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enforcing regulations prescribed prior to the date of enactment of this section in fulfilling the requirements of this section to the extent that such regulations are consistent with the provisions of this section.

(h) EFFECT ON DIAL-A-PORN PROHIBITIONS.—Nothing in this section shall affect the provisions of section 223 of this Act.

(i) DEFINITION OF PAY-PER-CALL SERVICES. -For purposes of this section

(1) The term “pay-per-call services” means any service

(A) in which any person provides or purports to provide

(i) audio information or audio entertainment produced or packaged by such person;

(ii) access to simultaneous voice conversation services; or

(iii) any service, including the provision of a product, the charges for which are assessed on the basis of the completion of the call;

(B) for which the caller pays a per-call or per-time-interval charge that is greater than, or in addition to, the charge for transmission of the call; and

(C) which is accessed through use of a 900 telephone number or other prefix or area code designated by the Commission in accordance with subsection (b)(5).

(2) Such term does not include directory services provided by a common carrier or its affiliate or by a local exchange carrier or its affiliate, or any service for which users are assessed charges only after entering into a presubscription or com

parable arrangement with the provider of such service. SEC. 229. [47 U.S.C. 229) COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW

ENFORCEMENT ACT COMPLIANCE. (a) IN GENERAL.—The Commission shall prescribe such rules as are necessary to implement the requirements of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act.

(b) SYSTEMS SECURITY AND INTEGRITY.—The rules prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) shall include rules to implement section 105 of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act that require common carriers

(1) to establish appropriate policies and procedures for the supervision and control of its officers and employees

(A) to require appropriate authorization to activate interception of communications or access to call-identifying information; and

(B) to prevent any such interception or access without such authorization;

(2) to maintain secure and accurate records of any interception or access with or without such authorization; and

(3) to submit to the Commission the policies and procedures adopted to comply with the requirements established under paragraphs (1) and (2).

(c) COMMISSION REVIEW OF COMPLIANCE.—The Commission shall review the policies and procedures submitted under subsection (b)(3) and shall order a common carrier to modify any such policy or procedure that the Commission determines does not comply with Commission regulations. The Commission shall conduct such investigations as may be necessary to insure compliance by common carriers with the requirements of the regulations prescribed under this section.

(d) PENALTIES.—For purposes of this Act, a violation by an officer or employee of any policy or procedure adopted by a common carrier pursuant to subsection (b), or of a rule prescribed by the Commission pursuant to subsection (a), shall be considered to be a violation by the carrier of a rule prescribed by the Commission pursuant to this Act.


(1) PETITIONS AUTHORIZED.-A common carrier may petition the Commission to adjust charges, practices, classifications, and regulations to recover costs expended for making modifications to equipment, facilities, or services pursuant to the requirements of section 103 of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act.

(2) COMMISSION AUTHORITY.—The Commission may grant, with or without modification, a petition under paragraph (1) if the Commission determines that such costs are reasonable and that permitting recovery is consistent with the public interest. The Commission may, consistent with maintaining just and reasonable charges, practices, classifications, and regulations in connection with the provision of interstate or foreign communication by wire or radio by a common carrier, allow carriers to adjust such charges, practices, classifications, and regulations in order to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(3) JOINT BOARD.—The Commission shall convene a Federal-State joint board to recommend appropriate changes to part 36 of the Commission's rules with respect to recovery of costs pursuant to charges, practices, classifications, and regula

tions under the jurisdiction of the Commission. SEC. 230. (47 U.S.C. 230) PROTECTION FOR PRIVATE BLOCKING AND

(a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds the following:

(1) The rapidly developing array of Internet and other interactive computer services available to individual Americans represent an extraordinary advance in the availability of educational and informational resources to our citizens.

(2) These services offer users a great degree of control over the information that they receive, as well as the potential for even greater control in the future as technology develops.

(3) The Internet and other interactive computer services offer a forum for a true diversity of political discourse, unique opportunities for cultural development, and myriad avenues for intellectual activity.

(4) The Internet and other interactive computer services have flourished, to the benefit of all Americans, with a minimum of government regulation.

(5) Increasingly Americans are relying on interactive media for a variety of political, educational, cultural, and entertainment services. (b) POLICY.-It is the policy of the United States

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(1) to promote the continued development of the Internet and other interactive computer services and other interactive media;

(2) to preserve the vibrant and competitive free market that presently exists for the Internet and other interactive computer services, unfettered by Federal or State regulation;

(3) to encourage the development of technologies which maximize user control over what information is received by individuals, families, and schools who use the Internet and other interactive computer services;

(4) to remove disincentives for the development and utilization of blocking and filtering technologies that empower parents to restrict their children's access to objectionable or inappropriate online material; and

(5) to ensure vigorous enforcement of Federal criminal laws to deter and punish trafficking in obscenity, stalking, and harassment by means of computer.


(1) TREATMENT OF PUBLISHER OR SPEAKER.-No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.

(2) CIVIL LIABILITY.—No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be held liable on account of—

(A) any action voluntarily taken in good faith to restrict access to or availability of material that the provider or user considers to be obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing, or otherwise objectionable, whether or not such material is constitutionally protected;


(B) any action taken to enable or make available to information content providers or others the technical means to restrict access to material described in para

graph (1)1. (d) OBLIGATIONS OF INTERACTIVE COMPUTER SERVICE.-A provider of interactive computer service shall, at the time of entering an agreement with a customer for the provision of interactive computer service and in a manner deemed appropriate by the provider, notify such customer that parental control protections (such as computer hardware, software, or filtering services) are commercially available that may assist the customer in limiting access to material that is harmful to minors. Such notice shall identify, or provide the customer with access to information identifying, current providers of such protections. (e) EFFECT ON OTHER LAWS.—

(1) NO EFFECT ON CRIMINAL LAW.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair the enforcement of section 223 or 231 of this Act, chapter 71 (relating to obscenity) or 110 (relating to sexual exploitation of children) of title 18, United States Code, or any other Federal criminal statute.

1 So in law. Probably should be subparagraph (A).

(2) NO EFFECT ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or expand any law pertaining to intellectual property.

(3) STATE LAW.-Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent any State from enforcing any State law that is consistent with this section. No cause of action may be brought and no liability may be imposed under any State or local law that is inconsistent with this section.

(4) NO EFFECT ON COMMUNICATIONS PRIVACY LAW.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the application of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 or any of the amendments made by such Act, or any similar State law. (f) DEFINITIONS.—As used in this section:

(1) INTERNET.—The term “Internet” means the international computer network of both Federal and non-Federal interoperable packet switched data networks.

(2) INTERACTIVE COMPUTER SERVICE.—The term “interactive computer service" means any information service, system, or access software provider that provides or enables computer access by multiple users to a computer server, including specifically a service or system that provides access to the Internet and such systems operated or services offered by libraries or educational institutions.

(3) INFORMATION CONTENT PROVIDER.—The term "information content provider” means any person or entity that is responsible, in whole or in part, for the creation or development of information provided through the Internet or any other interactive computer service.

(4) ACCESS SOFTWARE PROVIDER.—The term “access software provider" means a provider of software (including client or server software), or enabling tools that do any one or more of the following:

(A) filter, screen, allow, or disallow content;
(B) pick, choose, analyze, or digest content; or

(C) transmit, receive, display, forward, cache, search,

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subset, organize, reorganize, or translate content. SEC. 231. (47 U.S.C. 231) RESTRICTION OF ACCESS BY MINORS TO MA



1 Section 231 of the Communications Act of 1934 was added by section 1403 of the Child Online Protection Act (P.L. 105–277; Oct. 21, 1998; 112 Stat. 2681-736). Sections 1402 and 1405 of that Act contained the following related provisions: SEC. 1402. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS.

The Congress finds that

(1) while custody, care, and nurture of the child resides first with the parent, the widespread availability of the Internet presents opportunities for minors to access materials through the World Wide Web in a manner that can frustrate parental supervision or control;

(2) the protection of the physical and psychological well-being of minors by shielding them from materials that are harmful to them is a compelling governmental interest;

(3) to date, while the industry has developed innovative ways to help parents and educators restrict material that is harmful to minors through parental control protections and self-regulation, such efforts have not provided a national solution to the problem of minors accessing harmful material on the World Wide Web;


(4) a prohibition on the distribution of material harmful to minors, combined with legitimate defenses, is currently the most effective and least restrictive means by which to satisfy the compelling government interest; and

(5) notwithstanding the existence of protections that limit the distribution over the World Wide Web of material that is harmful to minors, parents, educators, and industry must continue efforts to find ways to protect children from being exposed to harmful material found on the Internet.


(a) ESTABLISHMENT.—There is hereby established a temporary Commission to be known as the Commission on Online Child Protection (in this section referred to as the “Commission”) for the purpose of conducting a study under this section regarding methods to help reduce access by minors to material that is harmful to minors on the Internet. (b) MEMBERSHIP.—The Commission shall be composed of 19 members, as follows:

(1) INDUSTRY MEMBERS.—The Commission shall include 16 members who shall consist of representatives of

(A) providers of Internet filtering or blocking services or software;
(B) Internet access services;
(C) labeling or ratings services;
(D) Internet portal or search services;
(E) domain name registration services;
(F) academic experts; and

(G) providers that make content available over the Internet. Of the members of the Commission by reason of this paragraph, an equal number shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives and by the Majority Leader of the Senate. Members of the Commission appointed on or before October 31, 1999, shall remain members. (2) Ex OFFICIO MEMBERS.—The Commission shall include the following officials:

(A) The Assistant Secretary (or the Assistant Secretary's designee).
(B) The Attorney General (or the Attorney Generals designee).

(C) The Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission (or the Chairman's designee). (3) PROHIBITION OF PAY.—Members of the Commission shall not receive any pay by reason of their membership

on the Commission. (c) FIRST MEETING. - The Commission shall hold its first meeting not later than March 31, 2000.

(d) CHAIRPERSON.—The chairperson of the Commission shall be elected by a vote of a majority of the members, which shall take place not later than 30 days after the first meeting of the Commission. (e) STUDY.

(1) IN GENERAL.—The Commission shall conduct a study to identify technological or other methods that,

(A) will help reduce access by minors to material that is harmful to minors on the Internet; and

(B) may meet the requirements for use as affirmative defenses for purposes of section

231(c) of the Communications Act of 1934 (as added by this title). Any methods so identified shall be used as the basis for making legislative recommendations to the Congress under subsection (d)(3).

(2) SPECIFIC METHODS. - In carrying out the study, the Commission shall identify and analyze various technological tools and methods for protecting minors from material that is harmful to minors, which shall include (without limitation)

(A) a common resource for parents to use to help protect minors (such as a "one-clickaway” resource);

(B) filtering or blocking software or services;
(C) labeling or rating systems;
(D) age verification systems;

(E) the establishment of a domain name for posting of any material that is harmful to minors; and

(F) any other existing or proposed technologies or methods for reducing access by minors to such material. (3) ANALYSIS.—In analyzing technologies and other methods identified pursuant to paragraph (2), the Commission shall examine

(A) the cost of such technologies and methods;
(B) the effects of such technologies and methods on law enforcement entities;
(C) the effects of such technologies and methods on privacy;

(D) the extent to which material that is harmful to minors is globally distributed and the effect of such technologies and methods on such distribution;

(E) the accessibility of such technologies and methods to parents; and

(F) such other factors and issues as the Commission considers relevant and appro

priate. (f) REPORT.-Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act, the Commission shall submit a report to the Congress containing the results of the study under this section, which shall include

(1) a description of the technologies and methods identified by the study and the results of the analysis of each such technology and method;

(2) the conclusions and recommendations of the Commission regarding each such technology or method;

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