard or heavy nature, the cavation; and in the construction of the Railway, al 250 do. of Edge Rails of 36 lbs. per yard, with the holes must be made large and deep, and most every mode was successively tried for the pur-requisite chairs, keys and pins. filied with the proper materials, for if the pose of ascertaining the best. While portions of the rought Iron Rims of 30, 33, and 36 inches diame roots are confined in small holes dug in such| missable curvature, and the locomotive power em- | ameter for Loconutive 11 heels.

road were straighi, others were of the smallest ad-ter for Wheels of Railway Cars, and of 60 inches di: ground, they will succeed little better than ployed had to be such, therefore, as was suitable to Axles of 24. 24, 25, 2, 3, 34 and 34 inches in diameter, if planted in a small box of earth.

both cases. This led to a series of experiinents in for Railway Cars and Locomotives, nii paterų iron. this department of the Railroad System, which has

The above will be sold free of duty, to State Govern Extract from a young Baltimorean visit, resulted in the production of Engines preferable to

ments and Incorporated Governmei is, and the draw lack

taken in part payment. A. & G. RALSTON, ing England on business connected with any in use elsewhere-equal in speed to the best

9 South Front street, Philadelphia. the New-Orleans and Nashville Railroad. all these circumstances, the reports of the Daltimore Chairs, Pins, Wedges, Spikes, and splicing Plater, in use

imported, and far superior in efficient power. From Models and samples of all the different kinds of Rails. London, Dec. 7, 1835. and Ohio Railroad, from its commencement to the both in this country and Great Brišanu, will be exlibited to Dear Sir, — The Railroad lever is raging present day, have been sought for by Civil Engmeers|those disposed to examine them. 4-07 Imeowr to a greater extent here than with us; the and the frequent demand for them has suggested to the papers are all teeming with projects to con- subscriber their republication, with such additional mal

AMES' CELEBRATED SHOVELS, ncct places where only a few hours can beter as shall constitute a Manual of the Railroad Sys.

SPADES, &c. saved, which strongly tends to convince us in the present state of knowledge on the subject! 300 dozens Ames' superior back-strap Shovels of the importance of a speedy connexion, || but f-w complete sets are known to be in existence. The reports are now difficult io be procured, and 150 do

do plain

do do cast steel Shovels & Spades by means of steam power, between Boston While the proposed republication will therefore be do do Gold-mining Shovels and New-Orleans, which would create a of use to the profession of Civil Engineering, it will

100 do do plated Spades saving of almost weeks. It is almust in- l be the means also of preserving the records of a work 50 do do socket Shovels and Spades. credible the extent to which steam is used | whose importance and value are now universally ap- Together with Pick Axes, Churn Drills, and Crow here; in Manchester alone there are twelve

preciated. The work will be divided into five parts. Bars (steel pointel), manufactured from Salisbury re

I. History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lined Iron--for sale by the manufacturing agents, hundred engines in active operation, and Company

WITHERELL, AMES & CO. one is at a loss to determine how England II. The location of Railroads, including the princi

No. 2 Liberty street, New-York. ever could have sustained herself without ples of reconnoissances, general instrumen

BACKUS, AMES & CO, that which she is now so completely detal surveys, and location for construction.

No. 8 State street, Albany, III. The construction of Railrvads, including the ex N. B. Also furnished to order, Shapes of every dependent upon. The greater portion of our cavation and masonry and the construction of scription, made from Salisbury refined Iron. 4yt time has been spent among the Iron manu. the Railway on the graduated surface, turnfactures in South Wales, some of which are

outs, weighing, &c.
IV. The motive power including engines, cars,

ARCHIMEDES WORKS.
conducted on a most stupendous scale ;
Wagons, &c.

(100 North Moor st. N 1.) there is one establishment that employs five V, Forms of contracts for every species of work

NEW YORK, February 12th, 1836. thousand men, and consumes weekly five which has to be performed in the construction The undersigned begs leave to inform the proprie. thousand tons of coal; and from what I have

of a Railroad.

Lors of Railroads that they are prepared to furnish all seen of the whole country, I think the march | volume or volumes the contemplated work will nuke, gines of any size, Car Wheels, such as are now in suc:

As it is not practicable to ascertain what sized kinds of Machinery for Railroads, Locomotive Enof improvement is equally as progressive as the price cannot be fixed, but Railroad Companies and cessful operation on the Camden and mbuy Railroad,

individuals who may subseribe for it, may rest assur none of which have failed--Castings of all kinds,

ed, that it will be made a reasonable as the nature of Wheels, Axles, and Buxes, furnished at shortest no - A New Paper-HANGING, of a splendid de- it will permit

Orders directed to

11. R. DUNIIAM & CO.

F. LUCAS, Jr. Publisher, scription, has just been manufactured by

4-yıf Jan., 1836. No. 133 Market street, Bal: imore. Mr. De la Rue, the embossed-card manufaciurer, who has been for many years at a XT THE NEWCASTLE MANUFACTURING

RAILROAD CAR WHEELS AND considerable expense in bringing it to per- l with a capital of 200,000 dollars, are prepared to exCOMPANY, incorporated by the State of Delaware, BOXES, AND OTHER RAILROAD

CASTINGS. feetion. The pattern is embossed; in me

ecute in the first style and on liberal terms, at their Also, AXLES furnished and futed to wheris com tals it is remarkably rich, particularly so extensive Finishing Shops and Foundries for Brass pleje ve the Jefferson Cotton and Wool Machine Factory with a flock ground. I was favored with a and Iron, situated in the town of Newcastle, Delaware, and Foundry Paterson, N. J. All orilere adressed to the view of a room that has been recently hung all orders for LOCOMOTIVE and other Steam En- ubscribers at Paterson or 60 Wali street, New-York, gines, and for CASTINGS of every description in

to. with this new paper, at the manufactory in Brass or Iron RAILROAD WORK of all kinds

Algo, CAR SPRINGS. Bunhill-fields, and was very much struck finished in the best manner, and at the shortest no

Alsu, Flange Tirez.lurned croplete,

ROGERS, KETCHUM, & GROSVENOR. with it. The pattern was embossed in lice.

Orders to bo addressed to gold, with a dark green flock ground, and

MR. EDWARD A. G. YOUNG,

STEPHENSON, the effect produced was magnificeni. An

Superintendeni, at Newcastle, Delaware, Builder of a superior style of Passenger Cars for Railother pattern is in imitation of a very richly feb 20-yıf

No. 264 Elizabeth street, near Bleecker street, embroidered shot.silk. A specimen of this

RAILROA1) CASTINGS.

New York, paper has been submitted to his Majesty, MANY & WARD, Propricors of the Alhuny Ercle RAILROAD COMPANIES would do well to ex. who was very much pleased with its splen-air Fumace and Machine Shop, will work is oriler Car anune t'esc Cars; a specimen of which may be seen on did appearance. The price varies from 1s." of Castings required for Railroads.

Wheels, Cars and Kneng, and every other description that part of the New York and Harlæn laitvad noxia

Brly feb! 4
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AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL, AND ADVOCATE OF INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY, AT NO. 13 NASSAU STREET, NEW-YORK, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.

D. K. MINOR, EDITOR.)

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1836.

(VOLUME V.- No. 8.

CONTENTS:

forwarded No. 6 of Vol. 4, in compliance | PORTSMOUTH AND ROANOKE RAILROAD. Editorial Notices; Illinois and Michigan Canal; with our request, will please accept our

The following letter contains a correct Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad ....... 113thanks for their kind attention. We have Report of the Committre on Railroads, on the bill

account of the advancement and progress received as many as we require to com-ll of the Porthmouth and Roanoke Railroad. from the Asssembly, entitled " An Act to *-xpe

plete the few sets on hand. dite ihe construction of a Railroad from New. York to Lako Erie," &c......

Richmond, Va., Feb., 1836. 114 Statement of the Receipts and Disbursements of ILLINOIS AND Michigan Canal. We are

Dear Sir, I was informed by a friend rethe Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company.... 118

as much pleased to publish the following cenily from New-York, that you wished 10 Railroad and Canal Intelligence; Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.......

notice" by authority,” as we were, when I have some account of the Portsmouth and

120 Repuri on the Use of the Hot Air Blast in Irun

we first saw it, as a maiter of information Roanoke Railroad—and that you exp. essed Furnaces and Foundries.. 121||10 our readers.

some surprise at not having heard of it Mineral Coal; Sleeper's Patent Corn Mill....... 122

since the Report of the Engineer in 1893.

TO CONTRACTORS. Inclined Water Wheel; Inclined Wheel, for

li is true the Company have made but little Small Streams....

123 NOTICE is hereby given to all persons who may|| noise. They weighed the difficulties, exAgriculture, &c......

123

feel disposed to take Contracts on the Illinois andamined the way, and, like the adorable Recipe for Curing Beef; Advertisements. 123

Michigan Canal, that the Board of Commissioners

have determined to commence that work as early in princess, Parizade, turning a deaf ear 10 dis.

the spring as circumstances will permit. The Encouraging voices, have marched silently and AMERICAN RAILROAD JOURNAL. Ilgineers will commence their surveys about the 10th | courageously u;) to their object.

of March, and will have several Sections ready for NEW-YORK, FEBRUARY 27, 1836.

lu lirile more than two years, they have contract by the first of May It is therefore «xpected overcome difficulties considered by many

that definite proposals will be received from that date * All accounts due for the Journal pre- l to the first • f June. In the mean time the Board in

insurmountable: they have crossed the vjous to January last, and also for the cur- vite an early inspection of that part of the route to great Dismal Swamp; They have spanned rent year, liave been inclosed in a previous Chicago, and will afford any information that may the Black water, Nottoway, and Meberrin

be required of them. number, to each subscriber-and we should

rivers, with their deep alluvial low grounds; have said, as we intended to say, in the Board of Commissioners of the Illinuis and Michi-l relled; and sixty-two miles of the road com

All communications will be addressed to “The hills have been cut away, forests have been number containing them, that some errors | gan Canal, at Chicago." will probably be found, in consequence of

By order of the Board.

pleted-which, for levelness, straightness, the late disaster, which we are particularly

and faithful execution, is unsurpassed, I

JOEL MANNING, Secretary. desirous to correct, and therefore request

will venture to say, by any similar work in January 20, 1836.

8-61 those gentlemen, who detect errors, tu give

our country. early information, with such particulars as

- For the information of our readers The remainder of the road, comprising will enable us to correct them properly; and and others, we will observe that we shall be fifteen miles, and a bridge across the Roa. to know to whom, if to any one, payments gratified to publish, at any, and all times, noke river at Weldon, will be finished in have been made.

similar notices to the above, 6 or 8 times, || (he course of the summer. The bridge is In order to avoid similar difficulties here. for five dollars, which may be remitted || 1760 feet in length, resting on 12 stout after, and that both parties may know how with the advertisement, and no questions || stone pillařs, some of them upwards of 60

asked. the account stands on the book, we shall

feet above the foundation; the floor is plapublish a list of those from whoin payments

ced a hout 4 feet below the top of the framehave been, and may bereafter be, received, The distillation of palatable and fresh work, the railroad track in the centre, and for the current year. By this course, sub. water at sea has been effected by P. Nicole, so arranged that common road waggons scribers will be able to correct omissions on of Dieppe, by simply causing the steam||may pass over it, or on either side of the our part, and at our cost of postage, if we | arising from boiling sea water in a still 10 rails. onsil to give ibenu credit.

pass through a stratum of coarsely pow The Company have now two locomotive

dered charcoal, in its way to the condenser engines running, one of Berry's make, and at Those of our subscribers who have lor worm tub.

one of Stephenson's. The coaches are no

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the three-bodied plan (of Green); the cars | For steamboats on the Bay, $200,000|| any, of $3,000,000; for which amount stock is to be are all roofed, and provided with locks and Porismouth and Roanoke Rail

Sucd, beering in interest of four and a half per

crni. per annum, anu redeemable any time aiter 20 keys—they are different in appearance from road,

650,000|yetis; for the payment of the interest of which, any I have seen, and are said to be on an Roanoke and Wilmington Rail.

und live ultimate redemption of the stock, the sald improved plan. Between the present point road,

1,000,000

nad and its appurtenar.ces, and its tolis and income

te pledged. of termination and Halifax (which you Steamboat from Wilmingtun 10

From the examination the commit:ee have been know is on the main mail route), the dis Charleston,

100 000

orabled to give to the subject, they feel bound to

accompany ine bili, wlich has been submited to tance is 25 miles. This is accomplished

their consideration, with an acknowledgment of in Kendall four-horse post-coaches, and, a

Cost of Railroad, $1,950,000 theirc nviction, that the work which it is designed greeably to the Companies' advertisement, and steamboat navigation from Baltimore 10 and is justly charac'erized by his Excel.ency, the

Governor, as an extensive and useful ent. rpi ze :" you can leave Halifax at 3 A. M. 10-day,||to Charleston, via Norfolk, Portsmouth, They accord, ilso, with bim, in the views he has and either breakfast 10-morrow in Balti-Weldon, and Wilmington, N. C. Here is expressed, that the magnitude of the undertakı g more, or dine in Philadelphia. It is be. a result of five millions one hundred thou-| est felt by the inhabitants of the section of the State,

the public benefits it will confer, and the deep interlieved that this route cannot fail to com- sand dollars in favor of the route by the through which this extensive line of communication mand the whole southera travel. Turn to Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad. Can is to piss,” have induced "the compuny again to ask

the aid of the Legislature," lo facilitate and basten your map, Mr. Editor, if you please, and capitulists hesitate one moment in which to his accomplishment. follow the line of ihe Camden and Amboy invest? Is there any who doubt as to A work of such magnitude, extending from the Railroad to Philadelphia—thence by the which route the traveller will give tbe commercial metr pois, a distance of 480 miles,

through the inieriur of the Siale to lie inland scas, Delaware and Newcastle Railroad or by Ipreference?

and connecting with those navigable waters which the Wilmingion and Port Deposite Rail I could add other facts equally as strik - striech hrough the boundless valleys of the firule road—and the Chesapeake Bay to Norfolkling, such as greater economy and despatch most important and beneficial results. It will in.

We81, cannot fail, when completed, o produce he -or, if you prefer it, pursue the line of the in the travel by the Porismouth line; and fu e joy into the hearts of thousards of our fellow contemplated Railroad from Philadelphia to I have said nothing about the great West. citizens, who, with honest and persevering toil, are Cherrytown, on the Eastern Shore of Virgi-ern Railroad which the Company have in from a pariic pa:ion in the benefits of that in vigora

chtend ng against local disadvantages, excluded nia, and across the Bay to Norfolk-thence contemplation, up the Roanoke by Danville lung sy.tem of internal improvements which has by the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad to Evansham, and thence to intersect the ened m nus, and the progressive source of the gen

beon prouvly cher slied as the emanation ofenl ghtto Weldon—thence by Railroad to Wil- Charleston and Cincinnati and the New.ler. pri spuri:y. It will develop new resources of mington, N, C.--and thence by steamboats Orleans and Nashville Railroads. The wealth and enterprize. It will impart a new stim120 miles to Charleston, S. C. Think you importance of this work, not only in con.

ulus to individual industry. It will check the tide

of enigration, now flowing westward, beyond the we will be presuming too much, when we nexion with the Portsmouth and Roanoke imits of our Stute, and render the souifiern and claim for the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad, but as a medium of communica

1 tslern portions of our Staie desirable resting

Their Railroad the importance of a link? No, tion between Philadelphia and New-York, forests will be subdued; their population increased;

pices to the hardy pioneers from the east. sir, we will noi be content with this hack with the West and Southwest, I may at

their soil cultivated; and exter sive agricultural inneyed recommendation, I would you should some other time attempt to point out

provements induced, where the energies of the

nusb numan have bien hitherto depressed, by an consider this road, what in fact it is, a when I see if Mr. Editor receives this in ability to compete wih ihes tvored sections cord of the great circular chain of improve- good part.

w.ich have pos sed, through the medium of the ment described by the Baltimore and Wash

caial, mure che pandexpeditious avenuts to mar

I am, Sir, ingion Railroad-the Potomac River, as far

Yours, very respectfully, The numerous petitions which are before the as Potomac Creek—the Richmond and Fre

A. P.

omnitiee, most of which accompaniid the dericksburg Railroad—the Richmond and

bill from the Assembly, furnish evidence that

in this light the project is regarded by the peoPetersburg Railroad and the Petersburg,

We would invite the earnest attention of ple of those countits through which the road is Gaston, and Raleigh Railroad, and the Ra-lour readers to this clear and able document.for connecting with it, by lateral railroads or cinals,

i signed to pass, and of those favorably situated leigh and Columbia, or Raleigh and Charles

We are glad to see that, abandoning the now in progress or ili contemplation. Public feelton Railroad. Now, sir, will you bear with contracted view of the subject taken bylling, indied, appears to be deeply seated, and impie: me one moment, while I present a compa- some, Mr. Mack places the matter on the int enterprize. The number, the language, rative vie v of the cost of these two lines of broad ground of general utility,—asking for and the spirit of the petitioners, are commensurate improvement? Take Baltimore as the start the advancement of the measure as favora. with the vast object they bavc in view, and erince ing point, and follow the line of the last ble to the best interests of the State-insist of its accomplishment. They ask, what as citi

it ze :1 and perseverance which will not stop short mentioned route, and we have, firstupon it as the only means of self-detence zers, as fiet men, they have a richito ask, the aid

and countenance of the State, in a most laudable For the Baltimore and Washing.

against the many rival improvements in er.deavor. They experi, what they have a right ton Railroad, $1,500,000 Pennsylvania and Maryland.

to exiect, that she representatives of an enliglitenSteamboat from Washington to

The interesting nature of this report will, d anu patriouc penpe, of ih ch they, themselves,

constitu e so large a proportion--thai the adminis. Potomac Creek,

100,000 weare convinced, notwithstanding its length, trators of a governm nı, instituted for the general Railroad from Potomac Creek to obtain for it a careful perusal.

benefit--will yield a kind and respectful, if not a Richmond,

favorable, response to their petitions.
1,000,000
REPORT

But, it is not upon the ground of ex'ensive local Richmond and Petersburg Rail

Of the Conmittee on Railroads, on the bill from the advantages and improvements to be secured, nor of road,

550,000

Assembly, entitle 1 "An Act to expedite the con- the just expectations and claims or those of its citie

struction of a railroad from New York lo Lake zens who have hitherto derived few benefits from Petersburg, Gaston, and Raleigh

Erie,” &c.

the vast expenditures of the general funds for the Railroad,

1,500,000 Mr. Mack, from the standing committee on rail-construction of public works, that the call upon the Raleigh and Charleston Rail.

roads, lo whom were referred the bill from ihe As-Suite, lo promote the immediate completion of the

sembly, entitled “ An Act to expedite the construe-undertaking, is alone predicated. It rests upon a road, (240 miles,)

2,400,000 | Lion of a railroad from New York to Lake Erie,” || broader basis. It appeals, not only to a spirit of

the memorial of the mayor, aldermen and common-1 reciprocity, as between the various sections of a

ally of the city of New York; the resolutions of great community, but to those elevated views and $7,050,000 the mayor and common council of the city of Brook- Feelings which cherish, with a just, pride, the high

lyn; and the petitions of sundry inhabi ants of the character, the influence and prosperity of the Cost of railroad and steamboat naviga- Counties of Westchester, Delaware, Genesce, Al- || State, as a prominent member of the Union. tion from Baltimore to Charleston, via legany and Cattaraugus, in favor of th pissige o This Sinie possesses a soil unsurpassed in Washington, Richmond, Petersburg, and said act, with a remonstrance from the county 01 -trength and fertility, and adupied to almost every

Orange, and so much of the Governor's message as species of agricultural production. Iis manuinc Raleigh. relates to the same subject

Turing facilities are unrivalled, and the treasures of We will now proceed on the route by

its mountains and its forests have scarce begun to Reported:

The bill authorizes a loan of the credit of the li he developed. But to its commercial enterprise and Norfolk and Portsmouth.

State to the New York und Eris Railroad Compa-l advantages is it most materially indebted for its

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