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SUBCHAPTER II OF CHAPTER 53 OF TITLE 31, UNITED
SUBCHAPTER II-RECORDS AND REPORTS ON MONETARY
INSTRUMENTS TRANSACTIONS 8 5311. Declaration of purpose.
It is the purpose of this subchapter (except section 5315) to re quire certain reports or records where they have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory investigations or proceedings. 85312. Definitions and application (a) In this subchapter
(1) "financial agency” means a person acting for a person (except for a country, a monetary or financial authority acting as a monetary or financial authority, or an international financial institution of which the United States Government is a member) as a financial institution, bailee, depository trustee, or agent, or acting in a similar way related to money, credit, securities, gold, or a transaction in money, credit, securities, or gold. (2) "financial institution” means,
(A) an insured bank (as defined in section 3(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(h)));
(B) a commercial bank or trust company;
(D) an agency or branch of a foreign bank in the United States;
(E) an insured institution (as defined in section 401(a) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1724(a)));
(F) a thrift institution;
(G) a broker or dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78a et seq.);
(H) a broker or dealer in securities or commodities;
(K) an issuer, redeemer, or cashier of travelers' checks, checks, money orders, or similar instruments;
(L) an operator or a credit card system;
(T) a business engaged in vehicle sales, including automobile, airplane, and boat sales;
(U) persons involved in real estate closings and settlements;
(V) the United States Postal Service;
(W) an agency of the United States Government or of a State or local government carrying out a duty or power of a business described in this paragraph;
(X) a casino, gambling casino, or gaming establishment with an annual gaming revenue of more than $1,000,000 which
(i) is licensed as a casino, gambling casino, or gaming establishment under the laws of any State or any political subdivision of any State; or
(ii) is an Indian gaming operation conducted under or pursuant to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act other than an operation which is limited to class I gaming (as defined in section 4(6) of such Act);
(Y) any business or agency which engages in any activity which the Secretary of the Treasury determines, by regulation, to be an activity which is similar to, related to, or a substitute for any activity in which any business described in this paragraph is authorized to engage; or
(Z) any other business designated by the Secretary whose cash transactions have a high degree of usefulness in criminal, tax, or regulatory matters. (3) “monetary instruments” means
(A) United States coins and currency;
(B) as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation, coins and currency of a foreign country, travelers' checks, bearer negotiable instruments, bearer investment securities, bearer securities, stock on which title is passed on delivery, and similar material; and
(C) as the Secretary of the Treasury shall provide by regulation for purposes of section 5316, checks, drafts, notes, money orders, and other similar instruments which are drawn on or by a foreign financial institution and are not in bearer form.
(4) "person", in addition to its meaning under section 1 of title 1, includes a trustee, a representative of an estate and, when the Secretary prescribes, a governmental entity.
(5) "United States” means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and, when the Secretary prescribes by regulation, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a territory or possession of the United States, or a military or diplomatic establishment. (b) In this subchapter
(1) "domestic financial agency” and “domestic financial institution" apply to an action in the United States of a financial agency or institution.
(2) “foreign financial agency” and “foreign financial institution" apply to an action outside the United States of a financial
agency or institution. 85313. Reports on domestic coins and currency transactions
(a) When a domestic financial institution is involved in a transaction for the payment, receipt, or transfer of United States coins or currency (or other monetary instruments the Secretary of the Treasury prescribes), in an amount, denomination, or amount and denomination, or under circumstances the Secretary prescribes by regulation, the institution and any other participant in the transaction the Secretary may prescribe shall file a report on the transaction at the time and in the way the Secretary prescribes. A participant acting for another person shall make the report as the agent or bailee of the person and identify the person for whom the transaction is being made.
(b) The Secretary may designate a domestic financial institution as an agent of the United States Government to receive a report under this section. However, the Secretary may designate a domestic financial institution that is not insured, chartered, examined, or registered as a domestic financial institution only if the institution consents. The Secretary may suspend or revoke a designation for a violation of this subchapter or a regulation under this subchapter (except a violation of section 5315 of this title or a regulation prescribed under section 5315), section 411 of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1730d), or section 21 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1829b).
(c)(1) A person (except a domestic financial institution designated under subsection (b) of this section) required to file a report under this section shall file the report
(A) with the institution involved in the transaction if the institution was designated;
(B) in the way the Secretary prescribes when the institution was not designated; or
(C) with the Secretary.
(A) the filing procedure for a domestic financial institution designated under subsection (b) of this section, and
(B) the way the institution shall submit reports filed with it.
(d) MANDATORY EXEMPTIONS FROM REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.
(1) IN GENERAL.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall exempt, pursuant to section 5318(a)(6), a depository institution from the reporting requirements of subsection (a) with respect to transactions between the depository institution and the following categories of entities:
(A) Another depository institution.
(B) A department or agency of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of any State.
(C) Any entity established under the laws of the United States, any State, or any political subdivision of any State, or under an interstate compact between 2 or more States, which exercises governmental authority on
behalf of the United States or any such State or political subdivision.
(D) Any business or category of business the reports on which have little or no value for law enforcement purposes.
(2) NOTICE OF EXEMPTION.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall publish in the Federal Register at such times as the Secretary determines to be appropriate (but not less frequently than once each year) a list of all the entities whose transactions with a depository institution are exempt under this subsection from the reporting requirements of subsection (a).
(e) DISCRETIONARY EXEMPTIONS FROM REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.
(1) IN GENERAL.-The Secretary of the Treasury may exempt, pursuant to section 5318(a)(6), a depository institution from the reporting requirements of subsection (a) with respect to transactions between the depository institution and a qualified business customer of the institution on the basis of information submitted to the Secretary by the institution in accordance with procedures which the Secretary shall establish.
(2) QUALIFIED BUSINESS CUSTOMER DEFINED.-For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified business customer" means a business which
(A) maintains a transaction account (as defined in section 19(b)(1)(C) of the Federal Reserve Act) at the depository institution; (B) frequently engages in
engages in transactions with the depository institution which are subject to the reporting requirements of subsection (a); and
(C) meets criteria which the Secretary determines are sufficient to ensure that the purposes of this subchapter are carried out without requiring a report with respect to such transactions.
(3) CRITERIA FOR EXEMPTION.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish, by regulation, the criteria for granting and maintaining an exemption under paragraph (1). (4) GUIDELINES.
(A) IN GENERAL.- The Secretary of the Treasury shall establish guidelines for depository institutions to follow in selecting customers for exemption under this subsection.
(B) CONTENTS.—The guidelines may include a description of the types of businesses or an itemization of specific businesses for which no exemption will be granted under this subsection to any depository institution.
(5) ANNUAL REVIEW.-The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe regulations requiring each depository institution to
(A) review, at least once each year, the qualified business customers of such institution with respect to whom an exemption has been granted under this subsection; and
(B) upon the completion of such review, resubmit information about such customers, with such modifications as the institution determines to be appropriate, to the Secretary for the Secretary's approval.
(6) 2-YEAR PHASE-IN PROVISION.—During the 2-year period beginning on the date of enactment of the Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994, this subsection shall be applied by the Secretary on the basis of such criteria as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to achieve an orderly implementation of the requirements of this subsection.
(f) PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MANDATORY AND DISCRETIONARY EXEMPTIONS.—
(1) LIMITATION ON LIABILITY OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS.—No depository institution shall be subject to any penalty which may be imposed under this subchapter for the failure of the institution to file a report with respect to a transaction with a customer for whom an exemption has been granted under subsection (d) or (e) unless the institution
(A) knowingly files false or incomplete information to the Secretary with respect to the transaction or the customer engaging in the transaction; or
(B) has reason to believe at the time the exemption is granted or the transaction is entered into that the customer or the transaction does not meet the criteria established for granting such exemption.
(2) COORDINATION WITH OTHER PROVISIONS.—Any exemption granted by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 5318(a) in accordance with this section, and any transaction which is subject to such exemption, shall be subject to any other provision of law applicable to such exemption, including
(A) the authority of the Secretary, under section 5318(a)(6), to revoke such exemption at any time; and
(B) any requirement to report, or any authority to require a report on, any possible violation of any law or reg
ulation or any suspected criminal activity. (g) DEPOSITORY ÍNSTITUTION DEFINED.—For purposes of this section, the term "depository institution" —
(1) has the meaning given to such term in section 19(b)(1)(A) of the Federal Reserve Act; and (2) includes
(A) any branch, agency, or commercial lending company (as such terms are defined in section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978);
(B) any corporation chartered under section 25A of the Federal Reserve Act; and
(C) any corporation having an agreement or undertaking with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System under section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act. $ 5314. Records and reports on foreign financial agency
transactions (a) Considering the need to avoid impeding or controlling the export or import of monetary instruments and the need to avoid burdening unreasonably a person making a transaction with a foreign financial agency, the Secretary of the Treasury shall require a resident or citizen of the United States or a person in, and doing business in, the United States, to keep records, file reports, or keep