America on the Ice: Antarctic Policy Issues
DIANE Publishing, 1998 - 345 lappuses
Reviews U.S. interests in Antarctica prior to possible major revisions or even elimination in 1991 of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, under which the U.S. and other nations have quietly and peacefully pursued exploration and scientific research there. Examines Antarctica before the 1959 treaty, and then scrutinizes the operation of the treaty itself. Three major challenges to continued cooperation in Antarctica have arisen: modest discoveries of dwindling natural resources; certain nations, not signatories to the treaty, question the right of treaty members to control resource development; and disputes over territorial sovereignty remain to be resolved.
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accordance with Article adopted Advisory Committee amendment American Amundsen-Scott Station Antarctic affairs Antarctic Convergence Antarctic environment Antarctic Marine Living Antarctic mineral resource Antarctic peninsula Antarctic Policy Antarctic Policy Group Antarctic program Antarctic Seals Antarctic territory Antarctic Treaty Consultative Antarctic Treaty system Antarctica approval Arbitral Tribunal arctic Argentine British budget CCAMLR Chilean claimant Coast Guard Commission Congress Conservation of Antarctic consultative meeting continent Contracting Parties decisions Depositary dispute ecosystem ensure enter into force environmental established expeditions functions Government Ibid icebreaker interest International Geophysical krill logistics Management Scheme marine living resources McMurdo ment military mineral resource activities National Science Foundation negotiations notification Operation DEEP FREEZE operations paragraph Polar Polar Research Board Politics of Antarctica present Treaty procedures pursuant to Article ratification recommendations regime region Regulatory Committee Report Scientific Committee scientific research Secretary signatories Southern Ocean sovereignty stations tion United Nations
197. lappuse - No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force.
210. lappuse - Nations. 2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twenty-second instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.
290. lappuse - Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.
195. lappuse - There shall be. prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons. 2. The present Treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purpose.
255. lappuse - ... shall be taken by a simple majority of the Members present and voting.
239. lappuse - Recognizing that it is in the interest of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord...
264. lappuse - Commission shall authorize such staff establishment for the Secretariat as may be necessary and the Executive Secretary shall appoint, direct and supervise such staff according to such rules and procedures...
224. lappuse - Chairman, each of whom shall serve for a term of two years and shall be eligible for re-election but not to a succeeding term.
242. lappuse - Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present Treaty.