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Estate, and Supply. It is a policy of the Chief of Engineers that all design will be technically reviewed by an organization separate from the one performing the design. The Division engineering staff performs this technical review for design prepared in-house by subordinate districts. Staffing is primarily civilian (246) under the direction of a General Officer and his military deputy. Fiscal Year 1970 workload totalled $70 million for military work and $193 million for civil proprograms. The Southwestern Division office supervises five districts.
(3) The Engineer district office constitutes the second level and is the primary executing or operational center of the organization. It is the "hard core” of the construction organization, which in total consists of 40 District, three of which are located overseas. A typical Engineer district is shown at Tab B. The organizational structure generally parallels that of the Division office. Certain technical elements directly supervise field activities, such as, the operation of reservoirs and real estate project offices. The basic construction field offices are under the direct command of the District Engineer. The Construction Division assists the District Engineer by providing staff supervision of the resident offices which directly supervise and inspect construction performed by contract.
(4) At Tab Cis a list of Divisions and Districts. c. Office, Chief of Engineers (OCE)
(1) The organizational structure of the Office, Chief of Engineers is shown at Tab D.
(2) The immediate advisory staff is composed of a small number of assistants to provide the Chief of Engineers ready advice on special matters. The boards and commissions act for the Chief of Engineers in areas of unique engineering interest. One such example is the Coastal Engineering Research Board which meets twice a year to provide broad policy guidance for the conduct of the coastal engineering program.
(3) The ten separate offices on the next two lines of the chart provide necessary services in support of the primary missions of engineering design and construction. These support services include budgeting, accounting, audit, ADP, legal, safety, personnel administration, and research and development.
(4) The major portion of the OCE staff is in the four directorates. The Directorate of Real Estate, like the separate support offices, is organized on a functional basis, closely paralleling the structure of counterpart offices in the field (divisions and districts). Thus, the Director of Real Estate handles real estate problems exclusively. Engineering design and construction missions, however, are organized on a program basis. The Directorates of Civil Works and Military Construction have their own individual elements for engineering, construction, and operations. Both construction Directors deal directly with the principal field agencies, the Engineer divisions. d. Contract Administration
(1) In addition to the direct command relationship between the District Engineer and his project offices, there is an important contractual relationship. The District Engineer is the contracting officer for all major architect-engineer and construction contracts. For construction contracts, he formally delegates authority to area or resident engineers as resident contracting officers. The District Engineer has authority to award construction contracts in unlimited amounts, except for certain limitations on negotiated contracts. He delegates to his resident contracting officer authority to approve contract modifications up to a specified amount and to act for him in other ways in dealing with the contractors. He has authority to execute most contracts incident to his real estate functions.
(2) Except for unusual types of work, the Corps utilizes competitive contract procedures and ensures reliability of bids by comparison with carefully prepared government estimates. Similarly, a large share of engineering and design is accomplished through contracts with architect-engineer firms and the plans so produced are subjected to a technical review by the District Engineering Division for the contracting officer. e. Construction Capabilities
(1) The Corps of Engineers capabilities for construction include the full range of techincal and administrative services necessary to support a given project from the time of inception to turnover of completed construction to the user. These services include:
(a) Developing project cost estimates based on user criteria.
(b) Preparing preliminary and final project designs.
(c) Complete real estate services, including appraisal, acquisition, leasing, management, and disposal of real property.
(d) Preparing, awarding, and administering construction contracts.
(f) Complete legal services, including the handling of contractor claims and appeals, and labor disputes.
(g) Procuring supplies and materials and administering supply contracts. (h) Programming, budgeting, and accounting for funds.
(i) Reporting on the status of all construction and related activities. (2) The existence of complete and self-sufficient technical and administrative services at Engineer district level, coupled with maximum delegation of contractual and other authorities to project office level, provides the most effective and economical means of accomplishing construction and of responding to the needs of the user throughout the entire period of project planning, design, and construction
f. Composition of Work Force Engaged in Construction Activities. The civilian work force of the Corps of Engineers varies from 42,000 to 45,000 in the peak season, comprising 217 occupational fields in the “White Collar" category and 188 occupations in the trades and crafts. Nearly 10,000 engineers and scientists are employed in design, construction, research and development, and related programs of the Corps. Military personnel strength is approximately 1,300, of which 874 are officers. Nearly 2,200 civilian employees are engaged in real estate activities.
g. Nature and Volume of Current Work Programs. Corps of Engineers programs will total approximately $2.6 billion in the current fiscal year, distributed as follows: Civil Works
$1, 005 Operations and maintenance..
326 Other Civil.
Military construction *Other
1, 003 * Programs for non-defense agencies and foreign governments.
Real Estate expenditures for land payments and rentals, included in the above, exceed $100 million.
h. Real Estate Activities.
(1) The Corps acts as Real Estate agent for land acquisition for the Departments of Army and Air Force, Atomic Energy Commission, NASA, and other agencies upon request. Land requirements for projects are determined with real estate participation.
(2) In the case of Civil Works projects, basic real estate data are furnished for survey reports, and after authorization of the projects, Real Estate Design Memorandums are prepared to further refine real estate land and acquisition costs.
(3) For military projects (Army), a Real Estate representative of the Corps at Division or District level often participates as a temporary member of a Site Selection Board to furnish the required real estate data for the site selection report. When the project is approved and funded, a Real Estate Planning Report is prepared to detail the real estate requirements and costs.
(4) The Real Estate Design Memorandums and Planning Reports are essentially the same, containing maps; a general description of the land; and a discussion in general of improvements, crops, available utilities, access, proximity to markets, and other elements which influence value. A gross figure for land costs is included together with administrative costs, support costs, and contingencies calculated on the basis of current Corps experience factors.
(5) The principal site selection activity is at the District level and at Division level in our operating Divisions. This also applies to the acquisition of land
following approval of the Real Estate Planning Report by the military command or agency and approval of the Real Estate Design Memorandum by the Chief of Engineers. It may be well to point out at this time that the Real Estate action takes place at the District level, except where the Real Estate function has been concentrated in the Division or the Division is an operating Division without Districts. Normally, the Division has review and limited approval authority for Real Estate. Authority for policy and procedures and approval of Real Estate Design Memorandums and Reports is retained by the Real Estate Directorate, Office, Chief of Engineers, which also exercises general real estate supervision.
(6) Upon approval of the Planning Report, authority is granted to the Division or District to begin acquisition. This initiates detailed tract analysis to inciude mapping, descriptions, procurement of title data (usually by contract), appraisals by staff or contract or both, and negotiations in an effort to acquire the lands amicably. If there are title defects and/or disagreement as to price, the land is condemned. Administrative costs include the necessary support to the Department of Justice in resolving the tracts in condemnation.
(7) Other Real Estate activities include management and disposal of real estate, homeowners assistance, records maintenance, and reporting.
2. OGRANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENT TO ACCOMPLISH THE POSTAL PUBLIC BUILDING
PROGRAM a. Concept
(1) Construction and Real Estate Services. As evidenced in the preceding discussion, the division-district organization is ideally suited for accomplishing the real estate and construction services required by the Postal Public Building Program. The districts and their project offices are located throughout the United States; in particular, District headquarters are located in the most highly populated cities in their areas. Moreover, the Corps' operating construction and real estate capabilities exist at the district level. In view of the existing capabilities at the district level and the dispersed locations of district and project offices, there is no need to establish a separate system of field offices to accomplish the construction and real estate services solely for the Postal Public Building ing Program.
(2) Design. Whereas any of the existing districts may be assigned construction responsibilities for a post office project, only a few selected Districts will be involved in the design program. In view of the repetitive nature of the postal facilities and the sophisticated nature of the specialized mechanization being incorporated into many of these facilities, it is considered that a higher quality of design can be gained by having a few Districts manage the architect-engineer (A-E) design of many facilities as opposed to having many Districts manage the A-E design of a few facilities. Under this concept, advantage can be taken of the learning curve. Six Districts have been designated to manage the A-E design contracts; they are Sacramento, Kansas City, Fort Worth, Savannah, Norfolk, and New York. This number will be increased or decreased if experience indicates that the design program can be accomplished more economically, and within the established time frames, with a lesser or greater number of design districts. These districts will manage the design of postal facilities for the areas indicated at Tab E.
(3) Management of the Program. The one feature which distinguishes this program from all other major programs, which the Corps has administered or is administering, is that there is a single interface with the customer, and this interface occurs at the Office, Chief of Engineers Washington level. In the case of the NASA, Air Force, and Army programs, the interfaces are many and they occur at the District level. Accordingly, an agency has been established within the Office, Chief of Engineers to manage the real estate, design, and construction services associated with the Postal Public Building Program; its name is: Corps of Engineers Postal Construction Support Office (CEPCSO). 0. Corps of Engineers Postal Construction Support Office
(1) Relationship with Agencies Comprising the Office, Chief of Engineers. (See Tab F for organizational arrangement.)
(a) Military Construction Directorate. CEPCSO is a part of the Military Construction Directorate because certain post office design and construction activities have characteristics closely allied to the complex design and construction activities associated with NASA and certain Air Force and Army projects.
By being a part of the Military Construction Directorate, CEPCSO is readily able to draw, on an as-needed basis, upon the design and construction expertise now a part of the divisions of the directorate. The Chief of CEPCSO has direct access to the divisions of the directorate and may task these divisions in the name of the Director.
(b) Other OCE Agencies. The Chief, CEPCSO occupies as a second position: Assistant to the Chief of Engineers for Postal Construction Support with the following responsibilities:
1. Advises and assists the Chief of Engineers in matters pertaining to the Corps of Engineers support of the Postal Public Building Program.
2. Provides over-all policy direction and coordination for the Postal Public Building Program.
3. Coordinates the OCE actions relating to the Postal Public Building Program with DOD, DA, and the Post Office Department.
4. Keeps lower echelons of OCE informed of top level decisions and requirements relating to the Postal Public Building Program.
5. Represents the Chief of Engineers in dealings with top Post Office Department officials. Of primary importance is the fact that as an Assistant to the Chief of Engineers, the Chief, CEPCSO has direct access to the Advisory and Administrative staff as well as the other directorates of the Office, Chief of Engineers.
(c) Summary. Through these relationships, the Chief, CEPCSO is able to draw upon the entire resources of the Office, Chief of Engineers for advice and assistance. This is an economical arrangement in that specialized services such as legal, comptroller, engineering, construction, and contract support can be obtained on an as-needed basis rather than having personnel dedicated to Post Office work but less than fully employed.
(2) Function and Responsibilities. The function of the CEPCSO is to serve as the central agency in the Office, Chief of Engineers for directing and coordinating the accomplishment of real estate, design, and construction services in connection with the Postal Public Building Program. Activities are to be accomplished in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding developed between the Secretary of the Army and the Postmaster General and the Working Agreement developed between the Chief of Engineers and the Post Office Department. In performance of these activities, CEPCSO is responsible for the following functions:
(a) Develops general operating policies and procedures for over-all management of the Postal Public Building Program to insure expeditious, economical, and effective accomplishment of work within the funds authorized by the Post Office Department.
(6) Provides central management within the Corps of all matters pertaining to the execution of the Postal Public Building program.
(c) Provides Washington level interface between the Post Office Department and Corps of Engineers agencies involved in the execution of this program.
(d) Provides staff supervision and management of the design and construction activities for the Postal Public Building Program, to include issulance of design and construction directives.
(e) Directs and monitors preparation and submission of periodic and spe icial real estate, design, construction, and fiscal reports from Corps of Engineers field offices relating to the Postal Public Building Program. Consolidates such reports with data from OCE level and provides consolidated information to the Post Office Department.
(f) Develops consolidated forecasts and analyses of construction awards for the Postal Public Building Program. Reviews status of contract awards ito isolate potential problem areas and institute corrective action. (3) Organization. See Tab G for organization chart. (a) General. There are three general kinds of functions to be performed: those involving programs, those involving projects, and those involving technical aspects of design and construction.
(b) Program Level. The three assistants for construction, design, and planning and reports constitute program managers and, as such, will be concerned with program aspects as they relate in general to their particular responsibilities as well as be concerned with those matters which relate to two or more projects. In the case of the assistants for design and construction, they will ensure
that lessons learned during the development of one project will be passed-on to succeeding projects. The assistant for planning and reports will be responsible for the total program in terms of receiving information from the assistants for design and construction as well as the Director of Real Estate for consolidation into a total program and transmittal to the Post Office Department. The program managers will serve as the principal interface with the Post Office Department and the Corps field organization on program matters.
(c) Project Manager Level. The project managers constitute the heart of the organization. They will be concerned with matters pertaining to specific projects; when questions are raised with respect to a particular project, the responsible project manager will serve as the point of contact and the interface between the Post Office Department and the Corps field organization. The project manager will be responsible for a project from inception to completion. He will arrange to have analyzed by the appropriate Corps agencies the initial real estate, design, and construction schedules as well as the cost data developed by the Post Office Department, to determine whether the schedules and costs are realistic. When a functional design package is received from the Post Office Department, the appropriate project manager will turn it over to the chief of the specialists to have it reviewed for accuracy and sufficiency. He will attend at least the design concept reviews and will monitor the progress of design to ensure that design is on scheddule. One of the main responsibilities of the project manager is to monitor all schedules : real estate site selection, real estate site selection, real estate site acquisition, construction, as well as design so as to bring to the attention of the Chief, CEPCSO, at an early date, those instances wherein a completion date may have to be changed. All progress reports submitted by the districts and divisions will be reviewed by the project manager. If, at any time, questions arise in the field, within OCE, or within the Post Office Department, rega rding a specific project, the project manager is the person to be contacted.
(d) Specialist Level. All engineering specialists: architectural, civil engineering, electrical, mechanical, etc., will be formed as one group, the Technical Division. This Division will serve as the source of technical information and advice for the other members of the office. Its principal duties will be associated with the review of functional design packages, review of design conducted by the districts, and advice on construction matters. It is hoped that, by placing all specialists in one division, there will be “ripple” benefits for design and construction on a particular project as well as for the over-all program. For example, if there are certain crucial points regarding a functional design package, they can be followed during the design stage to ensure proper consideration and implementation. Equally, if critical design matters develop during the design stage, these persons will be in a position to ensure that these matters are brought to the attention of the S&I forces who can pay particular attention to them during construction. With regard to the over-all program, lessons learned on a particular project during review of the functional design package, during the various design reviews, or during construction can be applied to subsequent projects. With regard to project criteria, this division will be concerned with specific project criteria whereas the Engineering Division, Military Construction Directorate, will develop general project criteria, which is a normal function of this division.
(a) General. The staffing requirements are based on the Postal Public Building Program for the next three years as envisioned by members of the Post Office Department. The staffing proposed in this paper is considered to be austere. Personnel will be assigned to the organization only as full workloads develop. Otherwise, personnel assigned to the Engineering and Construction Divisions will be employed on à part-time, as needed, reimbursable basis; the Postal Public Building Program will be charged only when services are rendered to the program, (b) Executive Office. The Executive Office will consist of five persons:
1. The Chief, a brigadier general, will exercise over-all supervision of the program; however, it is expected that he will spend a great deal of his time interfacing with the Post Office Department and the field divisions.
2. The Deputy Chief, a colonel, will be responsible for managing and supervising the activities of the office.
3. The Executive Officer will be responsible for the administrative matters pertaining to the office.