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exclusive, to affirm, modify, or set aside such order, in whole or in part. No objection to the order of the Commission shall be considered by the court unless such objection shall have been urged before the Commission or unless there were reasonable grounds for failure so to do. The findings of the Commissions as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and it is shown to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Commission, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Commission and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Commission may modify its findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and it shall file with the court such modified or new findings, which, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, and its recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of the original order. The judgment and decree of the court affirming, modifying, or setting aside, in whole or in part, any such order of the Commission shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28, United States Code.
(b) The commencement of proceedings under subsection (a) shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Commission's order.
JURISDICTION OF OFFENSES AND SUITS
SEC. 25. [79y] The District Courts of the United States and the United States courts of any Territory or other place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States shall have jurisdiction of violations of this title or the rules, regulations, or orders thereunder, and, concurrently with State and Territorial courts, of all suits in equity and actions at law brought to enforce any liability or duty created by, or to enjoin any violation of, this title or the rules, regulations, or orders thereunder. Any criminal proceeding may be brought in the district wherein any act or transaction constituting the violation occurred. Any suit or action to enforce any liability or duty created by, or to enjoin any violation of, this title or rules, regulations, or orders thereunder, may be brought in any such district or in the district wherein the defendant is an inhabitant or transacts business, and process in such cases may be served in any district of which the defendant is an inhabitant or transacts business or wherever the defendant may be found. Judgments and decrees so rendered shall be subject to review as provided in sections 1254, 1291, 1292, and 1294 of title 28, United States Code. No costs shall be assessed for or against the Commission in any proceeding under this title brought by or against the Commission in any court.
VALIDITY OF CONTRACTS
SEC. 26. [79z] (a) Any condition, stipulation, or provision binding any person to waive compliance with any provision of this title or with any rule, regulation, or order thereunder shall be void.
(b) Every contract made in violation of any provision of this title or of any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, and every contract heretofore or hereafter made, the performance of which involves the violation of, or the continuance of any relationship or practice in violation of, any provision of this title, or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, shall be void (1) as regards the rights of any person who, in violation of any such provision, rule, regulation, or order, shall have made or engaged in the performance of any such contract, and (2) as regards the rights of any person who, not being a party to such contract, shall have acquired any right thereunder with actual knowledge of the facts by reason of which the making or performance of such contract was in violation of any such provision, rule, regulation, or order.
(c) Nothing in this title shall be construed (1) to affect the validity of any loan or extension of credit (or any extension or renewal thereof) made or of any lien created prior or subsequent to the enactment of this title, unless at the time of the making of such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or the creating of such lien, the person making such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or acquiring such lien shall have actual knowledge of facts by reason of which the making of such loan or extension of credit (or extension or renewal thereof) or the acquisition of such lien as a violation of the provisions of this title or any rule or regulation thereunder, or (2) to afford a defense to the collection of any debt or obligation or the enforcement of any lien by any person who shall have acquired such debt, obligation, or lien in good faith for value and without actual knowledge of the violation of any provision of this title or any rule or regulation thereunder affecting the legality of such debt, obligation, or lien. LIABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERSONS; PREVENTING COMPLIANCE WITH TITLE
SEC. 27. [79z-1] (a) It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to cause to be done any act or thing through or by means of any other person which it would be unlawful for such person to do under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person without just cause to hinder, delay, or obstruct the making, filing, or keeping of any information, document, report, record, or account required to be made, filed, or kept under any provision of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder.
SEC. 28. [79z-2] It shall be unlawful for any person in issuing, selling, or offering for sale any security of a registered holding company or subsidiary company thereof, to represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that such security has been guaranteed, sponsored, or recommended for investment by the United States or any agency or officer thereof.
SEC. 29. [79z-3] Any person who willfully violates any provision of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder (other than an order of the Commission under subsection (b), (d), (e), or (f) of section 11), or any person who willfully makes any statement or entry in an application, report, document, account, or record filed or kept or required to be filed or kept under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, knowing such statement or entry to be false or misleading in any material respect, or any person who willfully destroys (except after such time as may be prescribed under any rules or regulations under this title), mutilates, alters, or by any means, or device falsifies any account, correspondence, memorandum, book, paper, or other record kept or required to be kept under the provisions of this title or any rule, regulation, or order thereunder, shall upon conviction be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, except that in the case of a violation of a provision of subsection (a) or (b) of section 4 by a holding company which is not an individual, the fine imposed upon such holding company shall be a fine not exceeding $200,000; but no person shall be convicted under this section for the violation of any rule, regulation, or order if he proves that he had no knowledge of such rule, regulation, or order.
STUDY OF PUBLIC-UTILITY AND INVESTMENT COMPANIES
SEC. 30. [79z-4] The Commission is authorized and directed to make studies and investigations of public-utility companies, the territories served or which can be served by public-utility companies, and the manner in which the same are or can be served, to determine the sizes, types, and locations of public-utility companies which do or can operate most economically and efficiently in the public interest, in the interest of investors and consumers, and in furtherance of a wider and more economical use of gas and electric energy; upon the basis of such investigations and studies the Commission shall make public from time to time its recommendations as to the type and size of geographically and economically integrated public-utility systems which, having regard for the nature and character of the locality served, can best promote and harmonize the interests of the public, the investor, and the consumer.
HIRING AND LEASING AUTHORITY OF THE COMMISSION
SEC. 31. [79z-5] The provisions of section 4(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 shall be applicable with respect to the power of the Commission
(1) to appoint and fix the compensation of such employees as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this title, and
(2) to lease and allocate such real property as may be necessary for carrying out its functions under this title.
SEC. 32. [79z–5a] EXEMPT WHOLESALE GENERATORS.
1 See also 18 U.S.C. 3623. [Printed in appendix to this volume.]
(1) EXEMPT WHOLESALE GENERATOR.-The term "exempt wholesale generator" means any person determined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to be engaged directly, or indirectly through one or more affiliates as defined in section 2(a)(11)(B), and exclusively in the business of owning or operating, or both owning and operating, all or part of one or more eligible facilities and selling electric energy at wholesale. No person shall be deemed to be an exempt wholesale generator under this section unless such person has applied to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for a determination under this paragraph. A person applying in good faith for such a determination shall be deemed an exempt wholesale generator under this section, with all of the exemptions provided by this section, until the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission makes such determination. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall make such determination within 60 days of its receipt of such application and shall notify the Commission whenever a determination is made under this paragraph that any person is an exempt wholesale generator. Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission shall promulgate rules implementing the provisions of this paragraph. Applications for determination filed after the effective date of such rules shall be subject thereto.
(2) ELIGIBLE FACILITY.-The term "eligible facility" means a facility, wherever located, which is either
(A) used for the generation of electric energy exclusively for sale at wholesale, or
(B) used for the generation of electric energy and leased to one or more public utility companies; Provided, That any such lease shall be treated as a sale of electric energy at wholesale for purposes of sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act.
Such term shall not include any facility for which consent is required under subsection (c) if such consent has not been obtained. Such term includes interconnecting transmission facilities necessary to effect a sale of electric energy at wholesale. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "facility" may include a portion of a facility subject to the limitations of subsection (d) and shall include a facility the construction of which has not been commenced or completed.
(3) SALE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY AT WHOLESALE.-The term "sale of electric energy at wholesale" shall have the same meaning as provided in section 201(d) of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 824(d)).
(4) RETAIL RATES AND CHARGES.-The term "retail rates and charges" means rates and charges for the sale of electric energy directly to consumers.
(b) FOREIGN RETAIL SALES.-Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a), retail sales of electric energy produced by a facility located in a foreign country shall not prevent such facility from being an eligible facility, or prevent a person owning or operating, or both owning and operating, such facility from being an
exempt wholesale generator if none of the electric energy generated by such facility is sold to consumers in the United States.
(c) STATE CONSENT FOR EXISTING RATE-BASED FACILITIES.-If a rate or charge for, or in connection with, the construction of a facility, or for electric energy produced by a facility (other than any portion of a rate or charge which represents recovery of the cost of a wholesale rate or charge) was in effect under the laws of any State as of the date of enactment of this section, in order for the facility to be considered an eligible facility, every State commission having jurisdiction over any such rate or charge must make a specific determination that allowing such facility to be an eligible facility (1) will benefit consumers, (2) is in the public interest, and (3) does not violate State law; Provided, That in the case of such a rate or charge which is a rate or charge of an affiliate of a registered holding company:
(A) such determination with respect to the facility in question shall be required from every State commission having jurisdiction over the retail rates and charges of the affiliates of such registered holding company; and
(B) the approval of the Commission under this Act shall not be required for the transfer of the facility to an exempt wholesale generator.
(d) HYBRIDS. (1) No exempt wholesale generator may own or operate a portion of any facility if any other portion of the facility is owned or operated by an electric utility company that is an affiliate or associate company of such exempt wholesale generator.
(2) ELIGIBLE FACILITY.-Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an exempt wholesale generator may own or operate a portion of a facility identified in paragraph (1) if such portion has become an eligible facility as a result of the operation of subsection (c).
(e) EXEMPTION OF EWGS.-An exempt wholesale generator shall not be considered an electric utility company under section 2(a)(3) of this Act and, whether or not a subsidiary company, an affiliate, or an associate company of a holding company, an exempt wholesale generator shall be exempt from all provisions of this Act.
(f) OWNERSHIP OF EWGS BY EXEMPT HOLDING COMPANIES.Notwithstanding any provision of this Act, a holding company that is exempt under section 3 of this Act shall be permitted, without condition or limitation under this Act, to acquire and maintain an interest in the business of one or more exempt wholesale generators.
(g) OWNERSHIP OF EWGS BY REGISTERED HOLDING COMPANIES. Notwithstanding any provision of this Act and the Commission's jurisdiction as provided under subsection (h) of this section, a registered holding company shall be permitted (without the need to apply for, or receive, approval from the Commission, and otherwise without condition under this Act) to acquire and hold the securities, or an interest in the business, of one or more exempt wholesale generators.
(h) FINANCING AND OTHER RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EWGS AND REGISTERED HOLDING COMPANIES.-The issuance of securities by a registered holding company for purposes of financing the acquisition of an exempt wholesale generator, the guarantee of securities of an exempt wholesale generator by a registered holding