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§ 7524. (R. S. § 4006.) Foreign mail-transportation contracts.

The Postmaster-General, after advertising for proposals, may enter into contracts or make suitable arrangements for transporting the mail through any foreign country, between any two points in the United States, and such transportation shall be by the speediest, safest, and most economical route; and all contracts therefor may be revoked whenever any new road or canal shall be opened affording a speedier, more economical, and equally safe transportation between the same points; but in case of the revocation of any such contract, a fair indemnity shall be awarded to the contractor.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 263, 17 Stat. 315.

Provisions for ocean mail service between the United States and foreign countries were made by Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, post, 88 7530_7538.

Contracts for carrying the mail between the United States and a foreign port were limited to a term of two years, unless otherwise directed by Con

gress, by Act May 17, 1878, c. 107, § 5, ante, § 7454. § 7525. (R. S. § 4007.) Contracts for carrying mails between the

United States and foreign countries. The Postmaster-General may, after advertising for proposals, enter into contract for the transportation of the mail between the United States and any foreign country whenever the public interests will thereby be promoted.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 267, 17 Stat. 316.

Provisions for advertising before making contracts for ocean mail service between the United States and foreign ports on American vessels were made

by Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 2, post, $ 7531. § 7526. (R. S. § 4008.) Foreign mail, how transported.

The mail between the United States and any foreign port, or between ports of the United States touching at a foreign port, shall be transported in steamships; but the Postmaster-General may have such transportation performed by sailing-vessels when the service can be facilitated thereby.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 268, 17 Stat. 316.

See notes to R. S. § 4006, ante, $ 7524. § 7527. (R. S. § 4009.) Pay for transporting foreign mail.

For transporting the mail between the United States and any foreign port, or between ports of the United States touching at a foreign port, the Postmaster-General may allow as compensation, if by a United States steamship, any sum not exceeding the sea and United States inland postage; and if by a foreign steamship or by a sailingvessel, any sum not exceeding the sea-postage, on the mail soʻtransported.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 269, 17 Stat. 316.

The rates of compensation for ocean mail service on American vessels

were fixed by Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 5, post, $ 7534. § 7528. (R. S. § 4010.) Fine of mail-contractors for delay.

The Postmaster-General may impose fines on contractors for transporting the mail between the United States and any foreign country, for any unreasonable or unnecessary delay in the departure of such

mail, or the performance of the trip; but the fine for any one default shall not exceed one-half the contract price for the trip.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 270, 17 Stat. 316.

Provisions for the deduction in the rate of compensation of, and for the imposition of fines on, contractors for ocean mail service, were made by

Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 5, post, $ 7534. § 7529. (R. S. § 4011.) Discontinuing foreign mail-transportation

contracts. Every contract for transporting the mail between the United States and any foreign country shall contain, besides the usual stipulation for the right of the Postmaster-General to discontinue the same, the further stipulation that it may be terminated by Congress.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 272, 17 Stat, 316. § 7530. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 1.) Contracts for ocean mail

service on American vessels. The Postmaster-General is hereby authorized and empowered to enter into contracts for a term not less than five nor more than ten years in duration, with American citizens, for the carrying of mails on American steamships, between ports of the United States and such ports in foreign countries, the Dominion of Canada excepted, as in his judgment will best subserve and promote the postal and commercial interests of the United States, the mail service on such lines to be equitably distributed among the Atlantic, Mexican Gulf and Pacific ports. Said contracts shall be made with the lowest responsible bidder for the performance of said service on each route, and the Postmaster-General shall have the right to reject all bids not in his opinion reasonable for the attaining of the purposes named. (26 Stat. 830.)

This section and the eight sections next following were an act entitled "An act to provide for ocean mail service between the United States and

foreign ports, and to promote commerce." § 7531. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, $ 2.) Advertisements for pro

posals. Before making any contract for carrying ocean mails in accordance with this act the Postmaster General shall give public notice by advertising once a week, for three months, in such daily papers as he shall select in each of the cities of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Saint Louis, Charleston, Norfolk, Savannah, Galveston, and Mobile, and when the proposed service is to be on the Pacific Ocean, then in San Francisco, Tacoma, and Portland. Such notice shall describe the route, the time when such contract will be made, the duration of the same, the size of the steamers to be used, the number of trips a year, the times of sailing, and the time when the service shall commence, which shall not be more than three years after the contract shall be let. The details of the mode of advertising and letting such contracts shall be conducted in the manner prescribed in chapter eight of title forty-six of the Revised Statutes for the letting of inland mail contracts so far as the same shall be applicable to the ocean mail service. (26 Stat. 831.)

Provisions for advertising for and letting of inland mail contracts are contained in chapter 8 of this Title, “Contracts for Carrying the Mails."

§ 7532. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, $ 3.) Ownership, etc., of ocean

mail vessels; classification. The vessels employed in the mail service under the provisions of this act shall be American built steam-ships, owned and officered by American citizens, in conformity with the existing laws, or so owned and officered and registered according to law, and upon each departure from the United States the following proportion of the crew shall be citizens of the United States, to wit: During the first two years of such contract for carrying the mails, one-fourth thereof; during the next three succeeding years, one-third thereof; and during the remaining time of the continuance of such contract at least one-half thereof; and shall be constructed after the latest and most approved types, with all the modern improvements and appliances for ocean steamers. They shall be divided into four classes. The first class shall be iron or steel screw steamships, capable of maintaining a speed of twenty knots an hour at sea in ordinary weather, and of a gross registered tonnage of not less than eight thousand tons. No vessel except of said first class shall be accepted for said mail service under the provisions of this act between the United States and Great Britain. The second class shall be iron or steel steamships, capable of maintaining a speed of sixteen knots an hour at sea in ordinary weather, and of a gross registered tonnage of not less than five thousand tons. The third class shall be iron or steel steamships, capable of maintaining a speed of fourteen knots an hour at sea in ordinary weather, and of a gross registered tonnage of not less than two thousand five hundred tons. The fourth class shall be iron or steel or wooden steam-ships, capable of maintaining a speed of twelve knots an hour at sea in ordinary weather, and of a gross registered tonnage of not less than fifteen hundred tons. It shall be stipulated in the contract or contracts to be entered into for the said mail service that said vessels may carry passengers with their baggage in addition to said mails and may do all ordinary business done by steam-ships. (26 Stat. 831.)

Vessels admitted to American registry may contract with the PostmasterGeneral under this act, by R. S. § 4132, as amended by Act Aug. 24, 1912,

c. 390, § 5, post, § 7709. $ 7533. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, $ 4.) Construction of ocean

mail vessels; specifications; inspection. All steam-ships of the first, second, and third classes employed as above and hereafter built shall be constructed with particular reference to prompt and economical conversion into auxiliary naval cruisers, and according to plans and specifications to be agreed upon by and between the owners and the Secretary of the Navy, and they shall be of sufficient strength and stability to carry and sustain the working and operation of at least four effective rifled cannon of a caliber of not less than six inches, and shall be of the highest rating known to maritime commerce. And all vessels of said three classes heretofore built and so employed shall, before they are accepted for the mail service herein provided for, be thoroughly inspected by a competent naval officer or constructor detailed for that service by the Secretary of the Navy; and such officer shall report, in writing, to the Secretary of the Navy, who shall transmit said report to the Postmaster-General; and no such vessel not approved by the Secretary of the Navy as suitable for the service required shall be employed by the Postmaster-General as provided for in this act. (26 Stat. 831.) $ 7534. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 5.) Rates of compensation

for ocean mail service; deductions, fines, etc. The rate of compensation to be paid for such ocean mail service of the said first-class ships shall not exceed the sum of four dollars a mile, and for the second-class ships two dollars a mile, by the shortest practicable route, for each outward voyage; for the third-class ships shall not exceed one dollar a mile. And for the fourth-class ships two thirds of one dollar a mile for the actual number of miles required by the Post Office Department to be traveled on each outward bound voyage: Provided, That in the case of failure from any cause to perform the regular voyages stipulated for in said contracts or any of them, a pro rata deduction shall be made from the compensation on account of such omitted voyage or voyages; and that suitable fines and penalties may be imposed for delays or irregularities in the due performance of service according to the contract, to be determined by the Postmaster-General: Provided further, That no steam-ship so employed and so paid for carrying the United States mails shall receive any other bounty or subsidy from the Treasury of the United States. (26 Stat. 832.) § 7535. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 6.) Transportation, etc., of

mail-messengers on ocean mail vessels. Upon each of said vessels the United States shall be entitled to have transported, free of charge, a mail-messenger, whose duty it shall be to receive, sort, take in charge and deliver the mails to and from the United States, and who shall be provided with suitable room for the accommodation of himself and the mails. (26 Stat. 832.) $ 7536. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, $ 7.) Service of naval officers

on ocean mail vessels; compensation; duties. Officers of the United States Navy may volunteer for service on said mail vessels, and when accepted by the contractor or contractors may be assigned to such duty by the Secretary of the Navy whenever in his opinion such assignment can be made without detriment to the service, and while in said employment they shall receive furlough pay from the Government, and such other compensation from the contractor or contractors as may be agreed upon by the parties: Provided, That they shall only be required to perform such duties as appertain to the merchant service. (26 Stat. 832.) § 7537. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 8.) Cadets or apprentices on

ocean mail vessels. Said vessels shall take, as cadets or apprentices, one Americanborn boy under twenty-one years of age for each one thousand tons

gross register, and one for each majority fraction thereof, who shall be educated in the duties of seamanship, rank as petty officers, and receive such pay for their services as may be reasonable. (26 Stat. 832.) § 7538. (Act March 3, 1891, c. 519, § 9.) Payment for ocean mail

vessels taken by United States as transports, etc.; appraise

ment. Such steamers may be taken and used by the United States as transports or cruisers, upon payment to the owners of the fair actual value of the same at the time of the taking, and if there shall be a disagreement as to the fair actual value of the same at the time of the taking, and if there shall be a disagreement as to the fair actual between the United States and the owners, then the same shall be determined by two impartial appraisers, one to be appointed by each of said parties, they at the same time selecting a third, who shall act in said appraisement in case the two shall fail to agree. (26 Stat. 832.) § 7539. (Act March 2, 1907, c. 2513.) Clerks on ocean mail vessels;

transfer of foreign mails at New York and San Francisco. Hereafter the Postmaster-General shall be authorized to expend such sums as may be necessary, not exceeding one hundred and five thousand dollars, to cover one-half of the cost of transportation, compensation, and expense of clerks to be employed in assorting and pouching mails in transit on steamships between the United States and other postal administrations in the International Postal Union, and not exceeding forty thousand dollars for transferring the foreign mail from incoming steamships in New York Bay to the steamship and railway piers, and for transferring the foreign mail from incoming steamships in San Francisco Bay to the piers. (34 Stat. 1214.)

This was a proviso annexed to an appropriation for transportation of foreign mails in the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1908, cited above.

It superseded a similar provision wbich was contained in Act March 1, 1899, c. 327, § 1, 30 Stat. 964, and which was repeated in subsequent postal service appropriation acts.

The provision of this act was repeated, but without the word "hereafter," in the similar act for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, Act May 27, 1908, c. 206, 35 Stat. 414, and with variations in the limit of expenditure, and an addition to the services provided for, in the similar acts for subsequent years. The provision for the fiscal year 1914 was by Act March 4, 1913, c. 143, 37 Stat. 799.

Recent postal service appropriation acts have made an appropriation of $2,500 for an assistant superintendent, Division of Foreign Mails, with headquarters at New York. The appropriation for the fiscal year 1914 was by

Act March 4, 1913, c. 143, 37 Stat. 799. § 7540. (Act March 4, 1913, c. 143.) Sea-post clerks; disability

allowance; compensation for death. For transportation of foreign mails, : Provided, That the Postmaster General shall be authorized to expend such sums as may be necessary, not exceeding $112,800, to cover the cost to the United States of maintaining sea-post service on steamships conveying the mails, and not exceeding $88,100 for transferring the

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