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days, not less than thirty, at such times, after June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, and not less frequently than once in every four years, and the result to be stated and verified in such form and manner as the Postmaster-General may direct.

Act March 3, 1873, c. 231, § 1, 17 Stat. 558.

Provisions for weighing the mails were made by Act March 3, 1875, c. 128, $ 1, post, 8 7489.

Provisions for reduction of the compensation of railroads for mail transportation were made by Act July 12, 1876, c. 179, 88 1, 13, and Act June 17, 1878, c. 259, § 1, post, $$ 7484–7486.

Further provisions for actual weighing of mails, before readjustment of pay for transportation, were made by Act March 3, 1905, c. 1480, § 1, and Act May 12, 1910, c. 230, post, $8 7490, 7491.

Placing any matter in the mails during the wei ng peri for the purpose of increasing the weight of the mails was made punishable by Act June 13, 1898, c. 446, § 1, 30 Stat. 442. That provision was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 228 thereof, post, $ 10398, and was repealed

by section 341 thereof, post, 8. 10515. § 7484. (Act July 12, 1876, c. 179, § 1.) Reduction of compensation

of railroads for mail transportation. That the Postmaster General be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to readjust the compensation to be paid from and after the first day of July, eighteen hundred and seventy-six, for transportation of mails on railroad-routes by reducing the compensation to all railroad companies for the transportation of mails ten per centum per annum from the rates fixed and allowed by the first section of an act entitled “An act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-four, and for other purposes,' approved March third, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, for the transportation of mails on the basis of the average weight. (19 Stat. 79.)

This was a provision following an appropriation for inland mail transportation in the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1877, cited above.

The provisions of Act March 3, 1873, mentioned in this section, were incorporated into R. S. § 4002, ante, § 7483.

Provisions for a further reduction of such compensation were made by Act June 17, 1878, c. 259, § 1, post, $ 7486. § 7485. (Act July 12, 1876, c. 179, § 13.) Compensation of land

grant railroads. Rail-road-companies whose railroad was constructed in whole or in part by a land-grant made by Congress on the condition that the mails should be transported over their road at such price as Congress should by law direct shall receive only eighty per centum of the compensation authorized by this act. (19 Stat. 82.)

See notes to section 1 of this act, ante, 8 7484.

Land-grant railroads were required to carry mail at a compensation fixed by Congress, by R. S. § 4001, ante, 8 7482. § 7486. (Act June 17, 1878, c. 259, § 1.) Reduction of compensa

tion of railroads for mail transportation. That the Postmaster-General be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to readjust the compensation to be paid from and after the first day of July, eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, for transportation of mails on railroad routes by reducing the compensation to all railroad companies for the transportation of mails five per centum per annum from the rates for the transportation of mails, on the basis of the average weight fixed and allowed by the first section of an act entitled "An act making appropriations for the service of the Post Office Department for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and for other purposes," approved July twelfth, eighteen hundred and seventy-six. (20 Stat. 142.)

This was a provision following an appropriation for inland mail transportation by railroads in the postal service appropriation acts for the fiscal year 1879, cited above.

The provisions of Act July 12, 1876, § 1, mentioned in this section, are set

forth ante, $ 7484. § 7487. (Act March 2, 1907, c. 2513.) Rates for transportation of

mail on railroad routes carrying average weight per day of up

ward of 5000 pounds. The Postmaster-General is hereby authorized and directed to readjust the compensation to be paid from and after the first day of July, nineteen hundred and seven, for the transportation of mail on railroad routes carrying their whole length an average weight of mails per day of upward of five thousand pounds by making the following changes in the present rates per mile per annum for the transportation of mail on such routes, and hereafter the rates on such routes shall be as follows: On routes carrying their whole length an average weight of mail per day of more than five thousand pounds and less than fortyeight thousand pounds the rate shall be five per centum less than the present rates on all weight carried in excess of five thousand pounds ; and on routes carrying their whole length an average weight of mail per day of more than forty-eight thousand pounds the rate shall be five per centum less than the present rates on all weight carried in excess of five thousand pounds up to forty-eight thousand pounds, and for each additional two thousand pounds in excess of forty-eight thousand pounds at the rate of nineteen dollars and twenty-four cents upon all roads other than land-grant roads, and upon all land-grant roads the rate shall be seventeen dollars and ten cents for each two thousand pounds carried in excess of said forty-eight thousand pounds. (34 Stat. 1212.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1908, cited above.

This provision was amended, by reducing the rate of compensation authorized by the last clause to be paid for transportation of mail on land-grant railroads, by a provision of Act May 12, 1910, c. 230, post, $ 7488.

Previous provisions fixing rates of pay for transportation of mails on rail

road routes were made by R. S. $ 4002, ante, 8 7483. § 7488. (Act May 12, 1910, c. 230.) Amendment of Act March 2,

1907, c. 2513; rates for transportation of mail on land-grant

railroads. The provision of the act of March second, nineteen hundred and seven, entitled “An Act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eight, and for other purposes," fixing the compensation to be paid for transportation of mail on land-grant railroads at the rate of seventeen dollars and ten cents for each two thousand pounds carried in excess of forty-eight thousand pounds, is hereby amended to make such rate of compensation after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and ten, fifteen dollars and thirty-nine cents for each two thousand pounds carried in excess of forty-eight thousand pounds, and the Postmaster-General is hereby authorized and directed to readjust the compensation in accordance with this amendment. (36 Stat. 362.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1911, cited above.

The provision of Act March 2, 1907, c. 2513, amended by this act, is set

forth ante, § 7487. § 7489. (Act March 3, 1875, c. 128, § 1.) Weighing of mails on

railroad routes. Out of the appropriation for inland-mail transportation the Postmaster General is authorized hereafter to pay the expenses of taking the weights of mails on railroad routes, as provided by the act entitled “An act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office Department for the year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-four," approved March third, eighteen hundred and seventy-three; and he is hereby directed to have the mails weighed as often as now provided by law by the employees of the PostOffice Department, and have the weights stated and verified to him by said employees under such instructions as he may consider just to the Post-Office Department and the railroad-companies. (18 Stat. 341.)

This was a provision following an appropriation for inland mail transportation in the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1876, cited above.

The provisions of Act March 3, 1873, c. 231, § 1, mentioned in this section, were incorporated into R. S. § 4002, ante, § 7483.

Fraudulently increasing the weight of mail matter to increase the compensation of the railroad for mail transportation was made punishable by Act June 13, 1898, c. 446, § 1, 30 Stat. 442. That provision was incorporated into the Criminal Code, in section 228 thereof, post, g 10398, and was repealed by section 341 thereof, post, $ 10515.

Further provisions for ascertaining the average weight of mails on railroad routes by actual weighing before readjustment of pay for transportation thereof, were made by Act March 3, 1905, c. 1480, § 1, and Act May 12, 1910, c.

230, post, $$ 7490, 7491. § 7490. (Act March 3, 1905, c. 1480, § 1.) Periods for weighing of

mails on railroad routes. Hereafter before making the readjustment of pay for transportation of mails on railroad routes, the average weight shall be ascertained by the actual weighing of the mails for such a number of successive working days not less than ninety, at such times after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and five, and not less frequently than once in every four years, and the result to be stated and verified in such form and manner as the Postmaster-General may direct. (33 Stat. 1087.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1906, cited above.

Previous provisions relating to weighing the mails on railway routes for the same purpose were made by R. S. § 4002, ante, $ 7483, and Act March 3, 1875, c. 128, § 1, ante, 8 7489.

Subsequent provisions relating to such weighing of the mails, and to the rates of pay based on the average weight thereof, were made by Act March

2, 1907, c. 2513, post, $ 7498. § 7491. (Act May 12, 1910, c. 230.) Weighing of mails on rail

road routes; withdrawal of freightable lots of postal supplies. The Postmaster-General shall require, when in freightable lots and whenever practicable, the withdrawal from the mails of all postal cards, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, empty mail bags, furniture, equipment, and other supplies for the postal service, except postage stamps, in the respective weighing divisions of the country, immediately preceding the weighing period in said divisions, and thereafter such postal cards, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, empty mail bags, furniture, equipment, and other supplies for the postal service, except postage stamps, shall be transmitted by either freight or express. (36 Stat. 362.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1911, cited above.

A provision in the same language except the word "thereafter" was contained in the similar act for the preceding year, Act June 26, 1906, c. 3546, 34 Stat. 473. The provision of this act superseded provisions in the same language in the similar acts for the fiscal years 1908-1910. A provision accompanying the appropriation for the fiscal year 1912, in Act March 4, 1911, c. 241, § 1, is set forth post, $ 7492.

Previous provisions for weighing the mails were made by R. S. § 4002, Act March 3, 1875, c. 128, § 1, and Act March 3, 1905, c. 1480, § 1, ante, 88 7483,

7489, 7490. § 7492. (Act March 4, 1911, c. 241, § 1.) Return to mails, in cases

of emergency, of empty mail bags previously withdrawn; pay

ment for transportation. The Postmaster General in cases of emergency, between November fifteenth and January fifteenth of any year, may hereafter return to the mails empty mail bags theretofore withdrawn therefrom as required by law, and for such times may pay for their railroad transportation out of the appropriation for inland transportation by railroad routes at not exceeding the rate per pound per mile as shown by the last adjustment for mail service on the route over which they may be carried, and pay for necessary cartage out of the appropriation for freight or expressage. (36 Stat. 1335.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1912, cited above. § 7493. (Act Aug. 24, 1912, c. 389, § 4.) Readjustment of pay for

mail diverted after weighing periods. When, after a weighing of the mails for the purpose of readjusting the compensation for their transportation on a railroad route, mails are diverted therefrom or thereto, the Postmaster General

may, in his discretion, ascertain the effect of such diversion by a weighing of such mails for such number of successive working days as he may determine, and have the weights stated and verified to him as in other cases, and readjust the compensation on the routes affected accordingly: Provided, That no readjustment shall be made unless the diverted mails equal at least ten per centum of the average daily weight on any of the routes affected: Provided further, That readjustment made hereunder shall not take effect before July first, nineteen hundred and twelve, and shall be for diversions occurring after January first, nineteen hundred and twelve. (37 Stat. 554.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1912, cited above.

Provisions for additional pay to railroads for the increased weight of the mails caused by the parcel post were made by Act March 4, 1913, c. 143,

post, § 7494. § 7494. (Act March 4, 1913, c. 143.) Additional pay for extra

weight of mails caused by parcel post. On account of the increased weight of mails resulting from the enactment of section eight of the Act of August twenty-fourth, nineteen hundred and twelve, making appropriations for the service of the Post Office Department for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, the Postmaster-General is authorized to add to the compensation paid for transportation on railroad routes on and after July first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, for the remainder of the contract terms, not exceeding five per centum thereof per annum, excepting upon routes weighed since January first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, and to be readjusted from July first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, until otherwise provided by law. (37 Stat. 797.)

This was a provision of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1914, cited above.

Act Aug. 24, 1912, c. 389, § 8, mentioned in this section, establishing the parcel post system, is set forth ante, 88 7319–7326. $7495. (Act March 4, 1911, c. 241, § 1.) Weighing of mails on

( railroad routes; payment of expenses of computations. Out of the appropriation for inland mail transportation the Postmaster General is authorized hereafter to pay rental if necessary in Washington, District of Columbia, and compensation to tabulators and clerks employed in connection with the weighings for assistance in completing computations, in connection with the expenses of taking the weights of mails on railroad routes, as provided by law. (36 Stat. 1334.)

This was a proviso annexed to an appropriation for inland transportation by railroad routes in the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year

1912, cited above. § 7496. (Act March 3, 1879, c. 180, $ 4.) Style, construction, main

tenance, etc., of railway post office cars. All cars or parts of cars used for the railway mail service shall be of such style, length, and character, and furnished in such manner, as shall be required by the Postmaster General, and shall be

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